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THAILAND AT THE TURN OF THE CENTURY

1 Thailand, for one, as a pillar of the fast-growing Asian region, has made sure and steady
strides over the years to ensure its place in the global community.
2 A country often compared with the Philippines for a score of reasons, Thailand, like the
Philippines, is a nation of 60 million. It has an area of 513,115 sq. kms. and enjoys a climate typical of
countries in the tropics; thus, its traditional proclivity for agrarian-based economic activity.
3 Notwithstanding, a shift from agriculture to manufacturing, Thailand continues to edge out its
neighbors in terms of natural resources, what with the bounty of its land and sea which has made it
the worlds foremost exporter of tapioca and rice. In addition, it is also a leader in the production of
maize, frozen shrimp, canned pineapple, natural rubber and sugar.
4 However, in the late 80s and the 90s, Thailand restructured its economy to adapt to the
demands of an urbanizing international community.
5 As a result, the share of the agricultural sector in Thailands national income has declined from
a high of 40 percent in 1960 to 17 percent during early 90s.
6 Concomitantly, the manufacturing sector experienced strong growth, expanding rapidly in its
share of the national income from 13 percent in 1960 to over 30 percent in the 90s. With the
implementation of the first industrial Promotion Act in 1960 and various promotional programs
undertaken by the Board of Investment, the way was paved for the remarkable growth of the
manufacturing sector.
7 Initially, industrial activity focused on food processing and import substitution. However, in the
90s, Thailand has developed heavily into export promotion, notably textiles and garments, which
accounted for 34.5 per cent of principal exports in 1994 against the 12.7 percent output of canned
food in the same year. On the whole, the industrial sectors creditable performance became a plus
factor for Thailand because policy-makers knew exactly where there was a need to put on weight to
achieve an ideal balance among the various diversified industries that the changing economy helped
to bring about.
8 It is equally worth noting that at the highest point of Thailands growth at the close of the last
decade, the highest income generator and largest foreign exchange contributor for Thailand was its
tourism sector. With the full backing of the Royal Thai Government extended to the Tourism Authority
of Thailand, the sector grew by a hefty 16 percent per annum.
9 In addition to glowing figures posted by Thailand in the area of manufacturing, tourism and
foreign investment, much of its success can also be attributed to the growing independence of
countries in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and in the burgeoning Asian-Pacific
region.
10Thailand rides high in this era of growth and is well on its way to an age of prosperity at the
turn of the century.
11 From 1988-1991, Thailands growth rate averaged 12.5 percent, the highest in the world. Since
1993 when its economy rebounded from a worldwide recession in the early 90s, the Thai economy
has experienced steady gains reminiscent of the growth patterns of developed countries in the West.
Moving Ahead in English II ,pp 30-31,Myrna S.Torres
ELEMENTS OF A SHORT STORY

1. Setting refers to place, time, weather condition, social condition, and even mood or atmosphere. To recognize the
setting of the story, you may ask these questions: Where is the action taking place? Where is the story taking place?
Is it during the day, night, what year, what period? What is the weather condition? Is it sunny, rainy, and stormy?
What is the daily life of the character? What are his customs and status in life? What is the feeling created at the
beginning of the story? Is it bright, cheerful, dark or frightening?

Example: My sister and I had a funfilled vacation last summer. We stayed at our grandparents house, which was near
the beach. We swam in the sea every morning, climbed the trees in the afternoon and fed the animals before dark.
When the moon was bright, we played patintero.

Using the guide questions above, provide the answers:

Where is the action taking place? _______________________


Where is the story taking place? ________________________
What is the weather condition? ________________________

2. Plot It is the sequence of events in a story or play. The plot is a planned, logical series of events having a beginning,
middle and end. The short story usually has one plot, and it could be read in one sitting .There are five essential parts of
a plot: a. Exposition/Introduction In the introduction, the setting and the characters are revealed. b. Rising Action This is
where the events in the story become complicated and the conflict in the story is revealed .This is where events between
introduction and climax take place. c. Climax It is the turning point of the story and the highest point of interest. It is
where the reader asks what will happen next. Will the conflict be resolved or not? d. Falling Action The problems and
complications begin to be resolved. e. Denouement This is the final outcome or untangling of events in the story.

Here are three different parts of a story. On the blank after each paragraph, write whether the given part is the
beginning, middle and end of the story.

