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CHAPTER

LIFT

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INTRODUCTION.

an:rcrafi nr Ahl

(unress rhe r rdall s a HatreL of co!6e: bur thar s

es rhe rhrust f.ce. and a.rs alraiisrrhe d re.ton

sa balan.nq rorce

weight

wLedqe ortheway n{h.h thcr. r.r.es rtera.r


arrafts erre.Liv. we 9r,l aid requ dore fL 10 be 9eieraled by rrE w igs Ai

The P naty Caose of Lift.

.srams (132 poundt

lseeFrqrre3 2l rhe
c on rhe body (e
orrhe rDrce) depnds on rhe mann

Ar th s eary nage i ouf dons der

underned characterisrics niqhtaffe.rlhe a r {hrougri whi.h il is nov i9

r ,e d aqGm n F,s!r,a il 2 wh .h w

een rre nov ill roqerher rrrough rrre ar lhereby


box (Remenbei
ov nq an pass iq over a sraronary body The
phys cd ffeds re'heemc )A1P
we know rrcm Ne!!1on's F rsr Law ofr'lorion (see Paqe r4) rhai any movnq m3$
ee.rh a srraiqhrhe 1n orhe,wods. alcorctant
velociryl uiess a.led on by: lo
has ben appled 10 the a r mass

Motion 1s.e Paqe r4) lhar rhe undelined body

ilse r. be erPerei.i9 an equa ra

ned bodywhch tumnq rhe andownwards s


rhe wiig o{ an a.dari rhe upwards reacrion rorce 's
beng e{peren.ed by lhe w ns

rcnela l,eeFtsl,-e33)

=---:31

fhe Nalute ol LiA - Newton and Bernoulli.


. descib'iq the qenerarion or lift by a novns irlid

prnciple orrhe conseryation or anerqy. (s-Ae Fase 13)

oi rfi \ro! d a so b unne.essa,yro.rho avemqe

qh
'lcta
ro 9vlhalwelrusr sa convn.nq and
mmprehensv explanaton of liit.
n rhe,o owi!.rp ai.liois aid ds
wiqs rc orsrder rh a, as an

.ThecompressibiL]iyofl

speed DrsoLnd lMaLri 0 5l

ss or ft generalon

wolrd be i tho rea ns or hiqh.sreed riqhl and Lreyond rhe s.op or rhLS

knds G10 3 md,.trco, r rr 61'eel'


sedl: so a isht a rran wi always be fy ns al fa, ess rhal ha I rrar speed

. rhe viscos iy ofrhe a rl o


siry approa.h i9 uero (see Paoe 9) i

oflhew nq whi.h wecr rhe boun

,nq s neady Ihs neais rrral i


ean thar ataiygven po ni n lhea do$

nqlhe.]re.lonolar.rz.nlaarlowSolhalihe
pos i ve ans e b a rr ow (sc. Frglr. 3 .1) You (irrprorrabry be ran rirwilh w nqs
'rre

atlack aid s desiqnaled bylhe sreek e[e, (


+--.-\ --- -=---
..\J

n F1rlre 31 as b. io ho,zonb
qrrt s ofter r.r horzonra

rsreacy.,usrcr!rr1

\6\ur
--:rrv

uD\ladslseeFrq,rer 5l ri Pr nciplesor
E ed dras /see Fin'E 3 7l

The Wing of Aetofoil Crcss-section.

eFiqfe3s]A5nd]op'].3i'"|"!ce.]b|].|*

earclaftl'seFJ]]l[3!r
Ar io*s over a w no or aeoro

ofalta.k s nessu,ed as therioe


on nq the a.lio eds-.3nd th ta m9.dge.i
i::;':i:,i:; v7
rhe \ing Lse. ciaDre,l fo, th rerninoooy 6ed n he descrpton or aeom s )
irhe3rrof,o'e,awmq.r.eoro .nssse.ton
enr Ln podu. iq rhe downwards rurnins oflh.
c aeieralion or rn

p are wno aid a t ns of 3ercro cdss seclion

Iiq suda'e rhan h-"

fwo ways of Explaining Lift.

Enq .h s.enr dsnlsaacNewron

Jl-leie13ton as be nq rwo

THE NEWTONIAN EXPLANATION OF LIFT.

