Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 147

BS ISO

13704:2001

ICS 75.180.20
BSI , ,

ERC


BS ISO 13704:2001

ISO 13704:2001
.

PSE/17,

, PSE/17/-/6,
, :
- ;
- /
, ,
;
-
.

,
.

,
, , BSI
,
BSI .

.
.

,


, ,
ISO, ii v, , 1 138,
, .



BSI,
10 2002. .

,

BSI 10 2002 .

ERC




2001-12-15

ERC


... iv
. v
1. .. 1
2. 1
3. .. 3
3.1. . 3
3.2. ... 3
4. 4
4.1. .. 4
4.2. 6
4.3. ( ) 6
4.4. ( ) . 7
4.5. ... 7
4.6. . 7
4.7. 7
4.8. 8
4.9. .. 11

5. ... 13
5.1. .. 13
5.2. . 14
5.3. . 14
5.4. . 14
5.5. . 14
5.6. 14
5.7. ... 15
5.8. 15

6. 16
6.1. . 16
6.2. ( ) . 17
6.3. 20
6.4. . 22
() .. 26
()
30
() (
) . 40
D () .. 43
() (SI (
)) ... 45
F () (
) ... 84
G () .. 124
() ... 132
. 137

ERC


ISO ( )
( ISO ).
ISO. -,
, ,
. ,
ISO, . ISO
(IEC) ,
.

, ISO/IEC ,
3.

.
, -
. , , ,
, 75% -, .

,
. ISO
.

ISO 13704 ISO/TC 67, ,


, SC 6,
.

, F .
A, B, D, G H .

Iv

ERC

API 530[30], , 1996 .

ERC

ERC

1

,
.
.

( , ).
.

;
.

2
.

2.1

Di


.

2.2

dCA
, ,

2.3

DL
, ,

.

2.4

Td
, , , ()
(Tmax
) (Teq 2.7)
( 2.15).
.
,
.

2.5

Sel
( 5.2)
3.2.3
.

ERC

2.6

Pel
,
,
. .

2.7

Teq
,
( 4.8)

2.8

Di
; .

.

2.9

dmin
,
() [ (5)]

2.10

Do

2.11

Sr
( 4.4)
3.2.3
.

2.12

pr
,
.

2.13

n
,

E F.

2.14

d
, , ,

ERC

2.15
( )
TA
,
, , .


( 2.4).

3.1
( , ,
, ). :

a) ( ) ;
b) ,
;
c) , ;
d) ( 1);
e) .
- a) e) , :
f) ( ) 100 000 ;
g) , (
);
h) 15 (25 oF);
i) , 1;
j) .

3.2

3.2.1
,
.
; ,

.
3.2.2 , ,
. , -
, API RP 941 [15].
3.2.3 .
,

.
.
3.2.4 (
, dmin/Do,
0.15).
.
3.2.5
.

ERC

3.2.6 .
. , ,
, ,
.
3.2.7 - 5.6 -
, 100 000- ,
.3.,
, 20 000 200 000.

4
4.1
,
300 (575oF) ,
600 (1110 F).
, .
, ,
- , .
. ,
, .

,
:
. ,
,
( 4.3). ( )
, ,
( 4.4).

,
; , . ,
425 (800F); 347,
590 (1 100 F). ,
, ,
, .

.
, ,
. ,
.
, .
,
.
,
.


.
, .

,
, (
). dmin ( 4.5).
, , 6. (
D)
.

1.

, 2.

ERC

, n
, f corr

dCA
D pr
Sr n

ERC

4.2
,
. ,
(pel) (Sel).
, (pr)
(Sr).

,
( 3.2.4 ).
,
, .
[16], [17], [18], [19]
.
:

(1)

S , [ 1)];
p , ( );
Do , ();
Di , (), ;
d , ().

(d) 4.3 4.4 (1).

4.3 ( )
- ,
( , pel)
, .
, d dmin ( 4.6) :

(2)

(3)

, (),

, ( ),
.

1) (psi) -
(lbf/in2) ISO 31.

ERC

4.4 ( )
-
. d dmin ( 4.6)
:

(4)

(5)

Sr , ( )
;
fcorr n 1;

( , E
F).

G. ,
, .

; , ,
, ,
(fcorr = 1).

4.5
, Sel Sr , E
F, , .
, .
dmin.

4.6
(dmin) ( ) ,
1. ,
40. ,
10S. ( 5 , , -
). 0.875 .
.
.

4.7
(dmin) 4.3 4.4. ,
. ASTM
. ASTM , , F,

,
. 12,3% 9,9% .
ASTM , ,
0.875 ,
12.5%.

ERC

, 12.7 (0.500
), :

12.7 (0.500 ) 12,5%


, :


. ,
, ASTM, .



() () ()
60,3 (2,375) 3,4 (0,135) 2,4 (0,095)
73,0 (2,875) 4,5 (0,178) 2,7 (0,105)
88,9 (3,50) 4,8 (0,189) 2,7 (0,105)
101,6 (4,00) 5,0 (0,198) 2,7 (0,105)
114,3 (4,50) 5,3 (0,207) 2,7 (0,105)
141,3 (5,563) 5,7 (0,226) 3,0 (0,117)
168,3 (6,625) 6,2 (0,245) 3,0 (0,117)
219,1 (8,625) 7,2 (0,282) 3,3 (0,130)
273,1 (10,75) 8,1 (0,319) 3,7 (0,144)

4.8
- ,
. ,
, , , ,
.

(Tsor) (Teos)
(Teq) , . ,
, - ,
, .
(6)

Teq , ();
Tsor , () ;
Teor , () ;
fr , 2.

