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EH TKT TRAINING COURSE 2011

MODULE 1 Part 1
Describing language and language skills
GRAMMAR
The language we speak or write is governed by number of rules. Apart form the meaning
we wish to convey, we have to think about whether we are writing or speaking, texting or
emailing.

There is system of rules, which determine the kind of words and their correct order into a
sentence or piece of writing. We call this system syntax.

Grammar knowledge it is also based on morphology, which is the different forms a word can
have to function into a paragraph.

So we can say that grammar describes how we combine, organize and change words and
parts of words to make meaning.

The glossary below show different grammar contents:

Active voice.- In an active sentence, the subject of the verb usually does or causes
the action, e.g. The car hit the tree.
Passive voice .-In a passive sentence, something is done to or happens to the subject
of the verb, e.g. The tree was hit by the car.
Adjective An adjective describes or gives more information about a noun, pronoun
or clause, e.g. a cold day.
A comparative adjective compares two things, e.g. He is taller than she is.
A demonstrative adjective shows how physically close the speaker or writer is to the
object, e.g. this (near), that (far).
An -ing/ed adjective changes in different situations, e.g. The book is very interesting;
I am very interested in the book.
A possessive adjective shows who something belongs to, e.g. my, our.
A superlative adjective compares more than two things, e.g. He is the tallest boy in
the class.
Adverb An adverb describes or gives more information about how, when, where or
to what degree something is done, e.g. he worked quickly and well.
Article An article can be definite (the), indefinite (a) or zero (-), e.g. I was at (-) home
in the sitting room when I heard a noise.
Aspect A way of looking at verb forms not purely in relation to time. The perfect,
continuous and simple are aspects. The continuous aspect, for example, suggests that
something is happening temporarily.
Clause A clause consists of a verb and (generally) a subject. A clause can be a full
sentence or a part of a sentence.

Main clause When the teacher arrived, the students stopped talking.

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Subordinate clause When the teacher arrived, the students stopped talking.
Relative clause The students who were sitting near the front stood up.

A possible or imagined situation usually with if, e.g. If it rains, I will get wet. (but its not
raining now)

Conditional forms A verb form that refers to a possible or imagined situation.


Grammar books often mention three kinds of conditionals:
First conditional, e.g. I will come if I can.
Second conditional, e.g. I would go if they asked me.
Third conditional, e.g. I would have seen her if I had arrived earlier.
Conjunction A conjunction (or connector) is used to connect words, phrases, clauses or
sentences, e.g. I like tea but I dont like coffee because its too strong for me.
Determiner A determiner is used to make clear which noun is referred to, or to give
information about quantity, and includes words such as the, a, this, that, my, some, e.g.
That car is mine.
Direct question The actual words that someone says when asking a question, e.g.
What do you mean, Sue?, asked Peter.
Direct speech The actual words someone says, e.g. He said, My name is Ron.
Gerund, -ing form A noun which is made from the present participle form of a verb,
e.g. I hate shopping.
Grammatical structure The arrangement of words into meaningful sentences. A
grammatical structure is also a grammatical language item, e.g. present perfect
simple.
Imperative The form of a verb that gives an order or instruction, e.g. Turn to page
10.
Indirect question The words someone uses when they are telling someone what
somebody else asked, e.g. Peter asked Sue what she meant.
An indirect question can also be used when someone wants to ask something in a more polite
way, e.g. I was wondering if you could help me (indirect question) instead of Could you help
me? (direct question).
Infinitive of purpose This is used to express why something is done, e.g. I went to
the lesson to learn English.
Intensifier A word used to make the meaning of another word stronger, e.g. Hes
much taller than his brother; Im very tired.
Noun A person, place or thing, e.g. elephant, girl, grass, school.
A collective noun is a noun which includes a group of people or things, e.g. the
police, the government.
A compound noun is a combination of two or more words which are used as a
single word, e.g. a flower shop, a headache.
A countable noun has a singular and plural form, e.g. book books.
An uncountable noun does not have a plural form, e.g. information.
A proper noun is the name of a person or place, e.g. Robert, London.
A singular noun is one person, place or thing.
A plural noun is more than one person, place or thing and can be regular or
irregular, e.g. boys, women.

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Object This is a noun or phrase that describes the thing or person that is affected by
the action of a verb, e.g. I saw Mary in.
Participle (past and present) The form of the verb that is used to make tenses or
adjectives, e.g. an interesting film (present participle); I havent seen him today. (past
participle)
Passive voice In a passive sentence, something is done to or happens to the subject
of the verb, e.g. The tree was hit by the car.
Phrase A group of words which make sense, but do not form a sentence.
Ways of showing or asking who something belongs to, e.g. Whose book is it? Its
Sues.
Preposition A word used before a noun, noun phrase or pronoun to connect it to
another word, e.g. He was in the garden.
A dependent preposition is a word that is always used with a particular noun, verb
or adjective, e.g. interested in, depend on, bored with.
Pronoun A word that replaces or refers to a noun or noun phrase just mentioned.
Demonstrative pronoun, e.g. this, that.
Object pronoun, e.g. him.
Personal pronoun, e.g. I (subject pronoun), me (object pronoun)
Possessive pronoun, e.g. mine
Reflexive pronoun, e.g. myself
Relative pronoun, e.g. which
Punctuation The symbols or marks used to organize writing into clauses, phrases
and sentences to make the meaning clear, e.g. full stop, capital letter, apostrophe
and comma.
Quantifier A word or phrase such as much, few or a lot of which is used with a
noun to show an amount, e.g. I dont have much time; I have a lot of books
Question tag A phrase such as isnt it? or doesnt he? that is added to the end of a
sentence to make it a question, or to check that someone agrees with the statement,
e.g. Its very cold, isnt it?
Reported statement When someones words are reported by another person, e.g.
She said she was sorry
Reporting verb A verb such as tell, advise, suggest used in indirect speech to
report what someone has said, e.g. Jane advised John to study harder.
Subject This is the noun or phrase that goes before the verb in a sentence to show
who is doing the action, e.g. John plays tennis.

When the form of the verb matches the person doing the action of the verb, e.g. I walk, he
walks. If a student writes I walks, then it is wrong because there is no subject-verb
agreement.

Tense A form of the verb that shows whether something happens in the past, present
or future, e.g.
Past perfect simple and continuous, progressive After I had phoned Mary, I went
out. (past perfect simple) I had been studying for three hours, so I felt quite tired. (past
perfect continuous, progressive)
Past simple and past continuous, progressive I was talking (past continuous,
progressive) to my friend when the taxi came. (past simple)

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Present continuous, progressive for future What are you doing at the weekend?
Present perfect simple and continuous, progressive I have known him for a long
time (present perfect simple). I have been studying for three years (present perfect
continuous, progressive).
Present simple and continuous, progressive I work at a school (present simple) and
I am working in London now (present continuous, progressive).
Third person A verb or a pronoun which shows that somebody or something is being
spoken about, e.g. He, she, it, they.
Time expression A word or phrase that indicates a time period, such as after, by,
e.g. I will meet you after the lesson.
Used to A structure that shows something happened in the past but does not happen
now, e.g. I used to live in London, but now I live in Paris.
Verb The word which follows the subject of a sentence, and is sometimes described
as the action word, e.g. I like cheese; He speaks Italian.
An auxiliary verb is a verb used with other verbs to make questions, negatives and
tenses, e.g. be, do, have.
The base form of the verb is the infinitive form of a verb without to, e.g. go.
The infinitive form is the base form of a verb with to. It is used after another verb,
after an adjective or noun or as the subject or object of a sentence, e.g. 'I want to
study, Its difficult to understand.
An irregular verb does not follow the same rule as regular verbs. Each irregular
verb has its own way of forming the past simple and past participle, e.g. go went
(past simple) gone (past participle).
A modal verb is a verb used with other verbs to show ideas such as ability or
obligation or possibility. They include can, must, will, should, e.g. I can speak French,
but I should study even harder.
A regular verb changes its forms by adding -ed in the past simple and past
participle, e.g. walk walked (past simple).
Verb pattern The form of the words following the verb, e.g. he advised me to get
there early. (advise + object pronoun + to + base form

KEY CONCEPTS

Grammar rules describe the way the language work.


Teachers need to keep up to date with what parts of the language are changing
and how.
Very often, speakers of a language can speak and write it well without consciously
knowing any grammatical rules or terms.
Learning some grammatical rules and terms makes language learning easier for
some students.

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TKT PRACTICE 1

For questions 1 to 6, match the underlined words in the text below with
the parts of speech listed A-G.

There is one extra option which you do not need to use.

PARTS OF SPEECH

A. Conjunction
B. Preposition
C. Noun
D. Adverb
E. Pronoun
F. Verb
G. Adjective
I want you to write a (1) list of ten things which (2) you like. Do it (3) carefully. But dont talk to me or your
sister. (4) Ask me about any (5) difficult words you cant spell. (6) When you have finished, you can watch
television.

1. __________
2. __________
3. __________
4. __________
5. __________
6. __________

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LEXIS
In this section we will look at what is known lexis, the technical name for the vocabulary of a
language.

The least problematic issue of vocabulary, it would seem, is meaning. What a word means
is often defined by its relationship to other words.

Words may have different meanings, they can also be stretched and twisted to fit different
contexts and different uses. The literal meaning of words can be extended according to the
context or purpose.

