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Pigging simulation

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ARTICLE IN PRESS

www.elsevier.com/locate/petrol

low-liquid loading

Xiao-Xuan Xu *, Jing Gong

The Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Petroleum Engineering, Department of Oil and Gas Storage and Transportation Engineering,

China University of Petroleum, Changping County, Beijing, 102249, P.R. China

Received 20 January 2005; received in revised form 9 June 2005; accepted 10 June 2005

Abstract

Liquid condensation in natural gas transmission pipelines commonly occurs due to the thermodynamic and hydrodynamic

imperatives. Condensation subjects the gas pipeline to two phase transport, which dramatically affects their delivery ability and

operational modality and the associated peripheral facilities. It is therefore imperative for the pigging simulation in gas-

condensate flowlines to be taken into consideration in their design. Periodic pigging helps keep the pipeline free of liquid,

reducing the overall pressure drop, and thereby increasing the pipeline flow efficiency. A new simplified pigging model has

been developed for predicting the pigging operation in gas-condensate horizontal pipelines with low liquid-loading, which

couples the phase behavior model with the hydro-thermodynamic model. The comparison of the calculating results with those

of the two-phase transient computational code OLGA (with a dynamic, one-dimensional, extended two-fluid model), indicates

the new pigging model has a good precision and high speed in calculation. The model also contains the capability of pig-

tracking and slug-length-increasing model, which can be suitable for engineering design.

D 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Natural gas-condensate; Pigging simulation; Low-liquid loading; Compositional hydrodynamic model; Phase behavior model; Two-

phase flow; Pipeline

underground pipelines, over substantial distances.

With the rapid development of offshore and desert Liquid condensation in natural gas transmission pipe-

gas/condensate field, pre-treatment of natural gas at lines commonly occurs due to the thermodynamic and

the wellhead to remove the heavies is not generally an hydrodynamic imperatives. Condensation subjects the

option because of the hostile environment. The pro- gas pipeline to two-phase transport, and the presence

of condensation in gas pipelines dramatically affects

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +86 10 8973 3557; fax: +86 10 their delivery ability and operational modality and the

8973 3804. associated peripheral facilities. It is therefore impera-

E-mail address: xiaoxuanxu@sohu.com (X.-X. Xu). tive for the pigging simulation in gas-condensate

0920-4105/$ - see front matter D 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.petrol.2005.06.005

PETROL-01279; No of Pages 9

ARTICLE IN PRESS

2 X.-X. Xu, J. Gong / Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering xx (2005) xxxxxx

flowlines to be taken into consideration during their the range of parameters covered by the experimental

design. data used to develop them.

Pigging operation is a common practice in the petro- Minami and Shoham (1991) developed a pigging

leum and natural gas industry. Periodic pigging helps model and coupled it with the Taitel et al. (1989)

keep the pipeline free of liquid, reducing the overall simplified transient model assuming quasi-steady

pressure drop, and thereby increasing the pipeline flow state gas flow. An EulereanLagrangean approach

efficiency. Sphering was originally introduced to in- using a fixed and moving co-ordinate system is used.

crease gas flow efficiency. However, there are only a Minami and Shoham (1991) used mechanistic models

few published studies on the hydrodynamics of the for predicting flow pattern, the slippage between

phenomena. Xu et al. (2003) has given a review on phases and the pressure drop, and he performed an

the pigging simulation models in multiphase pipelines. extensive experimental program showing this simpli-

McDonald and Baker (1964) were probably the fied approach is physically sound.

first investigators to present a study on pigging of Meanwhile, other pigging models, such as TACITE

gasliquid pipelines, and they presented that the (Pauchon and Dhulesia, 1994), Lima (1998), Petra

sphering could increase transportation efficiency by (Larsen et al., 1997), have no difference in essence