G. , V N:

ERC


n0 Tsor;
T (= Teor Tsor) , ( ) , (R);

In

, () ;
, ( );
,

d0 , (), ;
S0 , ( ),
(1);
A , ( ). A
3. G.5.
, fT

, fT
2

ERC

2

( ):

(2)

(3)

( ):

(4)

(5)

, ()
, (
)
, (
)
, ()
, (),
, ( )

, ( )

, (),
, ()
, 1 n

(6)

, ( )

, (),
, (),

, ( ) 3
, ( ),
(1);
, ()
, ()

, ( )
() ,

10

ERC

3 ()

A
MPa (psi)
7,46 105 (1,08 108)
B 2,88 105 (4,17 107)
C-YMo T1 P1 2,01 107 (2,91 109)
1-!4Cr-!4Mo T11 P11 5,17 107 (7,49 109)
2-1/4Cr-1 Mo T22 P22 8,64 106 (1,25 108)
3Cr-1 Mo T21 P21 2,12 106 (3,07 108)
5Cr-ViMo T5 P5 5,49 10s (7,97 107)
5Cr-1/4Mo-Si T5b P5b 2,88 10s (4,18 107)
7Cr-YMo T7 P7 1,64 10s (2,37 107)
9Cr-1Mo T9 P9 7,54 106 (1,09 109)
9Cr- 1 Mo V T91 P91 2,23 10s (3,24 108)
18Cr-8Ni 304 304H 1,55 106 (2,25 10s)
16Cr-12Ni-2Mo 316 316H 1,24 106 (1,79 108)
16Cr-12Ni-2Mo 31 6L 1,37 106 (1,99 108)
18Cr-10Ni-Ti 321 1,32 106 (1,92 108)
18Cr-10Ni-Ti 321 H 2,76 105 (4,00 107)
18CMONi-Nba 347 347H 1,23 106 (1,79 108)
Ni-Fe-Cr 800H / 800HT 1,03 105 (1,50 107)
25Cr-20Ni HK40 2,50 10s (3,63 107)
a
, Cb.

.
, , .
,
.

,
fT 2.

, ,
( ).
. ( 6.4).

4.9

( 3), .
, .
, .

11

ERC

=
=

, .
,
. , ,
, .


,
.

, ( ),
, :

(7)

rel , ();
rm , ();
s , ( ), (1).

, ( )
so :

(8)

, rm Do/2, (7)
.
(9).

(9)

12

ERC

, () .

(10)
, ( ),

, , (8)
. :

(11)

d0 , () .

Sel , ( ),
.

.

dI do
(9) (11). dCA .

, .

, ,
.
, , .
, , ,
.

5.
5.1

E.1 E.9 (SI ) F.1 F.19 F
( ). , ,
. ,
.
5.2 5.3 ( 3.2.3).

(13)

ERC

5.2
(Sel)
90% .
H.

,
,
.

5.3
(sr) 100%
.
. 20 000-, 40 000-, 60 000- 100 000-
-
, .1 .19 ( F.1 F.19).
,
-
( 5.6).

, ,
-
.
, ,
.

5.4 ()
.1 .19 ( F.1 F.19) (n)
.
- ( 4.4). .4.

5.5

.1 .19 ( F.1 F.19)


. . .

5.6 -
.1 .19 ( F.1 F.19)
100 000- -. -
(Td) (/DL) .

Td :

Td :

- CLM . ( .3
).

- ,
.
,
, 4 .1 .19 F.1 F.19).
, 20 000
200 000 ( .3).


, .

14

ERC

5.7
4.
.
, .. 30 (50 F) ,
, - .
.
4. . ,
, , , ,
. ,
.


C (F)
C (F)
B 540 (1 000) 720 (1 325)
C-1/3Mo T1 P1 595 (1 100) 720 (1 325)
1 1/2 4Cr-ViMo l T11 P11 595 (1 100) 775 (1 430)
2'/4Cr-1 Mo T22 P22 650 (1 200) 805 (1 480)
3Cr-1Mo T21 P21 650 (1 200) 815 (1 500)
5Cr-ViMo T5 P5 650 (1 200) 820 (1 510)
5Cr-1/2Mo-Si T5b P5b 705 (1 300) 845 (1 550)
7Cr-YMo T7 P7 705 (1 300) 825 (1 515)
9Cr-1 Mo T9 P9 705 (1 300) 825 (1 515)
9Cr-1Mo-V T91 P91 650 a (1 200 a) 830 (1 525)
18Cr-8Ni 304 304H 815 (1 500)
16Cr-12Ni-2Mo 316316H 815 (1 500)
16Cr-12Ni-2Mo 31 6L 815 (1 500)
18Cr-10Ni-Ti 321 321 H 815 (1 500)
18Cr-10Ni-Nb 347 347H 815 (1 500)
Ni-Fe-Cr 800H/800HT 985a (1 800 a)
25Cr-20Ni HK40 1 010a (1 850 a)
a ( );
,
, .

5.8
.1 .19
SI ( )
. F.1 F.19
.

.
5.

15

ERC

5


E.1 (F.1) (A 161, A 192)
E.2 (F.2) (A 53B, A 106B, A 210A-
1)
E.3 (F.3) C->4Mo
E.4a (F.4) 1%Cr-y,Ma
E.5a (F.5) 21/iCr-1Mo
E.6a (F.6) 3Cr-1Mo
E.7a (F.7) 5Cr-V4Mo
E.8 (F.8) 5Cr-V4Mo-Si
E.9a (F.9) 7Cr-V4Mo
E.10a(F.10) 9Cr-1Mo
E.11 (F.11) 9Cr-1Mo-V
E.12(F.12) 18Cr-8Ni (304 304H)
E.13(F.13) 16Cr-12Ni-2Mo (316 31 6H)
E.14(F.14) 16Cr-12Ni-2Mo(316L)
E.15(F.15) 18Cr-10Ni-Ti(321)
E.16(F.16) 18Cr-10Ni-Ti(321H)
E.17(F.17) 18Cr-10Ni-Nb (347 and 347H)
E.18(F.18) Ni-Fe-Cr ( 800H/800HT)
E.19(F.19) 25Cr-2QNi (HK40)
a 200
. A 200.
A 200 83 % . ,
, ,
A 200 A 21 3 A 335 .