Glossary:

Affix A meaningful group of letters added to the beginning or end of a word to


make a new word. Affixation is the process of adding a prefix or suffix to word.
A prefix is a meaningful group of letters added to the beginning of a word, e.g.
appear disappear.
A suffix is a meaningful group of letters added to the end of a word to make a new
word which can be a different part of speech, e.g. care careful.
Antonym The opposite of another word, e.g. hot is the antonym of cold.
Collocation Words which are used together regularly, e.g. The teacher made a
presentation NOT The teacher performed a presentation.
Compounds Nouns, verbs, adjectives or prepositions that are made up of two or
more words, e.g. assistant office manager, bring back, long-legged, due to.
False friend A word in the target language which looks or sounds as if it has the
same meaning as a similar word in the learners first language but does not.
Homophone A word which sounds the same as another word, but has a different
meaning or spelling, e.g. I knew he had won; I bought a new book.
Idiom A group of words that are used together, in which the meaning of the whole
word group is different from the meaning of each individual word, e.g. She felt under
the weather means that she felt ill.
Lexical set A group of words or phrases that are about the same topic, e.g. weather
storm, to rain, wind, cloudy etc.
Lexis Individual words or sets of words, e.g. homework, study, whiteboard, get
dressed, be on time.
Part(s) of speech A description of the function of a word or a phrase in a sentence,
e.g. noun, verb, adjective.
Phrasal verb, multi-word verb A verb which is made up of more than one word
(e.g. a verb + adverb particle or preposition) which has a different meaning from
each individual word, e.g. look after A mother looks after her children.
Synonym A word which has the same or nearly the same meaning as another word,
e.g. nice is a synonym of pleasant.

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KEY CONCEPTS
Really knowing a word means knowing all its different kinds of meanings.
Knowing a word also involves understanding its form.
We often recognize a word before we can use it.
Teachers need to introduce vocabulary items formally to learners.
We have to teach learner how to apply vocabulary in different ways.

TKT PRACTICE 2

For questions 1 to 5, match the examples of vocabulary with categories


listed A-F.

There is one extra option which you do not need to use.

EXAMPLES OF VOCABULARY CATEGORIES


1. Impossible, unhappy, disadvantage, rename A. Synonym
2. Hard work, a heavy subject, a great idea B. Collocations
3. Wonderful, marvelous, brilliant, great C. Compound words
4. Longest, director, wooden, slowly D. Lexical set
5. Oranges, apples, mangoes, bananas E. Words with suffixes
F. Words with prefixes

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PHONOLOGY
In writing, we represent words and grammar through orthography. When speaking, on the
other hand, we construct words and phrases with individual sounds.

Phonology is the study of the sound features used in a language to communicate meaning. In
English these features include phonemes, word stress, sentence stress, pitch and intonation.

GLOSSARY:
Connected speech Spoken language in which the words join to form a connected stream of
sounds.
Consonant Any letter of the English alphabet except the vowels a, e, i, o u and sometimes y
Contraction A shorter form of a word or words, e.g. you have = youve; it is = its.
Diphthong A vowel combination usually involving a quick but smooth movement from one vowel
to another, e.g. / a / as in my.
Feature (e.g. of connected speech) A feature of something is an interesting or important part
or characteristic of it.
Intonation The way the level of a speakers voice changes, often to show how they feel about
something, e.g. if they are angry or pleased. Intonation can be rising or falling or both.
Linking The way different sounds can link into each other in connected speech, e.g. its a good
day / ts de /
Minimal pair Two words which are different from each other only by one meaningful sound, and
by their meaning, e.g. hear, fear.
Phoneme The smallest sound unit which can make a difference to meaning e.g. /p/ in pan, /b/ in
ban. Phonemes have their own symbols (phonemic symbols), each of which represents one
sound. Words can be presented in phonemic script (usually International Phonetic Alphabet or
IPA), e.g. /d kt / doctor.
Phonemic transcription is used in dictionaries to aid pronunciation.

Rhyme 1. Words that sound the same, e.g. hat, cat. 2. A song or poem with words that sound
the same at the end of each line I believe I can fly. I believe I can touch the sky.
Rhythm A regular pattern of stress and syllable length.
Stress
Sentence stress is where different words in a sentence are stressed. In English these are
usually the information-carrying words. In the sentence It was a lovely evening, and the
temperature was perfect, the main stress, when spoken, is probably on the word perfect. Stress
can therefore be used to show meaning, to emphasize a particular point or feeling. Strong/weak
forms If the word is unstressed, the weak form of vowels may be used, e.g. I can (/ k n /)
speak Italian, French, English and Spanish. The sound / / is called the schwa. If a word is
important, then the strong form is used, and the pronunciation changes, e.g. I can (/kaen/) speak
a little Spanish in an emergency.
Word stress is the pronunciation of a syllable with more force than the surrounding syllables
which are said to be unstressed, e.g. umbrella.
Sometimes, a word may have two stresses, in which case one syllable takes the main stress. In the
word independent, for example pen takes the main stress.
Syllable A part of a word that usually contains a single vowel sound, e.g. pen = one syllable;
teacher = two syllables teach/er; umbrella = three syllables um/bre/lla.
Voiced sound/unvoiced sound A voiced sound is a way of pronouncing sounds with vibration
(voiced) or without vibration (unvoiced) in the throat. In English, vowels are usually voiced. Many
sounds differ only because they are either voiced, e.g. /b/ or unvoiced, e.g. /p/.
Vowel One of the sounds shown by the letters a, e, i, o u and sometimes y

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Phonemic symbols
Long vowel sounds

Vowel sounds

Diphthongs

Consonants - Unvoiced and voiced pairs 1

Unvoiced
Voiced
Consonants - Unvoiced and voiced pairs 2
Unvoiced
Voiced
Other consonants -

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Phonemic Character Keyboard

i: u: e /
sheep ship book shoot here wait

e : :
left teacher her door tourist coin show

: e a a
hat up far on hair like mouth

p b t d k g
pea boat tree dog cheese joke coin go

f v s z
free video thing this see zoo sheep television

m n h l r w j
mouse now thing hope love run we you

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PHONICS, SYLLABLE AND ACCENT RULES


PHONICS RULES:

The vowels are a, e, I, o, u, also sometimes y & w. This also includes the diphthongs
oi, oy, ou, aw, oo and many others.

The consonants are all the other letters which stop or limit the flow of air from the throat in
speech. Thy are: b,c,d,f,g,h,j,k,l,m,n,p,q,r,s,t,v,w,x,y,z,ch,sh,th,ph,wh,ng, & gh

1.- Sometimes the rules dont work.

There are many exceptions in English because of the vastness of the language and the many
languages which it has borrowed. The rules work however, in the majority of the words.
2.- Every syllable in every word must have a vowel.

English is a vowel language; Every word must have a vowel.


3.- C followed by e, I, or y usually has the soft sound of s. Examples: cyst, central &
city.

4.- G followed by e, I or y usually has the soft sound of j. Examples: gem, gym, &
gist.

5.- When 2 consonants are joined together and form one new sound, they are a consonant
digraph. They count as one sound and one letter and are never separated. Examples: ch,
sh, th, ph, & wh.

6.- When a syllable ends in a consonant and has only one vowel, that vowel is short.
Examples: fat, bed, fish, spot, luck.

7.- When a syllable ends in a silent e, the silent e is a signal that the vowel in front of it
is long. Examples: make, fete, kite rope & use.

8.- When a syllable has two vowels together, the first vowel is usually long and the second
is silent. Examples: pain, eat, boat, rescue, say, grow. NOTE: Diphthongs dont follow this
rule; in a diphthong the vowels blend together to create a single new sound. The diphthongs
are: oi, oy, ou, ow, au, aw, oo and many others.

9.- When a syllable ends in any vowel and is the only vowel, that vowel is usually long.
Examples: pa-per, me, I, o-pen, u-nit & my

10.- When a vowel is followed by an r in the same syllable, that vowel is r-controlled. It
is not long nor short. R- controlled er, ir, ur often sound the same (like er) Examples:
term, sir, fir, feur, far, for, sa-gar, or-ther.

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BASIC SYLLABLE RULES


1.- To find the number of syllables:

Count the vowels in the word.


Subtract any silent vowel (like the silent e and the end of a word or the second
vowel when 2 vowels are together in a syllable)
Subtract one vowel from every diphthong (diphthongs only count as one vowel
sound)
The number of vowel sounds left is the same as the number of syllables.
The number of syllables that you hear when you pronounce a word is the same as
the number if vowels sounds heard.
For example:

The word came has two vowels, but the e is silent, leaving one vowel sound and
one syllable.

The word outside has four vowels, but the e is silent and the ou is a diphthong
which counts as only one sound, so this word has only two vowels sounds and
therefore, two syllables.

2.- Divide between two middle consonants.

Split up words that have two middle consonants. For example: hap-pen, bas-ket, let-
ter, sup-per, din-ner & Den-nis. The only exceptions are the consonant digraphs.
Never split up consonant digraph as they really represent only one sound. The
exceptions are th, sh, ph, ch & wh.
3.- Usually divide before a single middle consonant.

When there is only one syllable, you usually divide in front of it, as in:
o-pen, I-tem, e-vil & re-port. The only exceptions are those times when the
first syllable has an obvious short sound as in cab-in

4.- Divide before the consonant before an -le syllable.

When you have a word that has the old-style spelling in which the -le sounds like -
el, divide before the consonant before the -le. For example: a-ble, fum-ble, rub-
ble, num-ble. The only exception to this are ckle words like thick-le.

5.- Divide off any compound words, prefixes, suffixes and roots which have vowel sounds.
Split off the parts of compound words like sports-car and house-boat. Divide off prefixes
such as un-happy, pre-paid, or re-write. Also divide off suffixes as in the words farm-
er, teach-er, hope-less and care-ful. In the word stop-ping, the suffix is actually -
ping because this word follows the rule that when you add -ing to a word with one
syllable, you double the consonant and add the -ing.

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ACCENT RULES
When a word has more than one syllable, one of the syllables is always a little louder than the
others. The syllable with the louder stress is the accented syllable. It may seem that the
placement of accents in words is often random or accidental, but these are some rules that
usually work.

1.- Accents are often on the first syllable. Example: ba/sic, pro/gram

2.- In words that have suffixes or prefixes, the accent is usually on the main root word.
Example: box/es, un/tie.