So ra, we ha'e enabrshed rhar I

You have a so e'nr rhat a wi9.i


F 6lora . you
'nusln!!ra

,afe e of m ndion lsee

pr mar y lhar lhe rv n!


s ch.nq nq rhe of iow o
'rnecron

aqntude(speed)anddredon rf erh,.rspeed

lsee Pagc 16) so n runiq the an downwards

ioloiry does re yrn9 ercn a


Bul
donweds('hd s.asns'bacceremredownradstbulrhschaige iveocilyof

or Mdion (see Pase 14) and whrh. heres


y lhe wns s the ioiar reaction rrat hale
'e
e
lhe rrilrrer lhe a..r:ris speed rheseater s
the rare ol chanse ol ve ociry lac.e erationl irpaned b ihe a, by he 11ig ue
rpern.ed by the wi9. a.d
thc riitrorce /se F,erie 3 3l

Physi.s so el usraNea very s th


om rc hsve lud hken anrr mNid

or subsbnce (see Pase B) Momenium LS

sane ve 0crv (rra( s


ne d recion) un e5s a.red !Pon bY

the wnq ntrslied a rorce on rh

nanenrunofthebodyb|.ughl

bled wh.rr wN lric a6e o' rE I E -'on n

No(momanium=maSSxve|octy

b" n9 a !e iroi r rr
fio oi a wig s

aerodyianc ft f.rce acliq oi a wio i aw i.l lunner land lvhch can eas y be

THE BERNOULLI EXPLANATION OF LIFT.

s @! rhe wrro e sror/

n borh masnrud lsp,.d1:nd d,

enssydue b he qh' d ffsm.esabove


('rre a s ven daiun, posi'onr kineiicenersy,
lene19ydLer!lrrenLid svcoclyla

d r0\! lils k nel t.,eGr).haiqes lrre pr*3ure


lsee FiqlE r r0l fwercrerobke

nai warersteam beg


s. rh3trhe
splii9 no rhe hoe grDws shorl
E 6ry.f row o' rhc ma n ler

rhe s zero and arrhe enorq


'arer waref beq 6lo irow iiom rhe rap (u ncrasfs

o i.rease n iensth again

or aercfo .r.ss .e.r o. lse Feuie J t ov-4bat srrdE rhal t En .omp&d b

riqhe$ rhe pressure eiersy of rh


veloc||yave|theJppe|sufu.e

Pres9fd=AlF

nl.r.c,oss a 11n9 .f
s qrcarc, rhan thar a.ross a rarpa
The Cenlre of Pressure.

1 a poit ca d rhe cedre of Pressme lsee


F[rrrc'. n and 312)
ra llre aetudyiam. ro,.es afie.tng lhar bodv

ppr.r'mately li3ottrEray ba.k fmm rhe wiill s

s rhe poml triroul)h whi., the rorai

Low-speed aidow over a wing.


so\@ see rhar va,aliois in verociy

le And athough by obsetuns rhe d!'iwads


tumms (chaige n dnecror)or a fflowinq around: w ns we.an be.eda i rhar rhe

n y one ste.nrine 6i pass rh.ouqh ai! 9vei


o

n Ihe dream ne depded if, Frsre 31J ro, inslanc every rud D.dce aftviig al

fhe Continuity Equanon (ConseNaion af Mass).


FJgfe3r3Thearasofffcsf
As'hefud s non mmpr4s be (i e
p) and as rlrere can be no row ad
I u d i ow nq across the lwo .ross s

I continuiry Th. Principre or continuily s


r youae nor daested nhemathmdc.iu{

The Prin.ipre olcontinurysbleslhat. ror a slfeamtube such as rhe one depcred


n rrisfe 3 r3t bormass r
'rre

Bddenr9 (pl = !!!!r =

dsrance = velodly iv)t Lime

IlE
lly. as or mass row enler.9lhesteamrube
'aie

ly tacies us rlrat ihe product av must have trr


lhercfore deducelrrai

ow ol an idea fuid

tinuiry Equation

fmm th Princlpre ot coniinuiry rels us thal


in any qoi or run row rhe.ros

ic'eases v m!sl de.rease. aid v .e vess

lv th n any reqion or rruid row nd c


l,eam nes sre.ose roqethei

widely spaced steamlines = owervao.ily

Lookns back al Figrre 3 13. w.

dsnarpesL rc (Fo,ce/A,e4 adn


otan idear (incompressibre) truid, the inbma

vi.e ve.sa (rh s

rhe Newron an rlre.ies of rl)