6
6.1
.
, (
):
= 18Cr-10Ni-Nb, 347
Do = 168,3 (6,625 )
Pel = 6,2 (900 psig)
Td = 425 (800 F)
dCA = = 3,2 (0,125 )

.17 ( ) F.17 (
):
Sel = 125 (18 250 psi)
Sy = 140 (20 200 psi)

16

ERC

(2) (3):

4.


(SI) ( )



347 ASTM


, () Do = 168,3 (6,625) Do =
, , (psi) pel = 6.2 (900) pr =
, Tmax = Tmax =
(F)
, (F) T = T =
, (F) Td = 425 (800) Td =
, - IDL
Td , .1 .19 Sel = 125 (18250) Sr =
( F.1 F.19), (psi)
, (2) (4), ds = 4.04 (0.159) ds =
()
, () dCA = 3.2 (0.125) dCA =
, 1, n = B = - fcorr =
, (3) (5), () dmin = 7.2 (0.284) dmin =

6.2 ( )
, ST , 6.1, ,
, :

( , -3,
[20]);
( , -6,
[20]);
v = 0,3 ( , );

17

ERC

qo = 63,1 /2 [20 000 / 2] ( );
Is = 20,6 /( ) [11,9 / Fo] (, 1,
[21])

(.2):

=553,2

, 6.1, .
. ( 4.7) :

y Do/Di .

(.1) :

(.1), , ST ma[, :

= 58,6

18

ERC

:

(.4) (.6),
140 (20 200 psi).

= 238

= 252

, ,

( 80S),
,
:
= 146,3

:
= 5,761

(.1) :

(.1) :

= 80,9

19

ERC

:

11.0 (0,432 ),
:

(.7) :

, ,
(.9). ,
:

= 319,1

(.12). ,
:

= 551,2

, .

6.3
6.1 ,
. , , 6.1,
:

20

ERC

= 100 000
pr = 5,8 (840 psig).

.17 ( (SI)) .17 (


).

(4):

.17 ( (SI)) .17 (


).
n = 4.4

n, 1 :

, (5), ,

= 13.9

= 0,544

, ,
, .
(2) (3) , , :
= 113

21

ERC

3,2 = 7,7

dmin, , .
5.


(SI) ( )



347 ASTM 213


, () Do = 168,3 (6,625) Do =168,3 (6,625)
, ( ), (psi) pel = 6.2 (900) pr = 5,8 (840)
, Tmax = Tmax =
(F)
, (F) T = T =
, (F) Td = 705 (1300) Td = 705 (1300)
, - IDL = 100 000
Td , .1 .19 Sel = 113 (16400) Sr = 37,3 (5,450)
( F.1 F.19), (psi)
, (2) (4), d = 4.5 (0.117) d = 12,0 (0,474)
()
, () dCA = 3.18 (0.125) dCA = 3.18 (0.125)
, 1, n = B = - fcorr = 0,558
, (3) (5), () dmin = 7.67 (0.302) dmin = 13,82 (0,544)

5 ( )

6.4
, , 6.3 ,
635 (1 175 F) 690 (1 275 F) . ,
, 0,33 (0,013 ).

, 8,0 (0,315 ); ,
(1), :

22

ERC

:

, n0 = 4.8. 3, 1,23 106 (1,79 108 psi).


, :

2, fr = 0,62, (6) :

15 (25 F) 648 (1 262F),


685 (1 265 F). ,
6.3, :

8,00 (0,315 ), .
, :

23

ERC

:

V N :

2, fr = 0.62, , .
, .
6.

24

ERC


(SI) ( )



347 ASTM 213


, () Do = Do =168,3 (6,625)
, ( ), (psi) pel = pr = 5,8 (840)
, Tmax = Tmax = 669 (1 237)
(F)
, (F) T = T = 15 (25)
, (F) Td = Td = 685 (1265)
, - IDL = 100 000
Td , .1 .19 Sel = Sr = 46,6 (6 750)
( F.1 F.19), (psi)
, (2) (4), d s = d s = 9,85 (0,388)
()
, () dCA = dCA = 3.18 (0.125)
, 1, n = B = - fcorr = 0,572
, (3) (5), () dmin = dmin = 11,68 (0,460)

top = 1.0
, , oC (oF)
, , , oC (oF)
, (R)
, , (R)
,
()
, ()
,
(1), (psi)
, 3, (psi)
Tsor .1 .19
( F.1 F.19)
, 2, V = 2.9 N = 0.2
, (6), oC (oF)

6 ( )

25

ERC


()

.1
.1 .19 ( F.1 F.19) G
, , .

, - . ,
. - ,
. ,
, ,
.

. ,
( ), , ..
, . ,
, . ,
. .2
. , , G.2. ,
G.2, .
, , , ,
,
.

.
, , ,
.
. . ,
.
.

.2
, ,
, . .
:

= 18Cr-10Ni-Nb ( 347)
= 168,3 (6,625 )
= 6,8 (0,268 )

, ,
.1 (SI ).

.
, . , ,
. ,
.
.

.
,
. , , .

____________________________

26

ERC

.1



a
a Ma (psi) C (F) () ()
1 1,3 3,96 (575) 649 (1 200) 6,81 (0,268) 6,40 (0,252)
2 0,6 4,27 (620) 665 (1 230) 6,40 (0,252) 6,20 (0,244)
3 2,1 4,07 (590) 660 (1 220) 6,20 (0,244) 5,51 (0,217)
4 2,0 4,34 (630) 665 (1 230) 5,51 (0,217) 4,83 (0,190)
a
"a" , "".
, .2.

, (G.8)
; ,
( ,
).

- .2
-
.1 .17. .17.

-
-.
.1 .19. ,
. ,
, .2.

, , tr,
. :

, ,
. ,
, .2 1,3/54,0 = 0,02.
.

.2.
(
), 64% .
( ), ,
23% . , ,
.

. ,
5 (9 F) , .1.
, .2
. 0,81 0,28, .
0,64 0,23, .