3.- If de-, re-, ex -, in-, pro-, or a- is the first syllable in a word, it is usually not accented.
Examples: de/lay, ex/plore.

4.- Two vowel letters together in the last syllable of a word often indicates an accented last
syllable. Example: com/plain con/ceal.

5.- When there are two like consonant letters within a word , the syllable before the double
consonants is usually accented.
Examples: be/gin/ner, let/ter.

6.- The accent is usually on the syllable before the suffixes ion, -ity,
-ic, -ical, -ian, -ial, -ious, and on the second syllable befor the suffix
-ate. Example: af/fec/ta/tion, dif/fer/en/ti/ate.

7.- In words of three or more syllables, one of the first two syllables is usually accented.
Examples: ac/ci/ dent, de/ter/mine.

STEPS PRIMARY:

LAUNCHING:
BUILDING BACKGROUND
PREPARATORY ACTIVITY: WARM UP PREVIOUS PHONEMES OR RULES RELATED WITH THE NEW
ONE
PRE-TEST
INPUT:
1. ELICIT THE WORD
2. MODEL IT: SAY THE WORDSPELL IT SAY IT AGAIN
3. CHORAL REPETITION
4. 2 OR 3 INDIVIDUAL REPETITIONS
5. RETURNS: GOING SINCE THE FIRST MODEL EACH TIME
6. CLASSIFICATION OF THE LIST (GROUP WORK)
7. CHECKING MEANING (2 OR 3 EXTRA MODELS)
8. ELEPHANT WORDS
PRE-PRACTICE:
1. CLASSIFICATION GAME PLAYING WITH CHALLENGE WORDS. (TEAM WORK)
FOLLOW UP:
1. RIDDLES (FREE ACTIVITY TEAM WORK)
2. WRITTEN PRACTICE (TEAM WORK)
WRAP-UP:
1. ANY CHALLENGING ACTIVITY ( INDIVIDUAL WORK)

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TKT PRACTICE 3

What are these words?

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GRAMMAR ANALYSIS

COMPONENTS

GRAMMAR FUNCTION: Are ways of describing language use. A reason why we


communicate.
EXAMPLES OF FUNCTIONS

Apologising

Advising

Greeting

Interrupting

Clarifying

Agreeing

NOTION: Grammar components of a structure.


EXPONENT: The language we use to express a function. An exponent can express
several different functions. It all depends on the context it is used in. One function
can also be expressed through different exponents. (Grammar Structures)
EXAMPES OF EXPONENTS
Lets go to the cinema.
Good morning. My names Maria.
How do you say this in English?
I am sorry, I totally disagree with you.
Thank you very much!

APPROPRIACY:
The level of formality that suits a situation. Formal, neutral, informal.

SITUATION OR CONTEXT: The situation in which language is used or presented in the


classroom.
VISUAL AIDS: Didactic resources which are used by teachers to support the teaching
methods visually.
MODELS: The examples of complete sentences in which the structure is applied. ( 4
models for kinder, 6 to 8 models for primary and adults)
CHECKING MEANING: Two extra models which have the same pattern but from
different situation or context.
NEW VOCABULARY: The new words to be presented and applied in the new
structure.
GRAMMAR RULES AND CATEGORIES: The necessary grammar explanations of the
new grammar topic and the guidance for classifying the parts of speech to be
analyzed by the ss.

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TKT PRACTICE 4

For questions 1 to 6, match the example sentences with the functions listed
A-G.

There is one extra option which you do not need to use.

EXAMPLE SENTENCES FUNCTIONS


1. I dont think thats a very good idea. A. Describing
2. Its a beautiful place with a big river. B. Clarifying
3. He might be able to, Im not sure. C. Comparing
4. What I mean is D. Disagreeing
5. Id really love to fly to the moon. E. Wishing
6. Theyre much older than their friends. F. Suggesting
G. Speculating

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DESCRIBING LANGUAGE SKILLS


READING AND LISTENING
It is one of the four language skills. This is a receptive skill, like listening. This means it
involves responding to text, rather than producing it.

To get maximum benefit from their reading, students need to be involved in both extensive
and intensive reading.

Extensive reading: It involves reading long pieces of text, for example a story or article.
Strategic Reading allows the learners to develop comprehension of what they read,
following the complete reading process. Before, during and after reading.

Critical Thinking Strategies are crucial to develop successful comprehension.

We need to offer our students a program which includes appropriate materials, guidance,
task and facilities, such as permanent or portable libraries of books.

Intensive Reading: Reading for specific information, it is often based on tasks. The learners
focus on reading for gist.

LISTENING: Its a receptive skill that involves making sense of the meaningful sounds of
language. We do this by using context and our knowledge of language and world.

GLOSSARY:

Scan To read a text quickly to pick out specific information.


Skill, subskill The four language skills are listening, speaking, reading and writing.
Each skill can be divided into smaller subskills that are all part of the main skill, e.g.
identifying text organisation (reading); identifying word stress (listening).
Skim To read a text quickly to get a general idea of what it is about.
Listen/read for detail To read or listen to a text in order to get meaning out of
every word.
Listen/read for gist To read or listen to a text to understand its general meaning or
purpose.
Listen/read for mood To read or listen to a text in order to identify the feelings of
the writer or speaker. See infer attitude/feeling/mood.
Note-taking is one of the subskills for listening. To take notes means to write down
ideas in short form.
Extensive listening Listening to or reading long pieces of text, such as stories. You may listen
to or read some parts in detail and may skim other parts.
Intensive listening to focus on how language is used in a text

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TKT PRACTICE 5

For questions 1 to 5, match the instructions with the ways of reading listed
A-F.

There is one extra option which you do not need to use.

WAYS OF READING

A. Reading for specific information


B. Reading for detail
C. Reading for gist
D. Intensive reading
E. Deducing meaning from context
F. Extensive reading

INSTRUCTIONS

1. Find all the words in the story about pets.


2. Read the text. Decide which is the best heading for it.
3. Read the article to find out exactly how the machine works.
4. Finish reading the story at home.
5. Read the poster to find the dates of Annies, Sams and Julies birthdays.

TKT PRACTICE 6

For questions 1 to 6, match the instructions with the listed A-G.

There is one extra option which you do not need to use.

INSTRUCTIONS WAYS OF LISTENING


1. Watch a video to see how the woman looks. A. Listening for gist
How do you think she feels? B. Understanding body language
2. Listen to each pair of words. Say if they are the C. Listening for individual sounds
same or different. D. Listening for detail
3. What town does Jim live in? Listen and find E. Listening for sentence stress
out. F. Extensive listening
4. Listen to the description of the boy and the girl G. Listening for specific
and draw them. information
5. Listen and underline the word in the sentence
that the speaker says most strongly.
6. Listen to the story and decide what is the best
title for it.

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WRITING AND SPEAKING


Writing and speaking are productive skills. Writing involves communicating a message by
making signs on a page.

Speaking involves using speech to express meanings to other people orally.

Writing involves several subskills. Some of these are related to accuracy using the correct
forms of language.

Writing also involves a complete process:

Brainstorming
Making notes
Planning
Writing a draft
Editing
Proofreading
Publishing

TYPES OF WRITING
Personal writing.
a. Journal
b. Personal Narratives.
c. Friendly Letters

Subject Writing.
a. Biography Writing
b. Writing about Literature

Speaking involves:

Accuracy (Grammar and vocabulary)


Functions
Features of connected speech
Appropriacy
Body language
Interaction
Fluency
Intonation

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ANALYTICAL CRITERIA FOR SPEAKING IS DEFINED AS FOLLOWS:

Grammar and Vocabulary: this refers to the accurate and appropriate use of
grammatical structures and vocabulary in order to meet the test requirements.
Discourse Management: This refers to the speakers ability to express ideas coherently
and effectively, in fulfilling the task, through use of a suitable range of linguistic devices
and extended utterances where appropriate.
Pronunciation: This is about the ss ability to produce comprehensible utterances to fulfill
the task requirements.
Interactive Communication: Includes de ability to use interactive strategies to maintain or
repair communication and also refers to the ability of the candidate to display some
sensitivity to the norms of turn-taking. A willingness and an ability to develop the task
and move towards a conclusion rather than supplying minimal responses is also assessed.

Nurturing Language Development

Teachers can help sustain natural language development by providing environments full of
language development opportunities. Here are some general guidelines for teachers,
parents, and other caregivers:

Treat children as if they are conversationalists, even if they are not yet talking.
Children learn very early about how conversations work (taking turns, looking
attentively, using facial experiences with conversing adults.
Encourage interaction among children. Peer learning is an important part of language
development, especially in mixed-age groups. Activities involving a wide range of
materials should promote talk. There should be a balance between individual activities
And those that nurture collaboration and discussion, such as dramatic play, block-
building, book-sharing, or carpentry.
Remember that parents, caregivers, teachers, and guardians are the chief resources in
language development. Children learn much from each other, but adults are the main
conversationalists, questioners, listeners, responders, and sustainers of language
development and growth in the child-care center or classroom.
Continue to encourage interaction as children come to understand written language.
Children in the primary grades can keep developing oral abilities and skills by
consulting with each other, raising questions, and providing information in varied
situations. Every area of the curriculum is enhanced through language, so that
classrooms full of active learners are hardly ever silent.

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TKT PRACTICE 7

For questions 1 to 6, match the coursebook instructions with the writing


subskills listed A-G.

There is one extra option which you do not need to use.

WRITING SUBSKILLS

A. Punctuating correctly
B. Planning
C. Forming letters
D. Linking
E. Using the appropriate layout
F. Paraphrasing
G. Proof-reading

COURSEBOOK INSTRUCTIONS

1. Put your hand in the air and write d-o-g with your finger.
2. Tick( ) the correct place in this letter for the address of the receiver and
put a cross (x) in the correct place for the date.
3. This letter has no commas or full stops. Put them in the correct places.
4. Join these pair of sentences by using the best conjunction from the
following: because, after, while.
5. Look at this list of ideas for a composition. Number them in the order you
would write about them in your composition.
6. Check your work for language mistakes after you have finished writing.