30% to 70%. However, attempting to model the pig- from the Minami and Shoham (1991) model, and

ging phenomena, they assumed that a successive slug/pig tracking and boundary conditions have just

steady-state approach could be used, that is, the stan- been improved.

dard steady-state two-phase empirical correlations for In China, the research to the pigging simulation

both liquid holdup and pressure drop could be used starts relatively late, and only a few scientific research

within each timestep, which caused much calculation institutions (China University of Petroleum, Xian

error. Barua (1982) attempted to improve the McDo- Jiaotong University, etc.), have carried out the perti-

nald and Baker (1964) pigging model, and removed nent research. Liang (1997) developed a simplified

some limiting assumptions of the original model, and pigging model for predicting the dynamics of pigging

proposed a procedure to model the liquid slug accel- operation. And Li and Feng (2004) conducted pigging

eration during its delivery into the separator/slug experiments in an airwater two-phase flow loop. And

catcher. However, the main assumption of a succes- Petroleum University (Beijing) has done some valu-

sive steady-state condition was not removed. able work on gas-condensate pipelines.

Kohda et al. (1988) proposed the first pigging

model base on full two-phase transient flow formu-

lation. Their model includes the drift flux transient 2. Pigging model development

code, which is based on the Scoggins (1977) study,

and a pigging model. The pigging model is composed Gas-condensate flow with low liquid loading is a

of correlations for pressure drop across the pig, slug multiphase flow phenomenon commonly encountered

holdup, pigging efficiency, pig velocity model, and a in raw gas transportation. Fig. 1(a) is the schematic

gas and liquid mass flow boundary condition applied description of the liquid holdup in horizontal gas-con-

to the slug front. The resulting set of equations was densate pipelines. The pipeline is divided into two

solved numerically by a finite difference method, sections, that is, gas section (Ao) with no condensate

using two coordinate systems, one fixed and the near the input for the higher pressure and temperature,

other adaptive. No further detail was given on how and two-phase flow section (Bo) with condensate for

the difference equations were coupled and solved lower pressure and temperature. According to the char-

simultaneously. However, the experimental data com- acteristic of the low-liquid loading, the physical model

pared relatively well with the predicted values for the used in the development of the pigging model is given

numerical simulator. Note that the Kohda et al. in Fig. 1(b). A similar physical pigging model had been

(1988) model still uses flow-pattern-independent used by Kohda et al. (1988) and Minami and Shoham

steady-state holdup and pressure drop correlation to (1991). The pipeline is also divided three sections. Just

account the slip between phases. Empirical correla- ahead of the pig is the liquid slug section (B). The

tions are known to be restricted when applied beyond region to the left of the pig is the upstream single-

ARTICLE IN PRESS

X.-X. Xu, J. Gong / Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering xx (2005) xxxxxx 3

properties of both phases at the given temperature, pres-

sure and composition. This approach is quite reliable and

relatively fast in process calculations involving light

Ao Bo hydrocarbon systems, such as gas-condensate system,

which can be used to determine the numbers of phases in

(b) pipe, to estimate the densities, enthalpies, specific heat

capacities of gas and liquid, the flow parameters such as

Vp Vt

Vs ELs liquid and gas viscosites and the surface tension.

pig VL EL

Meanwhile, the onset of condensation means that two

A B C

phases coexist in the pipeline, with continuous mass and

momentum transfer between phases. This coexistence

Fig. 1. (a) Schematic description of holdup in gas-condensate creates an additional complication because the mass

pipelines, (b) Schematic description of pigging model for gas- transfer rate depends on the systems temperature, pres-

condensate pipelines. sure and composition. The mass transfer rate cannot be

determined in advance; it must be evaluated simulta-

phase gas flow section (A). To the right of the liquid neously with the solution of the hydrodynamic equa-

slug is the downstream transient two-phase flow sec- tions, which is necessary to satisfy the conservation of

tion (C). However, Kohda et al. (1988) and Minami and mass, momentum and energy. For calculating pressure

Shoham (1991) models cannot be used for non-isother- and temperature profiles in pipe flow, these conservation

mal two-phase pipeflow systems with phase changes equations lead to two independent equations: the pres-

and mass transfer. sure gradient and enthalpy balance equations (Fig. 2).