Suddenly, the boat tilted to the left. Steady! cried our teacher, stay where you are! We kept calm .We prayed hard
and followed all of our teachers instructions. Answer: -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Finally, the fox grumbled. I dont want those grapes anyway. I know they must be sour. Then, he went away. Answer:
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Once there was a child who liked summer best. He lived on a farm and every summer, he enjoyed harvesting corn,
vegetables and fruits. Answer: --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

3. Conflict - It is the opposition of forces which ties one incident to another and makes the plot move. There are two
types of conflict: a. External refers to outside forces that may cause conflict, like another human being, circumstances,
environment, etc. b. Internal - refers a struggle within oneself. The character maybe debating inside himself about what
to do.

4. Character there are two meanings for the word character: the person in a work of fiction and the characteristics of a
person. He may be the protagonist, the good-natured character, or the antagonist, the opponent of the main character.
The author may reveal a character in several ways: his physical appearance, what he/she says, thinks feels and dreams;
what he/she does or does not do; and what others say about him/her.

5. Point of View the angle from which the story is told

Activity 10: MATCHING


From the pool of words below, choose the appropriate answer to the following descriptions.

Climax Introduction Denouement

___________1. The setting and characters are revealed.

___________2. The highest point of interest in the story

___________3. The main character faces a conflict or problem.

___________4. The ending where the final outcome of the story is shown

___________5. The problems and complications are resolved.

Language Recall: Coordinate Conjunctions Observe the following sentences:

1. Makato never idled and never complained. 2. He did every kind of work, yet he remained cheerful. 3. Makato had no
sister or a brother to take care of him. 4. He tried his luck in a far-off land, so he became successful.

PROCESS QUESTIONS:

1. What words are connected by and in sentence 1?


_________________________________________________________

2. What are the two clauses that are joined by yet in sentence 2?
_________________________________________________________

3. What are the phrases that are connected by or in sentence 3?


_________________________________________________________

4. What are the clauses that are joined by so in sentence 4?


_________________________________________________________

5. What are the clauses that are joined by but in sentence 5?

Sentence 1 uses and to show addition of thought or ideas.

Sentence 2 uses yet to show contrast of idea.

Sentence 3 uses or to join nouns of equal rank.

Sentence 4 uses so to show result.

Sentence 5 uses but to show contrast of idea.

Makato and the Cowrie Shell (A Thai Folktale)


by Supanee Khanchanathiti
Once upon a time, there was a boy whose name was Makato. He was an orphan, for his father and mother died
when he was very young. He had no brothers, sisters, cousins or friends to take care of him, so he had to make a living
for himself. He did every kind of workcarrying heavy things, clearing away the forest, or feeding pigs. He never idled.
Although he was paid only small wages, he was satisfied. He knew that if he would not work, he would starve. Wherever
he went, his employers praised him for being sensible, hardworking, good-tempered and cheerful. One fine evening
after he had finished chopping up a big pile of wood, he sat down to rest and thought of all he would like to do in the
future. He wanted to try his luck in faroff strange lands, for he longed for exciting adventures. What are you thinking
about so deeply, my boy? asked his employer. I would like to go on a journey for adventure, said Makato, pointing to
the northeast. I heard that the land is fertile and the people are kind. I wish I could see the land for myself. His eyes
sparked with excitement. The land you wish to go to is called Sukhothai, said his employer. They say Pra Ruang of
Sukhothai is a very kindhearted king. You might be lucky if you could go there. Sometime later, Makato decided to try
his fortune. He left his village and set out in the wide world .He walked along cheerfully, enjoying new insights and
talking to the people he met on the way. After a months journey, he reached a village on the boundary of the Kingdom