27

ERC

.2
- , ,



psi C (F) C (F)

1 48,52 (7 045) 19,06 (34,32) 19,48 (35,09) 54,0 0,02 154,8 0,01

2 54,91 (7 973) 18,83 (33,90) 19,25 (34,66) 13,1 0,05 35,8 0,02

3 56,66 (8213) 18,77 (33,80) 19,19 (34,55) 15,0 0,14 42,1 0,05

4 68,78 (9 985) 18,41 (33,15) 18,83 (33,90) 4,7 0,43 13,1 0,15

0,64 0,23
=

.3 -
.2, .
.1 .2. , :

: 1 - 0,64 = 0,36

: 1 0,23 = 0,77

:
a) ,
?
b)
, ?
c) ,
?

, , ,
:

= 4,27 (620 psi)


= 660 (1 220 F)
= 0,33 / (0,013 /)

, .3
.4 .
, .

, .
, 1 . ,
1,5 4,5 .
( ), .

28

ERC

, , .
, .
, . ,
.3 .4 .

, , ), :
? b),
, , ,
. ,
-, .1 .19.
,
, -
. .

-3 ,


-

() (psi) (F)

0 4,83 (0,190) 0,36


1 4,50 (0,177) 74,99 (10896) 18,25 (32,85) 4,1 0,24 0,12
1,5 4,34 (0,171) 79,19 (11 497) 18,14 (32,66) 3,1 0,16 0,04

.4 ,



-
() (psi) C (F)
0 4,83 (0,190) 0,77
1 4,50 (0,177) 74,99 (10896) 18,66 (33,60) 11,4 0,09 0,68
2 4,17 (0,164) 80,87 (11 753) 18,53 (33,35) 8,2 0,12 0,56
3 3,84 (0,151) 87,74 (12 752) 18,37 (33,07) 5,5 0,18 0,38
4 3,51 (0,138) 95,84 (13932) 18,22 (32,80) 3,8 0,26 0,12
4,5 3,35 (0,132) 102,76 (14 940) 18,07 (32,53) 2,6 0,19 0,07

29

ERC


()


. 1

() .
.2.
.3. ,
, . 4. .5
.

.2
, -
.
, ,
, .

, ,
, Re , Pr .
,
.
,
.

[35] Re 10 000:

(.1)

[36] Re 15 000:

(.2)

(.3)

(.4)

, /(2 ) [ / 2 F],
, /(2 ) [ / 2 F],
, /(2 ) [ / 2 F],

, ()

30

, [/ ] ;
ERC

, [/ ] ;
, ( );
, ( );
, /(2 ) [/2 ]
, /( ) [
/ R]

.
, / ,
2,42.

:

(.5)

, /(2 ) [ / 2

F];

Kl Kv
, .

,
- (-, ),
(.2),
, ,
(.5).

.3 .
(
) ,
.
.
.4 .

-
. ,
,
.
. -
, .
,
.

(.6)

, /2
[ / 2];
, ;

31

ERC

, ;
,
;
/2
[ / 2];
, /2
[ / 2];

Fcir
.1.

. .
, , .
, -
.

FL . 1,0 1,5
.
1,0. , 1,5
(, ,
).

, FT 1.0
. , 1,0
. ,
:

(.7)

, ( );
, ( );

, ( );


.
,

.

.4
,
,
. , ,
.
. ,
, .

,
:

(.8)

32

ERC

(.9)

(.10)

(.11)

, ();

, ();

, ();
,
();
, ();
, /(2 )
[ / 2 F];
, /(2 ) [ / 2 F];
, ();
, ();
/ , ();
, /(2 ) [ / 2 F];
, ();

, /(2 ) [ / 2 F];

(.10) (.11) ,
.
(.10).

, (.11)
. , (.11) dt,ave
( ).

33

ERC

, Fcir


/

1 1 = ,
2 2 = ,

3 3 =
4 4 =

,
1,5 .
.

1 ,

.

2 . . , 69 [35]

.1

34

ERC

.5
, ,
.


, -
.

, .
:

= 203,2 (= 0,667 = 8,0 );


= 114,3 (= 0,375 = 4,5 );
= 6,4 (= 0,020 8 = 0,25 );
= 101,6 (= 0,333 = 4,0 );
= 0 (0 );
= 42,2 /( ) [24,4 / F]
380 (720F).

10% . :
( : ) = 6,3 / (50 000 /)
Btu =
W =
h =
ft =

:
Btu =
W =
h =
ft =
lb =

:
Btu =
W =
h =
ft =
lb =
J =

, 8,107 103 2 (0,087 3 2). :

= 777,1 /(2)

= 5,73 105 /( 2)
[ (.3)] :

35

ERC

[ (.4)] :

36

ERC

. (.1)

(.2)

(.5):

37

ERC

:

.1, Fcir = 1.91. , , (


). (.6) :

. (.9)

(.11) :

(.8), :

,
, 1,1 (2.66 /).
:

38

ERC

:

I Kx,
.

,
.

39

ERC


()

(
)
.1
, , , ,
.
,
.

, 4-134 5-130 [21].


;
.

.2
:

(.1)

(.2)
;




Do/DI , ;
qo ;
.

, v S .
( 4.7).

.3
4-134 [21]
( .4 ).

(.3)

40

ERC

(.4)

5-130 [21]
, ( .5).

(.5)

(.6)
( ),
( ) , .

.4 .
( )
pl pb cir,max 3 m. cir,max
max (.1).

[21] :

;
;
,
(= Do/DI).

spm , (.7),

(.7)
,

[21], sm .
340 (650F), sm sy , , 3sm =
2sy. 260 (500 F), sm 90%
sy, , 3sm = 2,7sy. , .

, ( )
.

41

ERC

(.8)

(.9)

, :

(.10)

(.11)

, .

, , .
, .
, , (.8) (.9)
, (.7). ,
, , 4.3,
,
(.8) (.9).

.5

, ,
[21] ;

(.12).
s = sy. 260 (500F), s =1,5 (0,9
sy). sm (.7). (.10) (.11)
.

, .4, .
, ,
, (.12) ,
(.7).

42

ERC

D
()


() ,
.
(SI)
. .