3. Pigging simulation The pressure gradient equation is developed by

combining the momentum and mass balance equa-

3.1. Compositional hydrodynamic model tions for one dimensional flow in a pipe, which

includes friction loss, elevation and acceleration pres-

Prediction of temperature and mass transfer is extreme- sure gradient.

ly important for multicomponent or compositional flow,

dP dP dP

such as gas condensate systems. Compositions of such

complex systems are not constant, but vary significantly dx Total dx dx Elevation

Friction

along the pipeline as a function of pressure, and especially dP

1

temperature. Thus, the black oil model is inadequate to dx acceleration

handle compositional systems, which should be treated

by vaporliquid equilibrium flash calculation at each

3.1.2. Energy equation

pressure and temperature. Accurate prediction of both

As fluids flow through a pipe, they continuously

pressure and temperature is thus essential.

exchange heat with the surroundings. The temperature

This paper presents a compositional hydrodynamic

profile in flowing fluids is affected by heat transfer,

model that describes the hydrodynamic behavior of

gas/gas condensate flow in pipelines, in which gas is

PK

condensing/vaporizing at some section of the pipeline. TK

L

One of the most difficult features of this system is that HK

the condensing/vaporizing section must be identified.

PK-1

This problem is resolved by coupling of a phase-be- T K-1 Z

havior model to the basic hydrodynamic equations. HK-1

The phase behavior model incorporates the Peng

Robinson two-parameter EOS (Peng and Robinson, Fig. 2. Schematic description of the kth pipeline segment.

ARTICLE IN PRESS

4 X.-X. Xu, J. Gong / Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering xx (2005) xxxxxx

elevation changes, velocity changes and expansion With coupling the hydrodynamic model with phase

effect. Temperature change resulting from expansion behavior model (that is, the compositional hydrody-

is referred to as the JouleThomson effect, which can namic model), pressure, temperature, liquid holdup

cause the temperature to drop below the surrounding along the pipeline can be predicted.

temperature. Taking into account all these effects in

two-phase flow, the enthalpy balance on a segment of 3.2. Gas section (A) calculation

pipe may be written as follows,

Given the input pressure, temperature, flow rate,

dH dH dH composition, total thermal conductivity (pipe wall

dx Total dx Exchange dx Elevation thermal conductivity and soil thermal conductivity),

wall roughness, the single-phase gas flow hydrody-

dH

2 namic model can be used to predicted the pig velocity

dx Kinetic

and the pressure near the back of the pig, which are

For quasi-steady-state flow, the boundary condition of the slug zone calculation.

dH dQ dv dZ The mass and momentum is described by the

v g : 3 equations of compressible gas dynamics as follows,

dx dx dx dx

Then, the enthalpy at the segment outlet can be Bqg B qg vg

0 5

written as following Bt Bx

vvsg DP KkDDLTav Tenv

HK HK1 gDZ : B qg vg B qg v g2 P f qg vg jvg j

PK M qg gsinh:

4 Bt Bx 2D

6

The mixture enthalpy at the pipe segment outlet

(H K )is the function of pressure ( P K ) and temperature The local friction factor f is calculated by an em-

(T K ). However P K and T K are unknowns. P K can be pirical correlation. The pressure and the gas density

calculated from the hydrodynamic model, while the are related by gas EOS,

model parameters are function of P K and T K , which P zRT

can be calculated by the phase behavior model. So it is 7

qg Mg

necessary to couple the hydrodynamic model and

phase behavior model, the hypothesis pressure and where, z and M g are the gas compressibility factor and

temperature are needed before the iterative calcula- molecular weight, respectively.