of Sukhothai. Please, can I have some water to drink? Makato asked an old woman with a big water pot on her head.
Im so thirsty. Where did you come from? Why are you here alone? You look as if youve come a long way, said the
old woman, pouring cold water from her pot into a small cup and handling it to Makato. Thank you so much, said the
boy. Who are your father and mother? Havent you any family? the old woman asked again. I come from the City of
Mon over there, replied Makato. Good heavens! Have you really come from Mn? How is it that you are travelling
alone, such a young boy as you are? I wanted to see Pra Ruang of Sukhothai, replied Makato.They say he is a very
kindhearted king. You are a very determined boy! said the woman.Come along with me .Who knows? You might see
Pra Ruang someday. Makato was glad to go with her. If he could work with this kind of woman, he would have a place to
sleep, some food to eat and perhaps someday, he might be lucky enough to see the king. The old woman was one of the
Pra Ruang Mahouts, which meant that she helped the mahout find the food for the elephant and clean out the
elephants sheds. He worked hard and well, and the mahout and his wife grew fond of him. One day, the sky was clear
and the weather so fine, it seemed to Makato that it must be a lucky day. As he worked in the elephants sheds, a tall
young man in a splendid costume, followed by attendants, came in. It was Pra Ruang himself. Makato bowed low at once
with his hands clasped together before him. His heart beat fast. Where did the boy come from? the king asked the
mahout, who was attending him. How old is he? the king asked further. 12 years old, your Majesty, replied the
mahout. A good-looking and hardworking boy, said the king. Take good care of him. As the king walked away, Makato
saw a little cowrie shell lying on the ground .He ran to pick up and held it to the king, but the king said with a smile, You
may keep it. How wonderful! Makato thought, the king has given me a cowrie shell. At the time, the people of
Sukhothai used cowrie shells as money. Although one cowrie had little value, Makato wanted to make as much use of it
as possible, for it was the kings gift. For a long time, he could not think of a way to use it so that it would earn money for
him. One day, he passed by a stall in the market where the seeds of many different plants were sold. He looked along the
stall and caught sight of a basket full of lettuce seed. Lettuces! He could grow small plants like that. He asked the joyful
woman at the stall, Can I buy some lettuce seed? Oh yes, my boy. How much do you want? said the old woman. I
have one cowrie shell! said Makato. One cowrie shell! said the woman, laughing. That wont buy anything. I cant
even measure that much. Look! said Makato eagerly. I will dip my finger into the pile of seeds. Then, I will take the
seeds that stick to it. That must be right for one cowrie shell. Well, why not? said the amused woman at his
suggestions. All right boy. Help yourself. Makato paid the woman his one cowrie shell .Then, he dipped his finger into
the pile of seeds. When he pulled his wet finger out, it was covered with seeds. He carefully scraped them of his finger
into the palm of his hand and went away, happily clutching the seeds. Now that he had seeds, Makato broke the soil and
sowed them at once. He watered the seed bed every day and soon, the young plants appeared. Day by day, he cleared
more ground and planted more lettuce seedlings until the kitchen garden was covered with them. He was very proud of
himself because he had done so well. I wish I could give the king some lettuces, he thought. One day, the king passed
by the elephants sheds again. Makato waited for an opportunity, then knelt down and proudly presented his biggest
lettuces to the king. Where did you get this? the king asked, surprised. I grew them from the cowrie shell you gave
me, Your Majesty, answered Makato, beaming with a smile. How could you do that? asked the puzzled king. Makato
told the king the whole story. The king was impressed with his intelligence and industry, so much so that later on, he
gave Makato a job in the palace. As the years passed, Makato grew tall and handsome. He mastered every grace and
served the king well. He was so loyal that the king trusted him absolutely. He was promoted to higher positions until he
was given a title of Kun Wang, which meant that he which meant that he was the most important person in the kings
court. He was also happily married to a beautiful young daughter of the king. After that the king made him the ruler of
Mon.