ISO 13704

(SI)


ASTM


, Do = Do =
, ( ), pel = pr =
, Tmax = Tmax =
, T = T =
, Td = Td =
, - IDL =
Td , .1 .19 ), Sel = Sr =

, (2) (4), d= d =
, dCA = dCA =
, 1, n = B = - fcorr =
, (3) (5), dmin = dmin =

top =
, , oC
, , , oC
,
, ,
,
,
,
(1),
, 3,
Tsor .1 .19
, 2, V = N =
, (6), oC

43

ERC

ISO 13704




ASTM


, () Do = Do =
, ( ), psi pel = pr =
, F Tmax = Tmax =
, F T = T =
, F Td = Td =
, - IDL =
Td , F.1 F.19 ), psi Sel = Sr =
, (2) (4), d= d =
, dCA = dCA =
, 1, n = B = - fcorr =
, (3) (5), dmin = dmin =

top =
, , oF
, , , oF
, oR
, , oR
,
,
,
(1), psi
, 3, psi
Tsor F.1 F.19
, 2, V = N =
, (6), oF

44

ERC


()

( (SI))
.1 .19

45

ERC

, d ()


,n

46

ERC


1.
2.
3.
4.
5. , el
6. , r
7.
8.
9.
10.

.1 ( ) ASTM
161 ASTM 192

47

ERC

,

Td (oC)
, n

48

ERC


1.
2.
3.
4.
5. , el
6. , r
7.
8.
9.
10.

.2 ( ) ASTM
53 (), ASTM 106 ASTM 210 -1

49

ERC

,

Td (oC)
, n

50

ERC


1.
2.
3.
4.
5. , el
6. , r
7.
8.
9.
10.

.3 ( )
ASTM 161 1, ASTM 209 1 ASTM 335 1

51

ERC

,

Td (oC)
,

52

ERC


1.
2.
3.
4.
5. , el
6. , r
7.
8.
9.
10.
11. , el ( ASTM A 200)

200
. A 200 . A 200
83 % . , ,
, A 200 A 213 A 335 .

.4 ( )
ASTM 200 11, ASTM 213 11 ASTM 335 11

53

ERC

,

Td (oC)
,

54

ERC


1.
2.
3.
4.
5. , el
6. , r
7.
8.
9.
10.
11. , el ( ASTM A 200)

200
. A 200 . A 200
83 % . , ,
, A 200 A 213 A 335 .

.5 ( )
ASTM 200 22, ASTM 213 22 ASTM 335 22 2

55

ERC

,

Td (oC)
,

56

ERC


1.
2.
3.
4.
5. , el
6. , r
7.
8.
9.
10.
11. , el ( ASTM A 200)

200
. A 200 . A 200
83 % . , ,
, A 200 , A 213 A 335 .

.6 ( )
ASTM 200 21, ASTM 213 21 ASTM 335 21 3r 1

57

ERC

,

Td (oC)
,

58

ERC


1.
2.
3.
4.
5. , el
6. , r
7.
8.
9.
10.
11. , el ( ASTM A 200)

200
. A 200 . A 200
83 % . , ,
, A 200 A 213 A 335 .

.7 ( )
ASTM 200 5, ASTM 213 5 ASTM 335 5 5r

59

ERC

,

Td (oC)
, n

60

ERC


1.
2.
3.
4.
5. , el
6. , r
7.
8.
9.
10.

.8 ( )
ASTM 213 5b ASTM 335 5b 5r -Si

61

ERC

,

Td (oC)
, n

62

ERC


1.
2.
3.
4.
5. , el
6. , r
7.
8.
9.
10.
11. , el ( ASTM A 200)

200
. A 200 . A 200
83 % . , ,
, A 200 A 213 A 335 .

.9 ( )
ASTM 200 7, ASTM 213 7 ASTM 335 7 7r

63

ERC

,

Td (oC)
, n

64

ERC


1.
2.
3.
4.
5. , el
6. , r
7.
8.
9.
10.
11. , el ( ASTM A 200)

200
. A 200 . A 200
83 % . , ,
, A 200 A 213 A 335 .

.10 ( )
ASTM 200 9, ASTM 213 9 ASTM 335 9 9r 1

65

ERC

,

Td (oC)
, n

66

ERC


1.
2.
3.
4.
5. , el
6. , r
7.
8.
9.
10.

.11 ( )
ASTM 200 91, ASTM 213 91 ASTM 335 91 9r 1 -V

67

ERC

,

Td (oC)
, n

68

ERC


1.
2.
3.
4.
5. , el
6. , r
7.
8.
9.
10.

: 538, 304
0,04% .

.12 ( )
ASTM 213, ASTM 271, ASTM 312 ASTM 376, 304 304
(18Cr-8Ni)

69

ERC

,

Td (oC)
, n

70

ERC


1.
2.
3.
4.
5. , el
6. , r
7.
8.
9.
10.

: 538, 316
0,04% .

.13 ( )
ASTM 213, ASTM 271, ASTM 312 ASTM 376, 316 316
(16Cr-12Ni 2)

71

ERC

,

Td (oC)
, n

72

ERC


1.
2.
3.
4.
5. , el
6. , r
7.
8.
9.
10.

.14 ( )
ASTM 213 ASTM 312, 316L (16Cr-12Ni 2)

73

ERC

,

Td (oC)
, n

74

ERC


1.
2.
3.
4.
5. , el
6. , r
7.
8.
9.
10.

: 538, 321
0,04% .

.15 ( )
ASTM 213, ASTM 271, ASTM 312 ASTM 376, 321
(18Cr-10Ni Ti)

75

ERC

,

Td (oC)
, n

76

ERC


1.
2.
3.
4.
5. , el
6. , r
7.
8.
9.
10.

: 538, 347
0,04% .

.15 ( )
ASTM 213, ASTM 271, ASTM 312 ASTM 376, 321
(18Cr-10Ni Ti)

77

ERC

,

Td (oC)
, n

78

ERC


1.
2.
3.
4.
5. , el
6. , r
7.
8.
9.
10.