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TKT PRACTICE 8

For questions 1 to 7, match the activities with the teaching focuses listed
A, B or C.

There is one extra option which you do not need to use.

TEACHING FOCUSES

A. Appropriacy
B. Fluency
C. Connected speech

ACTIVITIES

1. Identifying particular phonemes in conversations on audio cassette


2. Practice in speaking at a natural speed.
3. Practice greeting people informally
4. Identifying main stress in short dialogues on audio cassette
5. Practice in speaking without hesitating
6. Practice in using exponents of formal invitations
7. Practice in using intonation to show surprise

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MODULE 1 Part 2
Background to Language Learning
MOTIVATION
What is motivation?

Motivation is the thoughts and feelings we have which make us want to do something,
continue to want to do it and turn on our whishes into actions.

Why people decide to do something


How long they want to do it for
How hard they are prepared to work to achieve it.

Motivation is very important in language learning.

INFLUENCES ON MOTIVATION

Learner autonomy

Self-confidence

Goal setting

Interest in the lesson

Support from others

The usefulness of the language

Personalisation

Interest in the target culture

KEY CONCEPTS

Set personal example with your model own behaviour.

Create a relaxed atmosphere in the classroom

Present tasks in an interesting way which makes the tasks seem achievable to the
learners

Make the language classes interesting

Promote learner autonomy

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Personalise the learning process

Increase the learners awarness of their goals

Familiarise learners with the target language culture

Develop relationship with the learners

Increase the learners self-confidence about language learning

STRATEGIES FOR INTRINSICAL MOTIVATION


Most researchers and methodologists have come to the view that intrinsic motivation produces
better results than its extrinsic counterpart. Even where the original reason for taking up a
language course, is extrinsic, the chances of success will be greatly enhanced if the students come
to love the learning process.

External sources of motivation:

The motivation that brings students to the task of learning English can be affected and
influenced by the attitude of a number of people. It is worth considering what and who these
are:

The goal
The society we live in
The people around us
Curiosity

The following strategies may help teachers to motivate students effectively.

Enhancing Students Autonomy.


1. When several learning activities meet the same aim, allows students to choose
among them.
2. Whenever possible, provide opportunities for students to decide.
3. Create a psychologically safe environment in which students are willing to risk
making choices.
4. Provide logical explanations to establish limits when students behaviors must be
restricted.
5. Use logical consequences rather than punishments when students behaviors
make it difficult to teach others.
6. Make students accountable for the consequences of their choices.

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Enhancing Competence.
1. Evaluate achievement against the attainment of clearly stated instructional
objectives.
2. Use individual goal-setting to allow students to define their own criteria for
success.
3. After initial instruction, use formative tests to identify the specific objectives.
4. Allow students to retake, without penalty parallel forms of exams that cover
clearly stated objectives.
5. Match learning tasks and the pace of learning to skill level of the individual
students.
6. Provide faster-learning students with challenging opportunities to enrich and
extend their content mastery.
Increasing Belonging and Relatedness. (Social Skills)
1. Help students learn the skill of emphatic listening.
2. Help students learn to express their feelings in ways that do not attack or injure
others.
3. Take time to systematically help students learn to communicate acceptance and
support for others.
4. Help students learn and practice the skills of conflict resolution.
5. Attempt to develop group goals and positive interdependence in the classroom.
6. Avoid penalizing some students for the behavior of others.
7. Avoid forcing students to compete for a limited number of rewards.
8. Use feedback producers to assess and discuss the interpersonal climate and
personality of the classroom.
Enhancing Students Self-Esteem.

1. Set high expectations for all the students and assist students in achieving them.
2. Provide all students with ample amounts of positive information feedback.
3. Always try to explain the reason or purpose for rules, assignments and learning
activities.
4. Learn something unique about each student and occasionally mention it to him or her.
5. Value students efforts as well as their accomplishments.
6. Accept students as valuable, worthwhile human beings.
7. Celebrate the accomplishments and achievements of all the students.
8. Encourage students to evaluate their behavior relative to their goals and prior level
of achievement.
Stimulating Students Interaction and Enjoyment with Learning.

1. Find ways to get students actively involved in the learning process.


2. Relate content objectives to student experiences.
3. Assess students interests, hobbies, and extracurricular activities.
4. Use brainstorming activities to stimulate active interaction.
5. Instructional objectives should be reviewed and redefined to ensure that teachers
recognize their value and are committed to ensuring that all students attain them.

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TKT PRACTICE 9

For questions 1 to 7, match the teaching recommendations with the


influences on motivation listed A-H.

There is one extra option which you do not need to use.

INFLUENCES ON MOTIVATION

A. Learner autonomy
B. Interest in the lesson
C. Interest in the target culture
D. The usefulness of learning the language
E. Personalization
F. Goal-setting
G. Support from others
H. Self-confidence

TEACHER RECOMMENDATIONS

1. Where possible, ask learners to choose what activities they want to do


2. Encourage parents to motivate their children to learn English
3. Remind learners how important English is for getting jobs
4. Choose activities and materials that are motivating
5. Bring to the classroom any materials you have collected on your trips to
English speaking countries.
6. Praise learners frequently but honestly
7. Give learners opportunities to use English to talk about their own lives.

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THE MIRACLE OF LEARNING A SECOND LANGUAGE

Unless students have something wrong with theme mentally or physically, everybody
acquire a language as they develop.

As far as we can see, children are not taught language, nor do they set out to learn it
consciously. Rather they acquire it subconsciously as a result of the massive exposure to it
which they get from the adults and other children around them. Their instinct, the mental
capability we are all born with, acts upon the language they hear and transform it into a
knowledge of the language and an ability to speak it. Its that simple.

This instinctual ability to absorb language and context and to transform them into an ability
to understand and speak does not usually last forever. However at around the time students
start to develop an ability for abstraction which make them better learners, but may also
make them less able to respond to language on a purely instinctive level.

ACQUISITION AND LEARNING

Some people pick up second language without going to lessons. Others go to language
classes and study the language they wish to learn. Therefore acquired language and learnt
language are different both in character and effect.

The successful acquisition by students of second language as being bound up with the nature
of language input they received. It has to be comprehensible, even if it is slightly above
their productive level.

This comprehensible input i + 1 means information the students already have plus the next
level up. (Zone of Proximal Development). To develop this input, students have to be
exposed to it in a relaxed setting or environment. As many comprehensible inputs the
students are exposed into meaningful settings, the better development we can get from
them.

This inputs are part of the behaviourist theory, consisting of three-stage procedure: stimulus,
response and reinforcement. In language learning, is evident when the students are asked to
repeat sentences correctly and are rewarded for such correctness by teacher praise or some
other benefit. The more often this occurs, the more the learner is conditioned to produce the
language successfully on all future occasions.

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FOCUS ON FORM OR FORMS

The idea that students should be involved in solving communication problems in the target
language which is basically to perform communicative tasks in which they have to speak
their way out of trouble has given rise to Task-based language teaching.

Task-based learning has as its core the idea that students learn better when engaged in
meaning-based tasks than if they are concentrating on language forms just for their own
sake.

Focus on form occurs when students direct their conscious attention to some feature of the
language, such as a verb tense of the organization of paragraphs. It can happen at any
stage of a learning sequence as the result of intervention by the teacher, or because
students themselves notice language feature. It will occur naturally when students try to
complete communicative tasks. Focus on form is often incidental and opportunistic, growing
out of tasks which students are involved in, rather than being pre-determined by a book or
a syllabus.

Many language syllabuses and coursebooks are structured around a series of language
forms, however. Teachers and students focus on them one by one because they are on the
syllabus. This is often called Focus on Forms because one of the chief organizing principles
behind a course is the learning of these forms.

The focus on form approach needs to be based in communicative tasks, and any treatment
of grammar should arise from difficulties in communicating any desired meaning. The task
performance can significantly increase learners awareness of the target structure and
improve accuracy in its use, as well as providing opportunities for meaning focused
comprehension and production of the target language.

WAYS OF LEARNING A SECOND LANGUAGE

Exposure and picking up.: By hearning, reading and listening it all around without
realizing.

Focus on the form : By studying in a formal way. Focus attention on how is it written
and said.

Acquiring language: We need to be exposed to lots of examples and to set up of


experience them in meaningful contexts.

Learners should hear and read a wide variety of language at the right level. This acquisition
process takes place over a period of time. But it takes extra time to beging appylied it
independently, this period of time is called SILENT PERIOD.

Interaction: It is really necessary to communicate successfully.

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Learners need to use the language in the classroom to interact with classmates or to
the teacher. This would be the first formal experience applying the language.

Learners need oportunities to focus on forms of the langauge too. The teacher may
guide them to analyse the grammar usage and mechanichs as well as other main
points, in order to accurate their communication.

TKT PRACTICE 10

For questions 1 5, choose the correct option A,B or C to complete each


statement about learning language.

1. The group of learners who generally benefit most from picking up


language is:
A. Children under the age of 5
B. People over the age of 20
C. Teenagers aged 15-19
2. Being exposed to the right level of language helps learners
A. Check their own progress
B. Increase their interaction
C. Acquire more language
3. A silent period is a time when learners
A. Do written work
B. Study the language
C. Process the language
4. Acquiring language involves
A. Studying the grammar carefully
B. Listening just to language-focused exercises
C. Learning language just by hearing or reading it.
5. When we focus on the form of language we
A. Talk with classmates
B. Pay attention to accuracy and use
C. Listen to videos and audio cassettes.