So it was that Makato, who had once been a poor orphan, became the king of that prosperous kingdom.

PROCESS QUESTIONS:

1. Describe Makato. What character traits does he possess?


2. What could be the reason why Makato left his place?
3. Through inferring what the character says, does and thinks, one can recognize the traits of a literary character. Cite
lines, actions and thoughts which show Makatos traits.
4. What were those changes in Makatos life after meeting the king? Enumerate.
5. Which of Makatos traits are similar to yours?
6. How would you nurture and enhance your positive traits? In what ways?
7. What lessons in life does the author want to convey to you?

Activity 17: COMPARE AND SHARE

Using the Venn diagram below, compare yourself with Makato. Be guided by the following questions:

1. What traits do you both share? Write your answers between two circles.
2. Write your character traits, which are different from Makatos, inside the right circle.
3. Write Makatos character traits, which are different from yours, inside the left circle.
4. Which of those traits would you like to improve? Explain.
The Two Brothers
Egyptian Folktale

Once there were two brothers. Anpu was the elder, and Bata was the younger. When their parents died, Anpu
was already married and had a house of his own, so he took his little brother with him and treated him like his son.
When the little brother grew to be a young man, he became an excellent worker. He did the plowing. He harvested the
corn, and there was no one his equal in the whole land. Behold, the spirit of the god was within him. Every morning, the
younger brother followed his oxen and worked all day in the fields, and every evening, he returned to the house with
vegetables, milk, and wood. He laid all these before his elder brother, and he took with him his bread, and he drove the
cattle into the field. Because Anpu loved his younger brother very much, his wife became very jealous and she wanted to
destroy Bata. One day, when Anpu and Bata were in the fields, they needed some corn, so Anpu sent Bata home to get
some. The younger brother found the wife combing her hair and said to her, Get up and give me some corn that I may
run to the field for my elder brother is in a hurry. Do not delay. At eventide, Anpu returned home earlier than his
brother because Bata had much work to do in the fields. Anpu was met by his wife, who was crying bitterly. She showed
him her arms and legs which he had painted black and blue and accused Bata of having beaten her up. She pretended to
be in great pain. She did not give him water to wash his hands with. She did not light the fire for him. She pretended that
she was very sick. Anpu became very angry. He sharpened his knife and waited for Bata in the stable. When the sun went
down, Bata came home as usual, loaded with herbs, milk and wood. As he entered the door, he saw the feet of his
brother and the sharp knife hanging by his side. The brother sprang from him and Bata fled praying to the god Ra. My
good Lord! Save me from death, thou who divines the evil from the good. Ra heard his cry. He made a river flow
between one brother and the other and filled it with crocodiles. Bata asked his elder brother, Why do you seek to kill
me? Am I not your brother and have you not always treated me as if you were my father? Has not your wife been as
mother to me? Now since you want to kill me, I shall go to the Valley of the Acacia. Anpu answered, Why did you beat
up my wife and almost kill her. Bata answered, I did not do such thing. Have I told you that I have always looked upon
her as my mother? So, Anpu went home. He found his wife near the river washing off the black and blue dye with
which she had painted herself. Filled with great anger, Anpu killed his wife and cast her to the dogs. Then, he sat down,
poured ashes on his head and mourned for his younger brother. Bata reached the Valley of Acacia. Since there was no
one with him, he slew wild beasts for food, built himself a house and met the Nine Gods who knew of his innocence and
goodness. Ra said to the god Khunumu, Behold, frame a woman for Bata that he may not remain alone. So Khunumu
made for Bata a wife to dwell with him. She was indeed more beautiful than any other woman in the whole land. She
was like a goddess and Bata loved her very much.

PROCESS QUESTIONS:
1. Why did the wife get jealous of Bata?
2. What did the wife do to get the attention of Anpu? Do you agree with what she had done? Why so?
3. If you were Bata, what would you do? Do you agree with him in leaving the house? Why so?
4. If you were Anpu, would you believe your wifes explanation?
5. Do you agree with the beliefs and traditions they practice? Which of those bring unity and harmony? Which do not? 6.
Enumerate those traditions of Egyptians which are similar to you as Filipinos.
7. Write them down on this canvas. Then, compare and contrast them to our culture.
Bibliography contains a list of books or articles, or both, relating to a particular subject. In a research paper, a
bibliography is an alphabetical list, sometimes grouped into categories, containing the names of all works quoted from or
generally used in its preparation. Every formally prepared research paper should contain a bibliography placed at the
end and begun on a separate page.
1. Books
One Author
Tompkins, Gail E. 2000. Teaching Writing (3rd ed.) New Jersey: Prentice-Hall Inc.

Two Authors
Dorn, Linda J. & Soffos, Carla. 2005. Teaching for Deep Comprehension. Maine: Stenhouse Publishers.

Several Authors
Lauengco, Aurea, et.al. 1999. English CV for High Schools (3rd ed.). Makati: Bookmark Inc.

Encyclopedia
Helms, Ronald. Electric Light . World Book Encyclopedia. 1995 ed.

2. Magazine Article
Hackworth, Col. David H. Terms of Forgiveness. Newsweek. 24 Apr. 1995: 38-40.

3. Journal
Cline, C.L. Quasi Adventures in Literary Scholarship. " Texas Quarterly. 20 (1977) 36-42.

4. Newspaper
Hunt, Albert R. "Clinton Needs Fewer Reinventions and More Consistency.

5. World Wide Web


Abilock, Debbie. "Choose The best search engine for your information.22 March
http://www.nueva.pvt.k12.ca.us/~debbie/library/research/adviceengine.html> 12 Apr. 1999

Points to Remember:

1. All names of authors should start with the family name, followed by the first name.
2. For two authors, the second authors name should be written with the first name first and not with the family name.
3. For several authors, use the words et .al. , to mean many or several authors.
4. All titles of the books, magazines, and encyclopedia and newspaper articles should be underlined.
5. Titles of topics of magazines, newspaper articles and encyclopedia must be enclosed in quotation marks.
6. Observe correct punctuation marks, such as period, after the authors name, title of the book, encyclopedia,
magazines and newspaper articles.
7. Place a comma after the authors family name to separate it from the first name and use it also to separate it from the
name of the publisher.

Appendix

An appendix refers to an addendum or any addition to a document, such as a book or legal contract. It is a collection of
supplementary materials, usually appearing at the end of a report, proposal, or a book. It may come in the form of tables
and charts, sample questionnaires, budgets and cost estimates, correspondence about the preparation of the report,
case histories, and transcripts of telephone conversations, among others.
theme- the main subject of a discussion
ubiquitous- omnipresent;universal
unfolding- display; open
uniqueness- exceptional ; matchless; unexampled