: 538, 347
0,04% .

.17 ( )
ASTM 213, ASTM 271, ASTM 312 ASTM 376, 347
(18Cr-10Ni Nb)

79

ERC

,

Td (oC)

, n

80

ERC


1. 100
2. , r
3.
4.
5.

: () ASTM 5 .

.18 ( )
ASTM 407 UNS N08810 UNS N08811 800 800 (Ni
Fe - Cr)

81

ERC

,

Td (oC)
, n

82

ERC


1. 100
2. , r
3.
4.
5.

.19 ( )
ASTM 608, 40(25Cr - 20Ni)

83

ERC

F
()

( )
, ,
F.1 F.19

84

ERC

( )

85

ERC

, /2

Td (oF)

, n

, /2

86

ERC


1.
2.
3.
4.
5. , el
6. , r
7.
8.
9.
10.

: /2 ( ) ISO 31 -

F.1 (
) ASTM 161 ASTM 192.

87

ERC

, /2

Td (oF)
, n

, /2

88

ERC


1.
2.
3.
4.
5. , el
6. , r
7.
8.
9.
10.

: /2 ( ) ISO 31 -

F.2 (
) ASTM 106, ASTM 210, -1.

89

ERC

, /2

Td (oF)
, n

, /2

90

ERC


1.
2.
3.
4.
5. , el
6. , r
7.
8.
9.
10.

: /2 ( ) ISO 31 -

F.3 (
) ASTM 161 1, ASTM 209 1 ASTM 335 1 - .

91

ERC

, /2

Td (oF)
, n

, /2

92

ERC


1.
2.
3.
4.
5. , el
6. , r
7.
8.
9.
10.
11. , el ( ASTM A 200)

1 200
. A 200 . A 200
83 % . , ,
, A 200 A 213 A 335 .

2: /2 ( ) ISO 31 -

F.4 (
) ASTM 200 11, ASTM 213 11 ASTM 335 11 1 r .

93

ERC

, /2

Td (oF)
, n

, /2

94

ERC


1.
2.
3.
4.
5. , el
6. , r
7.
8.
9.
10.
11. , el ( ASTM A 200)

1 200
. A 200 . A 200
83 % . , ,
, A 200 A 213 A 335 .

2: /2 ( ) ISO 31 -

F.5 (
) ASTM 200 22, ASTM 213 22 ASTM 335 22 2 r 1 .

95

ERC

, /2

Td (oF)
, n

, /2

96

ERC


1.
2.
3.
4.
5. , el
6. , r
7.
8.
9.
10.
11. , el ( ASTM A 200)

1 200
. A 200 . A 200
83 % . , ,
, A 200 A 213 A 335 .

2: /2 ( ) ISO 31 -

F.6 (
) ASTM 200 21, ASTM 213 21 ASTM 335 21 3 r 1 .

97

ERC

, /2

Td (oF)
, n

, /2

98

ERC


1.
2.
3.
4.
5. , el
6. , r
7.
8.
9.
10.
11. , el ( ASTM A 200)

1 200
. A 200 . A 200
83 % . , ,
, A 200 A 213 A 335 .

2: /2 ( ) ISO 31 -

F.7 (
) ASTM 200 5, ASTM 213 5 ASTM 335 5 5 r .

99

ERC

, /2

Td (oF)
, n

, /2

100

ERC


1.
2.
3.
4.
5. , el
6. , r
7.
8.
9.
10.

: /2 ( ) ISO 31 -

F.8 (
) ASTM 213 5b ASTM 335 5b r- -Si.

101

ERC

, /2

Td (oF)
, n

, /2

102

ERC


1.
2.
3.
4.
5. , el
6. , r
7.
8.
9.
10.
11. , el ( ASTM A 200)

1 200
. A 200 . A 200
83 % . , ,
, A 200 A 213 A 335 .

2: /2 ( ) ISO 31 -

F.7 (
) ASTM 200 7, ASTM 213 7 ASTM 335 7 7 r .

103

ERC

, /2

Td (oF)
, n

, /2

104

ERC


1.
2.
3.
4.
5. , el
6. , r
7.
8.
9.
10.
11. , el ( ASTM A 200)

1 200
. A 200 . A 200
83 % . , ,
, A 200 A 213 A 335 .

2: /2 ( ) ISO 31 -

F.10 (
) ASTM 200 9, ASTM 213 9 ASTM 335 9 9 r 1 .

105

ERC

, /2

Td (oF)
, n

, /2

106

ERC


1.
2.
3.
4.
5. , el
6. , r
7.
8.
9.
10.

: /2 ( ) ISO 31 -

F.11 (
) ASTM 200 91, ASTM 213 91 ASTM 335 91 9r- 1 -V.

107

ERC

, /2

Td (oF)
, n

, /2

108

ERC


1.
2.
3.
4.
5. , el
6. , r
7.
8.
9.
10.

1: 1000F, 304
0,04% .

2: /2 ( ) ISO 31 -

F.12 (
) ASTM 213, ASTM 271, ASTM 312 ASTM 376,
304 304 (18Cr-8Ni)

109

ERC

, /2

Td (oF)
, n

, /2

110

ERC


1.
2.
3.
4.
5. , el
6. , r
7.
8.
9.
10.

1: 1000F, 304
0,04% .

2: /2 ( ) ISO 31 -

F.13 (
) ASTM 213, ASTM 271, ASTM 312 ASTM 376,
316 316 (16Cr-12Ni 2).

111

ERC

, /2

Td (oF)
, n

, /2

112

ERC


1.
2.
3.
4.
5. , el
6. , r
7.
8.
9.
10.

: /2 ( ) ISO 31 -

F.14 (
) ASTM 213, ASTM 312, 316L (16Cr-12Ni
2).

113

ERC

, /2

Td (oF)
, n

, /2

114

ERC


1.
2.
3.
4.
5. , el
6. , r
7.
8.
9.
10.

1: 1000F, 321
0,04% .

2: /2 ( ) ISO 31 -

F.15 (
) ASTM 213, ASTM 271, ASTM 312 ASTM 376,
321 (18Cr-10Ni Ti).