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THE ROLE OF ERROR

One of the things that puzzle many teachers is why students go on making the same mistakes
even when those mistakes have been repeatedly pointed out to them. Yet not all the
mistakes are the same; sometimes they seem to be deeply ingrained, yet at other times
students correct themselves with apparent ease. We can categorize mistakes as follows:

TYPES OF MISTAKES

Slip: are caused by tiredness, worry or other temporary emotions.


These kinds of mistakes can be corrected by learners once they realize they have
made it. And regularly they do not impede the communication.
Interference: Learners may use sound patterns, lexis or grammatcal structures from
their own language.
Developmental error: When learners are unconsciously orginising the language in
their first language.
Overgeneralisation: When learners wrongly apply rules for items of the language,
As the learners practice and develop it these errors disappear.

Interlanguage: is the process of practice and development to accurate the language


by interacting. They unconsciously develops and progress as they learn more.

This is an essencial stage in the language learning.

KEY CONCEPTS

Teacher need to reflect about when to correct learners.

Learning is gradual and errors will occur and the corrections will be done during the
process.

Categorizing mistakes will help to make effective corrections.

Ignoring minor mistakes at times may increase students sefl-confidence.

Teachers must use correction techniques to improve the students development.

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TKT PRACTICE 11

For questions 1-6, match the statements with the types of mistakes listed A-C.

TYPES OF MISTAKES

A. A slip
B. Interference
C. A developmental error

STATEMENTS

1. All beginners confuse the tenses in English


2. The learner was extremely tired. This made her forget lots of grammar.
3. The learner was able to correct own mistakes
4. The learners pronunciation was full of sounds from his own language.
5. Nearly all the learners, of whatever mother tongue, made mistakes with
the word order in English present simple tense question forms.
6. He was very angry so he kept making mistakes.
7. The learner kept using vocabulary based on her own language.

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CORRECTION TECHNIQUES (MODULE 3 PART 2)


GENERAL:

Self-correction: When students are able to correct themselves (Slips)


Peer correction: Teacher encourages one student to correct other after being sure
that the one who is correcting is producing the language correctly.
Teacher to student or students.: Teacher corrects students applying some specific
correction techniques.

SPECIFIC CORRECTION TECHNIQUES:

Distortion: Emphasizing the trouble sound or word


Isolation: Separating the trouble sound or word
Comparison: Comparing concepts, or sounds.
Onomatopoeic sounds: Comparing a trouble sound of word with specific sounds
Echo Correction: Repeating what a learner says with rising intonation will show
the learner that there is a mistake somewhere.
Time line: Time lines show learners the relationship between the use of a verb
tense and time.
Finger correction: This technique might show the learners where they have made
a mistake. One finger is usually used for each word. This correction is particularly
useful when learners have left out a word or when we want them to use a
contraction.
Gestures or facial expressions
Phonemic symbols: They are useful when correction pronunciation mistakes.
Ignoring mistakes : In fluency activities we often ignore the mistakes while the
activity is in progress.

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TKT PRACTICE 12

For questions 1-6, match the statements with the types of mistakes listed A-D

You need to use some options more than once.

CORRECTION TECHNIQUES

A. Ignore the mistakes


B. Use self-correction
C. Draw a time line on the board
D. Use finger correction

TEACHERS BEHAVIOUR

1. You have used a correction code to show learners when they have made
mistakes in their writing. You now ask them their own mistakes.
2. You are working with class of elementary ten-year-olds who are doing a
fluency activity. One of the learners is talking to the class about her pet.
She says My rabbit eat lettuce. You let her continue talking.
3. You are doing a controlled practice activity. One of the learners says: I
have been working last week You show her a diagram.
4. A learner is repeating the instructions for an a activity and says: Then we
choose/tri:/ (three) objects. You just listen.
5. You are focusing on spoken language and the use of contractions. A learner
says: I am going swimming tomorrow. You want to show her where the
mistake is. You use your hand.
6. An advanced learner asks you: Can you borrow me a pencil, please? You
ask him to think about what he has said and try again.

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DESCRIBING LEARNERS
HOW DO CHILDREN LEARN?

Children are natural learners they are curious, interested, and enthusiastic about learning
new things. The best way to teach children is to build on play and their natural learning
styles.

Children learn through:


play
their senses
language
praise and reinforcement
imitation

Children by:
doing
moving
being motivated
And they learn on their own level.
Sometimes teachers create barriers for children and chip away at their
self-esteem without even realizing it. Put down comparisons, criticisms, and over protection
can further handicap children.
Accept children for who they are and what they are.
Set clear responsible rules and expectations of behavior.
Encourage autonomy and independence in children.
Give children freedom to enjoy themselves, to explore, to be creative and to laugh.
Allow your students to make decisions and accept responsibility.
Show respect for all children in the classroom.
Try to provide as many experiences as possible where children can be successful.
Have realistic expectations for your students.
Dont expect children to be perfect.
Be enthusiastic and optimistic about life.
Praise and reinforce children to let them know that you recognize their worth.
(You may say fantastic, wonderful, thank you for..., much better, so forth.)

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MAJOR AREAS OF DEVELOPMENT
PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT: This involves the way children use their large and small
muscles. Large muscles are used for activities such as walking, running; small muscles are
used for drawing, writing, feeding, and dressing.
SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT: This refers to how children interact with other children and
adults in their lives. Social skills include sharing, cooperating and following rules.
EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT: Includes childrens feelings about themselves, their self-
esteem, and their ability to express their feelings.
LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT: Refers to childrens ability to listen, understand, speak,
write and read.
COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT: Involves childrens abilities to think, reason, and solve
problems. It includes forming concepts, remembering ideas, and recognizing objects.

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN L1 AND L2 LEARNING

When we learn our first language (L1) we are likely to learn in different ways and
different contexts.

When we learn a second language (L2) we need to develop some techniques to expose
the learners to learn it.

KEY CONCEPTS

Foreign language learners need to be exposed to a rich variety of language, use it to


communicate and interact, and have opportunities to focus on form.
Motivation is very important in language learning, so we should do all we can to
motivate learners.
Learners are different from an other. So we should personalize our teaching to match
their learning needs and preferences.
Learners may find a silent period useful, we have to guide them to internalize
individually effectively.
We should encourage learners to use English as much as possible in their out-of-class
time. This increases their exposure to it.
We should try to simplify our language to a level that learners can learn from, and
avoid correcting them too much. They need to build up their fluency, motivation and
confidence, and have opportunities to pick up and experiment with language.
In the classroom we should try to plan cooperative activities where students can practice
and reinforce the language in a critical way and to praise learners and give them as
much individual attention as we can.

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COMPARATIVE CHART

L1 LEARNING L2 LEARNING
Age: Age:
Baby to young children. Usually at primary school or
secondary. It can also start or
continue in adulthood.
They learn: They learn:
by exposure to and picking up Sometimes through exposure, but
language. often by being taught specific
By wanting and needing to language.
communicate with strong motivation. With strong, little or no motivation.
Through interaction with family and Through interaction with a teacher
friends. and sometimes with classmates.
By talking about things present in the Often by talking about life outside
childs surroundings. the classroom.
By listening to and taking in By needing to produce language
language for many months before soon after an input.
using it. (silent period) By using language in controlled
By playing and experimenting with practice activities.
new language.

Context: Context:
The students hear the language The learner is not exposed to the L2
around hi,/her all the time. very much, mainly at school time.
Family and friends talk and interact Teachers usually simplify their
with them a lot. language.
The child has lots of opportunities to Teachers vary in the amount they
experiment with the language. praise or encourage learners.
Caretakers often praise and The learner receives little individual
encourage the childs use of attention from the teacher.
language. Teachers generally correct learners
Caretakers simplify their speech. in form and accuracy.
They are rarely corrected in the
form and accuracy.

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TKT PRACTICE 13

For questions 1-9, match the features of learning with the learners listed A, B or
C.

LEARNERS

A. L1 learner
B. L2 beginner classroom learner
C. Both the L1 learner and the L2 beginner classroom learner

THE FEATURES OF LEARNING

1. The learner is very often surrounded by language that is interesting to him/her.


2. The learner picks up language from the rich language that surrounds him/her all
day.
3. The learner learns with family and friends.
4. The learner often hears language that focuses on just one learning point.
5. The learner uses the language in controlled practice activities.
6. The learner often makes mistakes.
7. The learner usually receives lots of individual encouragement.
8. The learner often stays silent for a long time before finally speaking.
9. The learner needs time to process new language.

LEARNERS CHARACTERISTICS AND NEEDS

Learners characteristics are differences between learners which influence their attitude to
learning a language and how they learn it. These differences influence how they respond to
different learning teaching styles and approaches in the classroom, and how successful they
are at learning a language. The differences include:

Motivation
Personality
Learning styles and intelligences
Learning strategies
Age and past language learning experiences.

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The age of our students is a major factor in our decisions about how and what to teach.
Students of different ages have different needs, competences and cognitive skills.

Young learners, especially those up to the ages of nine or ten, learn differently from older
children, adolescents and adults in the following ways:

They respond to meaning even if they do not understand individual words


They often learn indirectly rather than directly, they take information from all sides.
Their understanding comes not just from explanation, but also from what they see
and hear and eventually by doing and performing.
They can figure out and infer grammar rules by developing critical thinking skills.
They generally show enthusiasm for learning
They have a need for individual attention and approval from the teacher.
They are keen to share previous experiences and prior knowledge
They have limited attention span; unless the activities are extremely engaging.

We can draw a conclusion then, a good primary classroom mixes play and learning in an
atmosphere of cheerful and supportive harmony.

Adolescents, it is strange that, despite their relative success as language learners, they are
often seen as problem students. Yet with their greater ability for abstract thought and their
passionate commitment to what they are doing once they are engaged, adolescents may
well be the most exciting students of all. Most of them understand the need for learning and,
with the right goals, can be responsible enough to do what is asked of them.