tion. In one pipe segment, with two-phase properties

gained by the phase behavior model, liquid holdup 3.3. Slug section (B) calculation

can be predicted by the empirical correlations, such as

BB (Beggs and Brill, 1973), Eaton (Eaton, 1967), MB 3.3.1. Control volume (CV)

(Mukherjee and Brill, 1983) models. MB model is Gas-condensate flowlines are often sphered/pigged

exactly used in this study. at regular intervals to control liquid accumulation.

x Pk+1 x FK+1

LSK+1

Pig Pig

x PK LSK x FK

ARTICLE IN PRESS

X.-X. Xu, J. Gong / Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering xx (2005) xxxxxx 5

The pipeline operating data expression for translational velocity v t,

Parameters Value

Length 199 km ELs vp EL vL

Diameter A559

vt 11

ELs EL

Wall thickness 11.9

Pipe material API 5L X65

where, the slug holdup is usually taken as a function

Wall roughness 0.02 mm

Surrounding temperature 276 K of v s as in the Gregory et al. (1978) correlation,

Total thermal conductivity 1.5 W/(m2 K)

Flow rate at input 27.4 m3/s 1

Temperature at input 293 K

ELs 12

1 vs =8:661:39

Pressure at input 9.219 MPa

This process caused a liquid slug to accumulate in A general momentum balance equation expressed

front of the pig as it progresses along the line. For by the Eq. (13) is also applied to the CV shown in Fig.

modeling the pigging phenomena, mass and momen- 1(b). Since the momentum equation is a vector equa-

tum conservation equations are applied. An expanding tion, only the x component of the momentum equation

Y

CV and a fixed coordinate system are chosen as is considered. And F is the external force exerted by

shown in Fig. 1(b). the surroundings on the CV.

Z Z

d Y Y

3.3.2. Mass balance equation qvY dV qvY vY w

Y

ddA F : 13

dt V t At

A general mass balance equation for a moving and

expanding control volume is given by Assuming that the liquid density, slug velocity, and

Z Z the slug holdup do not change within one timestep,

d Y and the liquid slipping past the pig is zero, the mo-

qdV qvY wY ddA 0: 8

dt V t At mentum accumulation term and the momentum flux

across the surface enclosing the CV, that is, the left

There is no liquid slippage behind the pig. In each hand side of Eq. (13) are rewritten

Z Z

timestep dt, the liquid holdup and density do not d Y Y

change with time. Under the above assumptions, Eq. qv dV qvY vY w

Y

ddA

dt V t At

(8) can be rewritten as following

dLs

qL vs ELs A qL vL vL vt EL A: 14

dLs dt

ELs vL vt EL 0: 9 Y

dt The net external force F is given by

Z xF

Y

Meanwhile, the time rate of change of the length of F PP PF A g qs Asinhdx ss kDLs

xP

the liquid slug (B) is given by

15

dLs where, s s is the shear stress between the slug and the

vt vp : 10

dt pipe wall. For one horizontal pipeline, substituting

Table 2

The gas-condensate composition

Component C1 C2 C3 iC4 nC4 iC5 nC5 C6 C7+ CO2 N2 Total

mol % 88.73 7.1 1.31 0.29 0.34 0.17 0.10 0.22 0.14 0.09 1.51 100.0

ARTICLE IN PRESS

6 X.-X. Xu, J. Gong / Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering xx (2005) xxxxxx

equation can be expressed by lation is to estimate the time of slug delivery. The

basic assumptions involved in the slug delivery cal-

culation are shown as following,

4ss Ls EL vp vL

PF PP qL vs vL ELs

D ELS EL

(1) The outlet pressure is constant;

16 (2) The slug is homogeneous gasliquid two-phase

mixture;

where, E L, v L can be described the liquid holdup and (3) The mass flow rate of gas behind the sphere is

velocity between B and C, respectively. constant.