115

ERC

, /2

Td (oF)
, n

, /2

116

ERC


1.
2.
3.
4.
5. , el
6. , r
7.
8.
9.
10.

1: 1000F, 347
0,04% .

2: /2 ( ) ISO 31 -

F.16 (
) ASTM 213, ASTM 271, ASTM 312 ASTM 376,
321 (18Cr-10Ni Ti).

117

ERC

, /2

Td (oF)
, n

, /2

118

ERC


1.
2.
3.
4.
5. , el
6. , r
7.
8.
9.
10.

1: 1000F, 347
0,04% .

2: /2 ( ) ISO 31 -

F.17 (
) ASTM 213, ASTM 271, ASTM 312 ASTM 376,
347 347 (18Cr-10Ni Nb).

119

ERC

, /2

Td (oF)

, n

, /2

120

ERC


1. 10 /2
2. , r
3.
4.
5.

1: () ASTM 5 .
2: /2 ( ) ISO 31 -

F.18 (
) ASTM 407 UNS N08810 UNS N08811 800
800 (Ni Fe - Cr)

121

ERC

, /2

Td (oF)
, n

, /2

122

ERC


1. 10 /2
2. , r
3.
4.
5.

: /2 ( ) ISO 31 -

F.19 (
) ASTM 608 40 (25Cr - 20Ni)

123

ERC

G
()

G.1
1958 API RP 530[28] - .
,
. .

- .
. ,
, .
, .

,
. , , ,
. ,
.

1988 API RP 530[29]


( G.2).
,
.

, 4.4 ,
.

, , (4).
, .
,
, r. .


, :

, r.
, , , r.
r,
.

, , :

fcorr .
r , .
:

, , , r,
. fcorr ,

. fcorr , 1,
.

124

ERC

1 ,
. 1
, , , ,
r , .

G.2

, , , , ,
, t.
:

t/r ,
. j , , :

F ( ),
, :

(G.1)
,
. ,
.
.

: - ,
, F(j) = 1.

. ,
-
( [31], [32], [33] [34]).

G.3

,
:

(G.2)


tr ( , ), , , , ;

, , , , .

, ,
( .4):

125

ERC


mn , .
n .

, , sr,

(G.3)

(G.3) (G.2),
:

(G.4)
(t) , .

,
. , ,
. ( G.5).
, .
:

(G.5)



, .

, ( ) ,
, .
:
(G.6)

F(top) (G.5) (G.6) (G.4)


. ,
.

126

ERC

d , sr :

(G.7)
(G.5), (G.6) (G.7) (G.4)
:

(G.8)

, ,
. (G.8),
:

(G.9)

, , ,
. (G.9)
:

(G.10)

B n (G.10) .
1.

G.4

, G.2,
. , ,
.
, , , ,
. ,
. (
G.5).

,
(G.3). ,
-, .1 .19, .
, -,
(G.3) .
, , .1
.19, 60 000 100 000 ( .4).
,
.

, (G.7).
, ,
.

127
ERC

, 1 , 0,5%.
, 1
(G.7).

G.5

- ,
,
. G.3 ,
. , ,
. ,

, , . (6)
,
.

(G.3) , tr,
.
, .
-. (
), -, ,
:
(G.11)

a, b

, ;
CLM -;
tr , .

(G.11) tr :

(G.12)

(G.12), , (G.2), :

(G.13)

, , :

128

ERC


0
top
top .

(G.14)

(G.15)

(G.16)
(G.5) (G.16) , (G.7),
:

(G.17)

top , *
, t, :

, ;
, top , .

(G.18)
(G.15) (G.18), :

(G.19)

129

ERC

(G.17) (G.18), (G.13) :

(G.20)

n0 , *0

, , , ,
, top
.
:

(G.21)
(G.20), :

(G.22)

(G.20) (G.22)
:

(G.23)
, (G.23) .
(G.18) (G.21),
:

(G.24)

, 4.8.

(G.23) ,
:

2 (G.23)

130

ERC

3
, a b = a 10b , -, -
. ,
-, .

,
, . ,
.

131

ERC


()

.1

, ,
, .1 .19 F.1 F.19
ASTM [22], [23], [24], [25], [26], [27] .1.
, .
,
, .

.2

ASTM
.
. 100 000 ,
, .
95% ; 95%
.

1,65.
.1.

132

ERC

.1 ,
.

ASTM
8

3
DS 11S1 7c 7d ( H. LM ,
6.1)

C-YMo DS47 7a 7b ( LM
H.6.2)
1!4Cr-1/iMo DS50 6c 6d ( IL
H.6.3)

21/JCr-1 Mo DS6S2 7a 7b ( MC
H.6.4)
3Cr-1 Mo DS58 7a 7b 17ca IL
5Cr->iMo DS58 8a 8b 26ca IL
5Cr-VSMo-Si DS58 9a 9b 33ca IL
7Cr-V4Mo DS58 11a 47ca IL
11b
9Cr-1Mo DS58 12a 54ca IL
12b
9Cr-1Mo-V MPC LM
18Cr-8Ni DS5S2 14b 7, IL
15b 10a
.
14a
15a

540 C (1
000 F). a
16Cr-12Ni-2Mo DS 5S2 14e 7, IL
15e 10a
.
16Cr-12Ni-2Mo(316L) DS5S2 14f 15f 7a IL
80 %
.
18Cr-10Ni-Ti DS5S2 14g 7, IL
15g 10a
.
18Cr-10Ni-Nb DS5S2 14h ?, 10a IL
15h
.
Ni-Fe-Cr ( ( LM
800H/800HT) H.6.5)
25Cr-20Ni (HK40) ( LM
H.6.6)
LM = - IL = ( ASTM DS )
MC = 1 [22],[23],[24J,[25],[26].[27]
ASTM 2 Properties Council, Inc.
a
ASTM , 2.

133

ERC

.3 -

- , d , tDL
, .