-fiFS
::=.:!34

r!sr u,de, rhe earr nq.d9c of re a

pe.d 1or !e o.ly).i r.!! s r.r.sr rhe pr:s!.e

BERNOULLI'S PRINCIPLE,
he same rhi9 a unitary iheory or llt That

ey spa.ed a owrvelo.lyoff.w s.dicaied

9reareslu/he.e rhe speed orrow s

kineric energy ora rr ow. rhat s rhe f#rri"[F


Dyaanic and Static Pressure in an Aintow.
r movins ar js bduqhi l.,esi c kindc enssy do6 work on th obred whrch
btnqs ttoren,bensbroushtioi rhearapp 6erorceonrheobrd wh.h.i

rhdobreddueSo|ey10lhe.taV
amic pressure Fis! 3 15oEr,eaf uslrates
idow n,ay be approx matey regislercd by a iar

due to the dynamic pressure aone lAswe


's
neanne dynamic pressure e!!4!
wrhin Ihe movn! ado{!h.h wou d have ro be a.hq oi the rear or rhe pLare. nor
acu,aie enou0h 10 q've
ynam. prc$u,e l

eaendcdtr b tbe af row (see Fe!re 316


d reclons. pr.sure.nergy s rcfe(ed

[]t4trEl[']Elzot9
N.B. WhenwearcconsdernqBemoullisPrincipLgapp edioadrowaroundihe

amb snl armosphedd pr$ue


lhc pressure egl.d in a ldnecllons wirhin the atnoq ibelf, nol theambienr
armospherlc pressue measured

suLiab qud Thedneredhelgrrc


n (sec FQtte 31/ Pterto'ts Pase )

h rhP a;hdwh.h m.r. an aerc

The iali. p,essure s hghest of a

upwards iiom the area ol hisher

Ihe daivaion ofBern6urris Fqua

quarion for a I ordnsiv p flowiq hoDonta v


Nstrarrafiiy'aqdare@ry v wellb.ow 300 knors so lhar \Ye.an make a
ed . lre.hsprer abour th atr bei9 teared as
an idea rud Erpressedasaneq

so rar anv iioease n


How Be.noullis Equatian Predjcts theLift Fatce Generated bya win1.

n rre a drot lun rD$rcrm of he wre md a

,i1 y.r.s,. lo0Brher.ose 1..

sUEl.r.l'Ejamre.s1haresp'+dit
rod orrre !iq and rh3! rhe speed

Bernoull s Equar on, p+ itt =c


rois n rhe !cL.: r! !r

13 i a dre.r.fs t!,herc:s oy,.u I prcssurc


a.b.] y i rl]e d r:.1on ol lo|n
cof iesPon.r ns lifi lorce

enearh the \{n9 lpwads m rlre d rc.l oi oi lre


n! This force.an be measured n a wndtunne

sPeed ol lhe arrow


secl on orthums and owen !!!El
he uppersurface orthe wins a.d lhe increase
urface olrhe wins are nosl pronounced over

Fig!rc319P|ess!|edsn]6|ta,ov.|awng

ed. the upwads dneded pressure d ffnta s

VARIATION OF LIFTAND PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION WITH

f atack. Th s chanse is shown Ln F q,re 3 2a

d an under surra.e whch stanhrel lAercroil


's
te,m noogy s.overed nihe nexrchapter I rhesnq e of siiack s the anare beMeen

llrre Greek reller'a PM_)


G
fir
/\

liig do lhe sudace of lr'e aerofo' whi.aiiows

the wng aid lhe fl s negarve

is.qua lolhedownward aclng forG lhesla9nalion pointrefans oi lr'eupper

s a nel upwads acr ns lfi rorce b


n pilchins momenr oi ihe ae,ofo llrrorah nol
neestr y on a rcn3 whoe)
'he
Drns f qhr rhe rng c of all..k s Durig volr rrv rq

n naqi trr.-. utu rea.i n9


qhr tainine in.rafil

rea^ladsne. i Tr s abrupr dB.r.

3nq e Drara.k (L,D lo rhe da nn anqc oralla.klrends 10.aus.1

Gfl havera oanslrorizonra sr3b serel

arvy aire iane cs oi.r3.k r'om 2 ro r5 I lhe


de by th! uDter nrda.e orrhe w nq Nolc. rul

.cnram rd oi 1i.r,.rampe rrcLsrr rc.!nr! ar.rs or .e aturor !!ar'n s.rr.a

"" lllp-

---
HffiffiHHHHffi

Fbue 3' 1 Ptr aturde ilst rar be I

F s
at tude s mosrly !a!
rherefore. p tch
imanranilrreve r 9rrlardnereilanspOadsairrpowerserin9s rhe.n9eof arack
m.rc:sed (ro ry srower)ordec,eased (lo fy rasien by
'a
s ns orrowerns rhe iose

rhe p olor ai a rc,aflnay ee.t lo descend ar. say 30 kiols fy sraghl and ovel
ars0knors or.rmb:r30knobtseeFis,re32Jt Because rhe anspeed rema ns

povren \dI hovrever !d be rh sam

Rementer lhen yo! musllrdlrca

SUIMIMARY OF THE NATURE OF LIFI

0f rin accumrey prcrr cr rh. ma9n


ThougI the adva ].ed m2rhemat.a
. lemE.r rhe PrnciPles or Flig

n aw rd runnel are bqh ac.fale


ay {he aerodynamic rorce senerared by a wm9

s and sPace Adn i sra{on (NASA)oI the unred

rhe pssrd n.rrg o'er


the edrre vna.e at a.tase.i badf tE{raLt4 rhe pre*te r&es aould a 6a'ty
n . nang htu becarse t rs retate't ta the tiutl ianertn lnass / v-rt..ity) rhe