4. Numerical solution

As the slug front reaches the pipeline outlet and the

liquid is producing into the slug catcher, the slug The time step Dt is assumed as constant, Dt = const.

delivery would be taken place and the pig is acceler- In each timestep, the change of the slug length Dx can

ated (Fig. 3). The purpose of the slug delivery calcu-

Fig. 5. Holdup profile for the gas condensate pipeline. Fig. 7. Temperature profile for the gas condensate pipeline.

ARTICLE IN PRESS

X.-X. Xu, J. Gong / Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering xx (2005) xxxxxx 7

Table 3

Results calculated comparing with those of OLGA

Liquid Maximum Liquid Slug delivery

accumulated pressure pigged time (min)

(m3) (MPa) (m3)

OLGA 102.8 9.19 73.8 11.6

MODLE 94.2 9.19 73.9 10.8

(k + 1), the new coordinate at the pig position is

given by x pk+1 = x pk + v pk+1Dt, where v pk+1 is the pig

velocity of the new timestep, which is assumed to

be equal to the gas velocity closely behind the pig.

The new slug length is L Sk+1 = L Sk + Dx, and the new x Fig. 9. Relation of slug length and time.

coordinate at the slug front is determined from

x Fk+1 = L Sk+1 + x pk+1.

model has been jointly developed by IFE and SINTEF

(Bendiksen et al., 1991), with higher precision, which

5. Pigging analysis

has been widely used in oversea oil and gas fields.

From the Figs. 5, 6 and 7, it can be concluded that

One horizontal gas-condensate pipeline in Tarim

the hydrodynamic and thermodynamic calculation

gas field in western China is used to test the proposed

results are quite close to that of OLGA.

pigging model. It represents a typical gas-condensate

Meanwhile, the simplified pigging model devel-

pipeline, and fluid composition and pipeline data are

oped has good precision in prediction of the pigging

given in Tables 1 and 2. And the phase envelope is

operation as shown in Table 3. And the quasi-steady

shown in Fig. 4.

state approach has been used in the simulation, which

Since there is no pigging data of gas-condensate

could save much more time in simulation than OLGA,

pipelines in practice, the famous transient flow simu-

and the newly developed model can be used in prac-

lation software OLGA is used to test against the

tice. The pig tracking and simulation of slug length

proposed model. With higher precision, OLGA, a

was also shown in Figs. 8 and 9.

dynamic, one-dimensional, extended two-fluid

6. Conclusion

out from the 1950s (McDonald and Baker, 1964).

However, in China, much more work needs to be

done. The proposed pigging model couples the

phase behavior model, hydrodynamic model (momen-

tum and energy equation), which is able to simulate

the pigging operation of gas-condensate pipelines

with low liquid loading, which can also be used to

other gasliquid two-phase pipelines. Since there are

much phase behavior changes (condensation, retro-

condensation) during the normal running and pigging

operation, some boundary conditions have been sim-

Fig. 8. Relation of pig position and time. plified and assumptions have been used. Meanwhile,

ARTICLE IN PRESS

8 X.-X. Xu, J. Gong / Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering xx (2005) xxxxxx

operations, (such as terrain, shutdown, restart, wax p Pig

deposition), would also need to pay more attention. F Slug front

Nomenclature

A Pipe cross area (m2) Acknowledgements

D Pipe diameter (cm)

EL Liquid holdup The authors wish to thank Xinjiang Tarim Oil Field

E Ls Slug holdup Company for providing support for this project.

Tenv Surrounding temperature (K)

Y

v Fluid velocity (m/s)

V CV volume, m3 References

f Wall friction factor

vg Gas velocity (m/s) Barua, S., 1982. An Experimental Verification and Modification of

Y the McDonald and Baker Pigging Model for Horizontal Flow.

F External force on the CV (N)

PhD Thesis, Univ. of Tulsa, Texas.