Td :

Td F:

CLM = 20 CLM = 15
, . CLM = 30 91 91, 9Cr-1Mo-V
.
, CLM ,
, -
.

.1 .19 ( F.1 F.19)


-, 100 000 .
100 000 .
(
) 20 000 200 000 . 20 000 , 40 000 60
000 100 000
.1 .19 ( F.1 F.19).

-. -

.
, .
ASTM, .1, -
.

-, ,
100 000 .
ASTM. ,
. , 800/800
40, 100 000 -
( ). .1 ,
. , -
,
ASTM. , 100 000
, -,
, 20 000 , ,
200 000 .

.4
-
, () ( ).

.
:


mn ,

n . .

ERC

134
.
1 tr1 2 tr2, :

,
n. , n
, , ,
.

.1 .19 ( F1 F19) 60
000 100 000 ,
-. ,
.

.5

, , .1 .19 ( F.1
F.19), ASTM [22], [23], [24], [25], [26], [27].
,
.1.

. 6.2 .6.9. 800/800 40
ASTM. ,
, .6.5 .6.6, .

.6

.6.1

11S1
(192) ( 106 210).
-
11S1. .1 .2 (
F.1 F.2), -.
,
11S1. -,
, ,

1,65.

.6.2 -
- 18 47
37. . ,
, F.3
37. .3
(F.3).

.6.3 1 Cr

27 50
.
. , , 27,
( ). ,
, 27
.
.4 (F.4).

ERC

135
. 6.4 2 Cr 1Mo

6S2
, 22 26. 1 Cr
50, .
.
26 595 (1 100 F)
650 (1 200 F).
100 000 , .5 (F.5)
, ,
6S2.

.6.5 Ni-Fe-Cr ( 800/800)

- 800/800 .18 (F.18) 91


.
800/800 ( ),
, . 980 (1
800 F) , , 1040 (1 900

F).
. (
) .

.6.6 25Cr-20Ni (HK40)

- 40 .19 ( F.19) 87
.
40. 0,35 0,45.
1040 (1 900 F) ,
,
, . ( )
.

.6.7 25Cr-35Ni HP

- .
.
,
.

.6.8 9Cr-1Mo-V

650 (1 200 F) -
, , .11 ( F.11).

136

ERC


[1] ASTM A 53, , , ,
,
[2] ASTM A 106,

[3] ASTM A 1611) ,
-
[4] ASTM A192/ 192,
,
[5] ASTM A 2002) ,

[6] ASTM A 209/ 209,
-
[7] ASTM A 210/ 210,

[8] ASTM A 213/ 213, ,

[9] ASTM A 2713),

[10] ASTM A 312/ 312,

[11] ASTM A 335/ 335,

[12] ASTM A 376/ 376,

[13] ASTM A 608, -


[14] ASTM 407,

[15] API RP 941,

[16] Tucker J.T., Coulter E.E., Kouistra L.F.
, -,
D, Journal of Basic Engineering, 82, 1960, 465-476
[17] Carlson W.B. Duval D. , Engineering, 193,
22, 1962, 829 831

1)
ASTM A 161 1999 ASTM A 192/ 192 ASTM A 209/ 209
2)
ASTM A 200 1999 ASTM A 213/ 213
3)
ASTM A 271 1999 ASTM A 213/ 213

ASTM =

137

ERC

[18] Chitty A. Duval D. -
.
, - , 1963
[19] Yoshida S., Tancha C. Ichio I. Vematsu K., -
316
JOYO,

, , 1973
[20] ASME B31.3,
[21] ASME , VIII, ,
2,
[22] Smith G. V. 304, 316, 321 347 ( 5S2),
, ,
1969
[23] Smith G. V. 2 - 1 ( 6S2),
, , 1971
[24] Smith G. V. ( 11S1),
, , 1970
[25] Smith G. V. C-Mo, Mn-Mo Mn-Mo-Ni ( 47),
, , 1971
[26] Smith G. V. Cr Mo, 1Cr Mo 1 - 1 Mo-Si ( 50),
, ,
1973
[27] Smith G. V 3 9 % ( 58),
, , 1975
[28] API RP 530, , 1-
, , ,
(), 1958
[29] API RP 530, , 3-
, , ,
(), 1988
[30] API 530,
, 4- , , ,
(), 1996
[31] Finnie I. - ( 62-
WA -272), -, -, 1962
[32] Freeman J.W. Voorhees H.R. -
( 391)
, , 1965
[33] Randall P.N. -
, -, D,
Journal of Basic Engineering, 84, 1962, 239-242
[34] Voorhees H.R., Freeman J.W. Herzog J.A.,
- , -,
D, Journal of Basic Engineering, 84, 1962, 207-213
[35] McAdams W.H., , 3- , McGraw Hill, -, 1954
[36] McEligot D.M., Magee P.M. Leppart G.,
, ,
-, , Journal of Heat Transfer, 87, 1965,
67-78
[37] ISO 31 ( ),

138

ERC

ERC

BSI ISO
13704:2001

BSI
BSI , .
.
.

.
, .

BSI . ,
- ,
,
. : +44 (0)20 8996 9000. : +44 (0)20 8996 7400.

BSI , PLUS
.


BSI
. .: +44 (0)20 8996 9001.
: +44 (0)20 8996 7001. : orders@bsi-global.com. web-
BSI: http://www.bsi-global.com .

, BSI BSI
, , .


BSI ,
, .
,
. . .: .: +44 (0)20 8996 7111. : .: +44 (0)20 8996 7048.
: info@bsi-global.com.

BSI
.
.
.: +44 (0)20 8996 7002. : +44 (0)20 8996 7001. . : membership@bsi-global.com.

,
, : http://www.bsi-global.com/bsonline.

BSI web : http://www.bsi-global.com


BSI . BSI
, . ,
, 1988 ,
,
, BSI.

,
, .
, , BSI.

.
.: +44 (0)20 8996 7070. : .: +44 (0)20 8996 7553.
: copyright@bsi-global.com.

BSI
389 Chiswick High Road
London
W4 4AL

ERC

Оценить