We can ask teenagers to address learning issues directly in a way that young learners
might not appreciate. Indeed, part of our job, is to provoke intellectual activity by helping
them to be aware of contrasting ideas and concepts which they can resolve for themselves
though still with our guidance. There are many ways of studying language and practicing
language skills with teenagers.

Adult learners are notable for a number of special characteristics:

POSITIVE NEGATIVE
They can engage easily with the They can be critical of teaching
topics. methods.
They have a whole range of life They may have experienced failure
experiences. or criticism at school which makes
them under-confident.
They have expectations, and they They might be concerned about to
already have their own set of keep their creative powers alive.
patterns of learning.
They have a clearer understanding They may be hostile to certain
of why they are learning and what teaching and learning activities
they want to get of it.

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Summarizing, we can say that good teachers take all of these factor into account. They get
prepared and realizes that a class is composed of individuals.

How to Teach or Learn Anything 8 Different Ways

Multiple Intelligences (MI) is a celebration of uniqueness and diversity of our students! MI tells
us that students are smart not just in one way, but in many ways. To reach all students and to
develop the diverse intelligences, we need to teach in many ways, providing carried learning
experiences for our students. This workshop provides the description of MI Theory, explores the
8 intelligences, and gives classroom ideas and activities.
The MI Theory has two fundamental prepositions:
1. Intelligence is not fixed. We have the ability to develop the intellectual capacity of
our students.
2. Intelligence is not unitary. There are many ways to be smart. Everyone has each
intelligence and a unique pattern of intelligences.
An intelligence must include:
1. Skills enabling individuals to resolve genuine problems.
2. The ability to create an effective product.
3. The potential for finding or creating problems.

The 8 Multiple Intelligence:

words (linguistic intelligence)


numbers or logic (logical-mathematical intelligence)
pictures (spatial intelligence)
music (musical intelligence)
self-reflection (intrapersonal intelligence)
a physical experience (bodily-kinesthetic intelligence)
a social experience (interpersonal intelligence)
an experience in the natural world. (naturalist intelligence)
The 9Th Intelligence is: Emotional Intelligence

Taking into consideration, social and developmental theory in the affective, cognitive
and psycho-motor domains. Learning should be sequential, linked to community goals,
and consistent with behaviors which are relevant to students needs.

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MI Vision:

Teaching with intelligences. Extending our teaching repertoire to encompass all the
intelligences, we make the content accessible to all of our students and give all
students an equal opportunity to excel.
Developing the intelligences. As a pluralistic society, we value the capabilities, and
end status of certain intelligences in the classroom to include the development of all
the intelligences, we help every student be all they can be. Broadening our
curriculum in the classroom to include the development of all the intelligence we can
reach this aim.
Celebrating uniqueness and diversity. By teaching our students about their
uniqueness and valuing diverse intelligences, we validate all the students. Students
enjoy sense of self-worth, and more readily respect the uniqueness of others.
Types of Multiple Intelligences
Visual/Spatial Intelligence: Ability to perceive the visual. These learners tend to
think in pictures and need to create vivid mental images to retain information. They
enjoy looking at maps, charts, pictures, videos, and movies.
Their skills include: puzzle building, reading, writing, understanding charts and
graphs, a good sense of direction, sketching, painting, creating visual metaphors and
analogies (perhaps through the visual arts), manipulating images, constructing, fixing,
designing practical objects, interpreting visual images.
Verbal/Linguistic Intelligence: Ability to use words and language. These learners
have highly developed auditory skills and are generally elegant speakers. They
think in words rather than pictures.
Their skills include: listening, speaking, writing, story telling, explaining, teaching,
using humor, understanding the syntax and meaning of words, remembering
information, convincing someone of their point of view, analyzing language usage.
Logical/Mathematical Intelligence: Ability to use reason, logic and numbers. These
learners think conceptually in logical and numerical patterns making connections
between pieces of information. Always curious about the world around them, these
learners ask lots of questions and like to do experiments.
Their skills include: Problem solving, classifying and categorizing information,
working with abstract concepts to figure out the relationship of each to the other,
handling long chains of reason to make local progressions, doing controlled
experiments, questioning and wondering about natural events, performing complex
mathematical calculations, working with geometric shapes

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Bodily/Kinesthetic Intelligence Ability to control body movements and handle
objects skillfully. These learners express themselves through movement. They have a
good sense of balance and eye-hand co-ordination. (E.g. ball play, balancing
beams). Through interacting with the space around them, they are able to remember
and process information.
Their skills include: Dancing, physical co-ordination, sports, hands on
experimentation, using body language, crafts, acting, miming, using their hands to
create or build, expressing emotions through the body.
Musical/Rhythmic Intelligence: Ability to produce and appreciate music. These
musically inclined learners think in sounds, rhythms and patterns. They immediately
respond to music either appreciating or criticizing what they hear. Many of these
learners are extremely sensitive to environmental sounds (e.g. crickets, bells, dripping
taps).
Their skills include: Singing, whistling, playing musical instruments, recognizing
tonal patterns, composing music, remembering melodies, understanding the
structure and rhythm of music.
Interpersonal Intelligence: Ability to relate and understand others. These
learners try to see things from other people's point of view in order to
understand how they think and feel. They often have an uncanny ability to sense
feelings, intentions and motivations. They are great organizers, although they
sometimes resort to manipulation. Generally they try to maintain peace in group
settings and encourage co-operation. They use both verbal (e.g. speaking) and
non-verbal language (e.g. eye contact, body language) to open communication
channels with others.
Their skills include: Seeing things from other perspectives (dual-perspective),
listening, using empathy, understanding other people's moods and feelings,
counseling, co-operating with groups, noticing people's moods, motivations and
intentions, communicating both verbally and non-verbally, building trust, peaceful
conflict resolution, establishing positive relations with other people.
Intrapersonal Intelligence: Ability to self-reflect and be aware of one's inner
state of being. These learners try to understand their inner feelings, dreams,
relationships with others, and strengths and weaknesses.
Their Skills include: Recognizing their own strengths and weaknesses, reflecting
and analyzing themselves, awareness of their inner feelings, desires and dreams,
evaluating their thinking patterns, reasoning with themselves, understanding their
role in relationship to others.

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LEARNING STYLES.

Learning styles are a combination of many biological and experientially imposed


characteristics that contribute to concentration, each in its own way and all together as a
unit.. Learning style is more than merely whether a student remembers new and difficult
information most easily by hearing, seeing, reading, writing, illustrating, verbalizing, or
actively experiencing; perceptual strength is only one part of learning style. It is also more
than whether a person processes information sequentially or analytically rather than in a
holistic, simultaneous, global fashion; information-processing style is just one other component
of style. It is important to recognize not only individual behaviors, but to explore and
examine the whole of each person's inclinations toward learning.

Students preferentially take in and process information in different ways: by seeing and
hearing, reflecting and acting, reasoning logically and intuitively, analyzing and visualizing,
steadily and in fits and starts. Teaching methods also vary. Some instructors lecture, others
demonstrate or lead students to self-discovery; some focus on principles and others on
applications; some emphasize memory and others understanding.

When mismatches exist between learning styles of most students in a class and the teaching
style of the professor, the students may become bored and inattentive in class, do poorly on
tests, get discouraged about the courses, the curriculum, and themselves, and in some cases
change to other curricula or drop out of school.

Visual Learners:

Learn through seeing... .

These learners need to see the teacher's body language and facial expression to fully
understand the content of a lesson. They tend to prefer sitting at the front of the classroom
to avoid visual obstructions (e.g. people's heads). They may think in pictures and learn
best from visual displays including: diagrams, illustrated text books, overhead
transparencies, videos, flipcharts and hand-outs. During a lecture or classroom discussion,
visual learners often prefer to take detailed notes to absorb the information.

Auditory Learners:

Learn through listening...

They learn best through verbal lectures, discussions, talking things through and listening to
what others have to say. Auditory learners interpret the underlying meanings of speech
through listening to tone of voice, pitch, speed and other nuances. Written information may
have little meaning until it is heard. These learners often benefit from reading text aloud
and using a tape recorder.

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Tactile/Kinesthetic Learners:

Learn through , moving, doing and touching...

Tactile/Kinesthetic persons learn best through a hands-on approach, actively exploring the
physical world around them. They may find it hard to sit still for long periods and may
become distracted by their need for activity and exploration.

Social learners:

Learn best by interacting with others one-on-one conversations, discussions, group


participation.

LEARNING STRATEGIES

Learning activities are the ways chosen and used by learners to learn a language. Examples
of learning strategies might be:

Repeating new words.


Taking risks by using just learnt language in conversations.
Guessing the meanings (inferences)
Paraphrasing
Clarfying
Judging your own performance

LEARNING NEEDS

Learning styles
Past language experoences
Learning gap. Between the present level and the target level language proficiency
and knowledge of the target culture.
Learning goals and expectations of the goals
Learner autonomy
Availability of time

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TKT PRACTICE 14

For questions 1-7, match what the learner does with the learning strategies listed
A-D.

You need to use some options more than once

LEARNING STRATEGIES

A. Taking risks
B. Getting organized
C. Judging your own performance
D. Working with others

THE FEATURES OF LEARNING

1. The learner collects new vocabulary on cards and then sorts the cards into topics.
2. The learner paraphrases to say something beyond his level of language.
3. The learner guesses an unknown word from context.
4. The learner compares a recent composition with an old one, to see if she has made
progress.
5. The learner decides to buy a dictionary for use at home.
6. The learner solves a problem with his classmates.
7. The learner records herself reading aloud and then listens to the recording to see if
her pronunciation is good.

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TKT PRACTICE 15

For questions 1-7, match the descriptions of the learners with the causes of their
needs listed A-H.

There is one extra option which you do not need to use.