H Fluid enthalpy Beggs, H.-D., Brill, J.-P., 1973. A study of two-phase flow in

LS Slug length (m) inclined pipes. J. Pet. Technol. 52, 607.

M g Gas molecular weight (kg/mol) Bendiksen, K., Malnes, D., Moe, R., 1991. The dynamic two-fluid

P Gas pressure in EOS (Pa) model OLGA: theory and application. SPE Prod. Eng.

PF Pressure at the slug front (Pa) (SPE19451), 171 180 (May).

Eaton, B.-A., 1967. The prediction of flow patterns, liquid holdup,

PP Pressure at the pig position (Pa) and pressure losses occurring during continuous two-phase flow

Q Heat loss through the wall (J) in horizontal pipelines. J. Pet. Technol. 19 (4), 815 828.

R 8.3114472 m2 kg s 2 K 1 mol 1 Gregory, G.-A., Nichloson, M.-K., Aziz, K., 1978. Correlation of

t Time (s) the liquid volume fraction in the slug for horizontal fas-liquid

T Gas temperature in EOS (K) slug flow. Int. J. Multiph. Flow 4, 33 39.

Kohda, K., Suzukawa, Y., Furukwa, H., 1988, May. A new method

Tav Average temperature in one section (K) for analyzing transient flow after pigging scores well. Oil and

Gas Journal 9, 40 47.

Greek letters Larsen, M., Hustvedt, E., Straurne, T., 1997. Petra: a novel com-

s Shear stress puter code for simulation of slug flow. SPE Ann. Tech. Conf.

h Pipeline inclination (rad) and Exhi. (SPE 38841), Texas, USA.

Li, Y.-X., Feng, S.-C., 2004. Simulation of pigging dynamic in gas

DP Pressure drop of one segment (Pa) liquid pipelines. Chem. Ind. Eng. 55 (2), 271 274 (in Chinese,

DZ Elevation of one segment (m) with English Abstr.).

vL Liquid velocity (m/s) Liang, Z.-P., 1997. Investigation on transient behaviors in oil and

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vS Slug velocity (m/s) Thesis, Xian Jaiotong University, Xian, China.

Lima, P.-C.-R., 1998. Modeling of transient two phase flow opera-

v sg Gas superficial velocity (m/s) tions and offshore pigging. SPE Ann. Tech. Conf. and Exhi.

vt Transitional velocity at slug front (m/s) (SPE49208), New Orleans, USA.

Y

w Velocity of the CV (m/s) Pauchon, C.L., Dhulesia, H., 1994. TACITE: a transient tool for

x X coordinate multiphase pipeline and well simulation. SPE Ann. Tech. Conf.

and Exhi. (SPE 28545), New Orleans, USA.

xF X coordinate at slug front, m

Peng, D., Robinson, D.B., 1976. A new two-constant equation of

xp X coordinate at the pig, m state. Ind. Eng. Chem. 15 (1), 59 64.

z Gas compressibility factor McDonald A.-E, Baker O., 1964. Multiphase Flow in (Gas) Pipe-

Z Pipe elevation (m) lines. Oil and Gas J., 62(24): 6871, 62(25): 171175, 62(26):

6467, 62(27): 118119.

Subscripts and superscripts Minami, K., Shoham, O., 1991. Pigging dynamics in two-phase

flow pipelines: experiment and modeling. SPE Prod. Facil. 10

g Gas phase (4), 225 231.

k kth timestep Mukherjee, H., Brill, J.-P., 1983. Liquid holdup correlations for

L Liquid phase inclined two-phase flow. J. Pet. Technol. 35 (5), 1003 1008.

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Scoggins Jr., M.-W., 1977. A Numerical Simulation Model for Xu, X.-X., Gong, J., Deng, D.-M., 2003. A review of pigging

Transient Two-phase Flow in a Pipeline. PhD Thesis, University model in multiphase pipelines. China Offshore Oil and Gas 15

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