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1.

Set Theory
Set collection of well-defined objects, called elements

Elements objects in a set

Notation:

a. Names of sets are designated using capital letters; e.g., A = {, , ,


}

b. Braces { } to designate elements within a set

c. (epsilon) means that an element belongs to a given set; e.g., A


d. (slash epsilon) means that an element does not belong to a given


set; e.g. A

e. ... (ellipsis) to show a continuing pattern; e.g., {1, 2, 3, ...} or {2, 4, 6,


..., 20}

II. Kinds of Sets

1.Universal set, U

- the totality of all elements under consideration as the


elements of any set

- e.g., U = B = {Sun, Mon, Tue, Wed, Thu, Fri, Sat}

2.Subset

- a set A is said to be a subset of another set B if every


element of A is also an element of B
- in symbols: A B

- e.g.: given: A = {1, 2, 3}, B = {4, 5, 6}, C = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}


A C B C since 6 B but 6 C

- note: any set is a subset of itself

- e.g.: A A

3.Proper subset

- a set A is said to be a proper subset of another set B if


every element of A is also an element of B, but there is at least one
element of B that is not an element of A

- e.g.: given: A = {1, 2, 3}, B = {1, 2, 3, 4} AB

- note: a set is a subset but not a proper subset of itself


AA

4.Equal sets

- set A is said to be equal to set B iff (if and only if) the two
sets have exactly the same elements

- in symbols: A = B, otherwise A = B

- therefore, A = B iff A B and B A

- note: the order in which the arrangement of the elements in


a set does not change the set

- e.g.: {1, 2, 3, 4} = {2, 4, 1, 3} = {3, 2, 4, 1}


5.Equivalent sets

- two sets are said to be equivalent if they are of the same


size; i.e., there is one-to-one correspondence between their
elements

- no special symbol

- e.g.: given: A = {1, 2, 3}, B = {a, b, c} A is equivalent to


B

- note: all equal sets are also equivalent sets with each other,
but not all equivalent sets are also equal sets with each other