CAUSES OF NEEDS

A. Lack of motivation
B. Learner autonomy
C. Past learning experiences
D. Learning styles
E. Learning gap
F. learning goals
G. availability of time
H. professional

DESCRIPTIONS OF LEARNERS

1. The learner really needs to learn English well to succeed in her job.
2. The learner learns best through working alone.
3. The learner has an extremely busy job can only learn English in the evenings.
4. The learner has serious pronunciation problems which prevent him passing an oral
exam.
5. The learner is used to learning of grammar.
6. The learner finds the English classes boring.
7. The learner needs to learn how to learn English by herself, as she cant afford to go
to classes.

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MODULE 1 Part 3
Background to Language Teaching
STAGES OF THE CLASS
The teaching of new concepts is often divided into four stages. If there is a clear link
between them, the learners will be able to understand and produce the new language.

Launching
Anticipatory Set or Building Background
o Arrival
o Greeting
o Daily Language
o Journal

Preparatory Activities
Activities designed to prepare the students for the learning and development
process.
o Mini-lesson
o Spelling pre-test
o Pre-writing & drafting
o Assess Prior knowledge
Input
Introductory and presentation techniques.
1. Input: for modeling and repetition. Direct InstructionGroup work
2. Recognition: To demonstrate understanding.
3. Pre-practice: As a transition to the practice stageGuided practice.

o Group lesson. The purpose of the presentation.


o Context of the presentation.
o Expose students to the meaning and form of new language items.
o Students realize the usefulness and relevance of the items being presented.
o Procedures for the presentation.
Follow up
Practice Stage where cooperative learning takes an active part to ensure language
and learning development.

o Experimentation: Learning is consolidated when learners do things by teams,


improving themselves.
o Feedback: Giving learners feedback on their learning is essential. It will provide
motivation and tools for improvement.
o Integrated activities: Facilitate production and provide confidence in the use of the
new language.
o Motivation: Allowing students to experiment with the new language will provide a
feeling of achievement.
o Teambuilding: Improvement scoring, assessing and feedback.

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Teaching activities:
o Games
o Communicative activities
o Listening comprehension
o Reading skills
o Songs
o Art
o Chants
o Corporal activities.
To accomplish this process successfully, teachers must be aware of: Instructions, atmosphere
and correction.
Wrap up
Complementary activities to summarize the topics taught.
Assessment
o Individual quiz
o Evaluation and reflection.

Zone of proximal development: Vygotsky

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PRESENTATION TECHNIQUES AND INTRODUCTORY

Are ways used by the teacher to present (introduce to learners for the first time - INPUT)
new language such as vocabulary, grammatical structures and pronunciation.

The INPUT stage is mainly guided by a teacher in a group structure.

TEACHING APPROCHES

Presentation, Practice and Production PPP


Task-based learning TBL
The Lexical Approach
Grammar Translation
Test-teach-test (TTT)
Guided Discovery
Total Physical Response (TPR)

PRESENTATION, PRACTICE AND PRODUCTION PPP

This technique grew out of Structural-situational teaching. In this procedure the teacher
introduces a situation which contextualizes the language to be taught. The students practice
the language using accurate reproduction techniques such as choral and individual
repetitions, cue-contextualized response drills. Later the students, using the new language,
make sentences of their own, and this is referred to as production.

TASK-BASED LEARNING TBL

This technique makes the performance of meaningful tasks central to the learning process. It
is informed by a belief that if students are focused on the completion of a task, they are just
as likely to learn language as they are if they are focusing on language forms. Instead of a
language structure or function to be learnt, students are presented with a task they have to
perform or a problems to solve.

The students are given a task to perform and only when the task has been completed, the
teacher discuss the language that was used, making students analyze the contents, making
correction and adjustments which students performance of the task has shown to be
desirable.

In the pre-task stage, the teacher explores the topic with the class and may highlight useful
words and phrases, helping students to understand the task instruction.

During the task cycle-stage, the students perform the tasks in pairs or small groups while the
teacher monitors.

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TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSE (TPR)

Is a language learning method based on the coordination of speech and action. It was
developed by James Asher, a professor of psychology at San Jose State University,
California. It is linked to the trace theory of memory, which holds that the more often or
intensively a memory connection is traced, the stronger the memory will be.

TEST-TEACH-TEST (TTT)

Is an approach to teaching where learners first complete a task or activity without help from
the teacher. Then, based on the problems seen, the teacher plans and presents the target
language. Then the learners do another task to practice the new language.

GUIDED DISCOVERY

Guided discovery, also known as an inductive approach, is a technique where a teacher


provides examples of a language item and helps the learners to find the rules themselves.

Example
The learners are shown a problem page containing various examples of the second
conditional 'If I were you,..'. They identify the structure and then the rules for making it.

In the classroom
Guided discovery is regarded by many teachers as an important tool. It encourages
independence, makes learning more memorable, and if analysis is done in groups is a
meaningful communicative task. It is important, however, to understand that some learners
are resistant to this approach.

GRAMMAR TRANSLATION

The major characteristic of the grammar-translation method is, precisely as its name
suggests, a focus on learning the rules of grammar and their application in translation
passages from one language into the other. Vocabulary in the target language is learned
through direct translation from the native language, e.g. with vocabulary tests such as:

the house = das Haus


the mouse = die Maus

Very little teaching is done in the target language. Instead, readings in the target
language are translated directly and then discussed in the native language, often
precipitating in-depth comparisons of the two languages themselves. Grammar is taught
with extensive explanations in the native language, and only later applied in the
production of sentences through translation from one language to the other.

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THE LEXICAL APPROACH

The Lexical Approach develops many of the fundamental principles advanced by


proponents of the Communicative Approach. The most important difference is the increased
understanding of the nature of lexis in naturally occurring language, and its potential
contribution to language pedagogy.

Key concepts

Language consists of grammatical structures and lexis.


The grammar/vocabulary dichotomy is invalid; much language consists of multi-
words 'chunks'.
A central element of language teaching is raising students' awareness of, and
developing their ability to 'chunk' language successfully.
Although structural patterns are known as useful, lexical and metaphorical
patterning are accorded appropriate status.
Collocation is integrated as an organizing principle within syllabuses.
The central metaphor of language is holistic - an organism; not atomistic - a
machine.
It is the co-textual rather than the situational element of context which are of
primary importance for language teaching.
Grammar as a receptive skill, involving the perception of similarity and difference,
is prioritized.
Receptive skills, particularly listening, are given enhanced status.
The Present-Practise-Produce paradigm is rejected, in favour of a paradigm based
on the Observe-Hypothesise-Experiment cycle.

STRUCTURAL APPROACH

A way of teaching which uses a syllabus based on grammatical structures. The order that
the language is presented is usually based on how difficult it is thought to be.

COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH
A way of teaching which is based on the principle that learning a language successfully
involves communication rather than just memorizing a series of rules. Teachers try to focus on
meaningful communication, rather than focusing on accuracy and correcting mistakes all the
time.
FUNCTIONAL APPROACH
A way of teaching which uses a syllabus based on functions rather than on grammatical
structures.

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STANDARS OF THE LEARNING PROCESS

Affect: students learn better when they are engaged with what is happening. Their
feelings and attitudes matter both in relation to their encounters with the language
itself.
Input: Students need constant exposure to the language, otherwise they will not learn
how to use it. Focus on form input, especially at lower levels, on language forms, is a
vital component of successful language learning.
Output: Students need chances to activate their language through meaning-focused
tasks to produce the new language learnt.
Cognitive effort: Students should be encouraged to think about language as they
work with it, since we are sure, this aids retention and conceptualization; they need
to construct new concepts using the language.
Grammar and Lexis: Showing how words combine together and behave both
semantically and grammatically is an important part of any language-learning
program.
How, why and where: At all levels and at all stages of teaching, we should be able
to say clearly why we are doing what we are doing into a correct context.

GLOSSARY:

Activity-based learning A way of learning by doing activities. The rules of


language are looked at either after the activity or not at all.
Concept checking The technique of asking concept questions or other techniques to
check that students have understood a new structure or item of lexis.
A concept question is a question asked by the teacher to make sure that a student
has understood the meaning of new language, e.g. the new language structure
used to He used to live in Paris. Concept question Does he live in Paris now?
Answer No.
Content-based learning When a subject, e.g. maths or history, is taught through the
second language.
Contextualize To put new language into a situation that shows what it means, e.g.
The music in the disco was very loud. the scene, context.
Definition noun, define verb An explanation of the meaning of a word, e.g. in a
dictionary.
Elicit When a teacher asks careful questions to get students to give an answer.
Emphasis noun, emphasize verb When special force is given to a word when it is
said because the word is important, e.g. I want to start the lesson at six oclock not
seven.
Gesture noun + verb A movement with part of the body, e.g. hand, head.
Ice-breaker An introductory activity that a teacher uses at the start of a new course
so that students can get to know each other.
Illustrate meaning To show what something means, e.g. I was nervous when I got on
the plane because I hate flying.

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Introductory activity An activity which takes place at the beginning of a lesson.
Introductory activities often include warmers and lead-ins.
Meaningful 1. something which shows the meaning of language. 2. something which
has a value for students in the real world.
Mime noun + verb Body movements used to convey meaning without using words.
Presentation noun, present verb To introduce new language.
Situational presentation A way of presenting new language through a simple story
or situation. The teacher may use pictures or other aids to help them create the
situation.
Warmer noun, warm up verb An activity that a teacher uses at the beginning of a
lesson to give the class more energy. See energy levels.
Teaching strategy The procedure or approach used by a teacher in the classroom,
e.g. a teacher may choose to give thinking time to students before they speak.

TKT PRACTICE 16

For questions 1-6, match the parts of a presentation stage with the names
listed A-G.
There is one extra option which you do not need to use.