THE GENERAL LIFT EQIIATION AND THE COEFFICIENT OF


LIFI

row.9 al o!! speds ryp'.a oflqhlardafiriqhl

\nehi.a]lenb!

s acouit ofihe shape orrhe aedto


and rh aeroroi|s ansle otaltackw
a Gek reller (plonounced roe )which represenG rhe dens(y or lrre an

is ihe verociry oflhe fiee s1re6m re

oflheVe!cty;vh3siheUnbm/sec
sthe surrace area orlhewins. s has the unils fr..

%rvr tolheareaotlhe!vngsa
wns aid anste ot aftack or the wnl] wilh {he

de.ru.erh.lrhehrqhef hers.rhe owerwrrberhardensry.andrremgh{

. Lift i6 dtecrry propodionarro wins area Tharcan be useturkn.wdoe

errended. he ca. leiedre rh sam

r es [v ce as iasl rr]erftqeieErd b

natio ihe coefficenr or Lin, cL rhs s aso

or rrr w n9 w lh the te deam rerar ve

omodfy'lreshape
lhgefmasomodfylheUeolcLHew

rstashl sleady lriqhr rhe a rcrafts weshi musr

ro rema n conslaitaid sleadyfl9hl na nra ned


p or.an codro s rhe anse of a{ack so ,
rundame a p, rcipLes or ryng a n iadv draiqht r qhr
a?speed is derermined prmarily

adlusl ensne pDw, to manran e


f attack I rsi or eng ie power wnen se.1iq a

variation of coefticient of Ljft with Angle of Attack


To bftnq ths chapler oi lin b 3.
coeffced of L(r cL, and so (because ifr s d recl y propod'ona ro cl lrre rolalrilt
prcduced by any sven wn9 va'e

<!raai;

pdc'pa po nrs 1o noleftonrhesraph a,e:

as we a,e .onsdernq ai aerofo

y or moi noi-synmet.a aemr.irs wirh

Theq.aph s 3 i,aLlrrrl

rhe graph besiis ro cuRe over low.ds a


ln llr s g on rh,.re isonry a sna
o
fi Eut afrq a g ler ang e
s,eached I e lh. ang e ofara.rifor mar nunr () aiyfdher n.rease ianseof
i the qdprr The snsrearwhch ri bec N ro de.rease sca ,.d ihe slalins anste

rhsr ifl rorce !!hei


oush rhe a I tmenber il srheaivem.ronof
lad) we lr3ve ooked d he lhree very impodad

lc.iseRaron or monenlumt and Bemou is P ncipe Lconseilaroi or enefqy)


!e!! ac.ou.r for lrre eneGron or ifi by a wio Lifr can b accolired for as a
a.ion ro rhe downwad luri ns ofrhe a dow (Ne oit.a4brrheupwadsacr rs
a'oss lrre diis tBemou rl

iilg0ieraron as bens rwo eipan

l s qencra y re.osn sd rhar lhe Liii Equation, Lift = cL, rv.s, pern 13 lrr. D or

lrre rift equaron ro mmory aid re


nnuenced by an9re of artack the shape of lre {ii9.ross

eBrandns of how rhe !fl fo(e s acrnq on hs


a,c6fl i a9hl lYharever manoerv
to test your theotetical

!nderrhe roM.d secr on or a 11nq s

ftni9 s n a,.Gri

.r rlre a, Jo!iq.ve, the w nq

suda.e n nr. qhr3nd rere I th1 rder


el.enaoyAiob]edpaFdn'heedh
or s!.h a
'nov
iq mass ofa rw be s!ble.l.

a thc aigeberween rhe.ho

. {he tilrc bctrreei rhe.h


ad nq.d!e rha, atrhe (ra nlr.doe
a iraflweghl dLrs

rre ofcE! r/ (c ofG

rhe hotuzonra an{r {rraq para ef a

. L'n ads 3r.shl aiq es 10 1

eo(w ihe coefi.edofLifiofa w ns


t!h.h orlfrc io o'i! sraren,ers b

skiPp i! over r,e 3'flow nrhesane

a.tnq on the w Dq ... uDLlad. d re.ton

The answers to these qUestians can befaund at the end ofthis boak