PARTS OF A PRESENTATION STAGE NAMES


1. Went, came, choose, swam, ate, through, ran A. Concept question
2. The teacher tells the learners about a wonderful holiday B. Aids in presentation
she went on last summer. C. Context for presentation
3. Photos of last summers holiday. D. Freer practice activity
4. The teacher asks: When am I talking about, the past, the E. Language selected for
present or the future? presentation
5. The teacher drills pronunciation of new words. F. Controlled practice
6. The teacher says:We use the past tense to talk about activity
actions in the past that have completely finished. G. Explanation of use

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Practice activities, skills development and tasks for language


There are activities and tasks designed to give learners opportunities to practice and extend
their use of language and to develop comprehension.

Brainstorm noun + verb To think of ideas (usually quickly) about a topic (often
noting these down). This is often done as preparation before writing or speaking.
Categorisation noun, categorise verb To put things into the group (category) to
which they belong. For example, students might categorise a list of different foods
into groups such as fruit and vegetables.
Chant noun + verb To repeat a phrase, sentence or poem, usually with others, in a
regular rhythm.
Communicative activity A classroom activity in which students need to communicate
to complete the activity.
Drill A technique teachers use for encouraging students to practise language. It
involves guided repetition or practice.
In a choral drill the teacher says a word or sentence and the students repeat it
together.
In an individual drill the teacher says a word or sentence and one student repeats it
alone.
In a substitution drill the teacher provides a sentence and a different word or
phrase which the student must use (or substitute) in exactly the same structure, e.g.
Teacher: I bought a book. Pen. Student: I bought a pen.
In a transformation drill the teacher says a word or a sentence and the student
answers by changing the sentence into a new grammatical structure, e.g.
Teacher: I bought a pen.
Student: I didnt buy a pen.
Teacher: I went to the cinema.
Student: I didnt go to the cinema.
Extension task An activity which give students further practice of the target
language or the topic of the lesson.
.
Gap-fill An activity in which students fill in the spaces in sentences or texts. This is
often used for restricted practice or for testing a specific language point. This is
different from a cloze test which can focus on reading ability or general language
use. See cloze test.
Guided writing A piece of writing that students produce after a lot of preparation
by the teacher. The teacher may give the students a plan to follow, or ideas for the
language to use.
Information-gap activity A classroom activity in which students work in pairs or
groups. Students are given a task, but they are given different information and to
complete the task, they have to find out the missing information from each other.
Jigsaw listening/reading A text which is divided into two or more parts. Students
have to listen to or read their part, then share their information with other students in
order to complete the task. In this way, the text is made into an information-gap
activity.

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Jumbled paragraphs, pictures, sentences A text in which the paragraphs or
sentences are not in the correct order, or a series of pictures that are in the wrong
order. The students have to put the text or pictures into the correct order.
Label To match the name of an object to the object. Students are often asked to
label pictures of objects with the correct name.
Picture stories Stories that are in pictures instead of words.
Controlled practice, restricted practice When students practise the target language
in restricted situations in which they have little or no choice of what language they
use. The teacher focuses on accurate use of the target language.
Less controlled, freer practice When students practise the target language more
freely, with more choice of what they say and what language they use.
Problem solving Students work in pairs or groups to find the solution to a problem.
Problem-solving activities usually help to develop fluency.
Project work An activity which focuses on completing a task on a specific topic.
Students often work in groups to create something such as a class magazine. Students
sometimes have to do some work by themselves, sometimes outside the classroom.
Rank ordering An activity in which students have to put things into order of
importance for a given situation, e.g. they have to decide which four things to take
on holiday with them (passport, toothbrush, money etc.) from a list of ten. This is also
known as prioritising.
Revision noun, revise verb When a student or teacher looks at language or skills
that have already been taught again in order to remember this language better.
Teachers often do this in the classroom to help students to prepare for a test.
Role-play A classroom activity in which students are given roles to act out in a given
situation.
Survey Students find out information from others by asking questions or using
questionnaires in order to practice Target language.
The language which is the focus of the lesson or a part of the lesson. It could be
grammar, lexis, functions or pronunciation.
Task An activity which students complete which has a definite result. For example,
problem-solving activities or information-gap activities are tasks.
Task-type A set of questions that are all of one kind which are used to assess
students, e.g. multiple choice, gap-fill, matching.
Visualise, visualisation To form a mental picture of something. Visualisation can
help students to remember new words or can be used for creative story-telling.
Word map A way of recording vocabulary on the same topic in a diagram. This is
also known as a mind map.

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TKT PRACTICE 17

For questions 1-7, match the descriptions with the teaching activities listed
A-H.
There is one extra option which you do not need to use.
TEACHING ACTIVITIES
A. Problem solving
B. A role-play
C. Labelling
D. Choral drilling
E. Form filling
F. A game
G. A survey
H. Project work

DESCRIPTIONS

1. The teacher says a word and asks all the learners to repeat it together.
2. The teacher puts learners in pairs and asks one of them to act as a lost
tourist asking the way, and the other as a local person giving directions.
3. The learner use maps to work out the best way to get from x to y.
4. The learners listen to a tape a complete a timetable.
5. The learners ask all their classmates their opinion about something and
then note it down.
6. The learners go to the local museum, the library and the internet to find
out about dinosaurs. They ten make an exhibition of wall posters about
them.
7. The learners choose names of objects from a list and write the names
under pictures of the objects.

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TYPES OF ASSESSMENT TASKS


Assessment means judging learners performance by collecting information about it. We use
different kinds of tests to asses students. Assessment tasks are the methods to evaluate
learners.

Assessment tasks
The assessment tasks are not learning and teaching units, but they do suggest, in broad
terms, what learning needs to have taken place before students undertake the provided
assessment tasks. Teachers make professional decisions about whether or not a particular
task is suitable for their students.
For each assessment task, the following details are provided:

its relevance to state or territory curriculum statements


necessary prior learning
a series of scaffolding activities for establishing the context within which the task can be
undertaken
resources for students and teachers to assist in the completion of the task
assessment rubrics for both teachers and students
annotated work samples
suggested follow-up teaching and learning activities

GLOSSARY:

Continuous assessment
A type of testing which is different from a final examination. Some or all of the work
that students do during a course is part of the final mark.
Formal assessment, evaluation
When a teacher judges students work through a test and then gives a formal report or
grade to students, to say how successful or unsuccessful they have been.
Formative assessment, evaluation
When a teacher gives students feedback on their progress during a course, rather than
at the end of it so that they can learn from the feedback.
Informal assessment, evaluation
When a teacher decides whether a student is doing well or not, or whether a course is
successful or not, but without a test or an official report or grade.
Peer assessment, evaluation
When students give feedback on each others language.
Self-assessment, evaluation
When students decide for themselves if they think their progress or language use is good
or not.

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Assessment criteria
The qualities against which a students performance is judged for assessment. For
example, assessment criteria for judging students writing may be: accuracy of grammar,
use of vocabulary, spelling and punctuation; organization of ideas.
Cloze test
A type of task in which students read a text with words missing and try to work out the
missing words. The missing words are removed regularly from the text, e.g. every
seventh word. A cloze test is used for testing reading ability or general language use.
This is different to a gap-fill activity which can focus on testing a specific language point.
Diagnostic test noun, diagnose verb: When a teacher collects information about
students performance and abilities.
Item
1. A piece of language, e.g. a vocabulary or a grammar item.
2. The parts of a test to which a student has to respond.
Learner profile
A description of a student, including their ability and their needs.
Matching task
A type of task in which students are asked to pair related things together, for example,
match two halves of a sentence, or a word with a picture.
Multiple-choice questions
A type of task in which students are given a question and have three or four possible
answers. They choose the correct answer.
Open comprehension questions
A type of task in which students read or listen to a text and answer questions using their
own words.
Oral test
A test of speaking ability.
Portfolio
A collection of work that a student uses to show what they have done in preparation for
a particular course or exam.

Sentence completion
A type of task in which students are given parts of a sentence and are asked to
complete the sentence, using specific target language.
Sentence transformation
A type of task in which students are given a sentence and have to complete a second
sentence so that it means the same as the first, e.g.
Its too cold to play tennis.
It ____________ to play tennis. (enough)
It isnt warm enough to play tennis.

A formal assessment of a students language.

An achievement test is used to see how well students have learnt the language
taught in class.

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EH TKT TRAINING COURSE 2011
Achievement tests are often at the end of term or end of the year and test the main
points of what has been taught in that time.
A diagnostic test is used to identify problems that students have with language. The
teacher diagnoses the language problems students have. It helps the teacher to plan
what to teach in future.
An objective test is marked without using the examiners opinion, e.g. true/false
questions, multiple choice questions. There is a clear right answer.
A placement test is used at the beginning of a course to identify a students level of
language and find the best class for them.
A proficiency test is used to see how good students are at language, or use of the
language. The contents of a proficiency test are not chosen according to what has
been taught, but according to what is needed for a particular purpose, e.g. English
for hotel receptionists, English for studying at university. Cambridge ESOL
First Certificate in English (FCE) and IELTS are examples of proficiency tests.
A progress test is used during a course in order to assess the learning up to that
point.
A subjective test is marked using the examiners opinion about the quality of the
answer. The answer is not simply right or wrong, e.g. marking written stories,
compositions, interviews, conversations, story-telling.
A summative test is used at the end of a course.
True/false questions
A type of task in which students read or listen to a text and decide whether statements
are correct (true) or not correct (false).
Tutorial
When a teacher talks to a student individually or a small group of students to give
feedback on their progress in the class.

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EH TKT TRAINING COURSE 2011

TKT PRACTICE 18

For questions 1-5, match the instructions with the terms listed A-F.
There is one extra option which you do not need to use.
TERMS
A. Labelling
B. Jumbled sentences/ Mixed up sentences
C. Picture composition
D. Matching
E. Gap-fill
F. Discussion

INSTRUCTIONS

1. Read the sentences and complete the blanks with one word only.
2. What are the names of these things? Write the name beside each picture.
3. Draw a line between the words on the left and their meanings on the right.
4. Exchange ideas on the topic with your classmates.
5. Look at these and write the story they tell.

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