Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 142

( )

23.00.02 ,

:
,
..
2

2014

. 3
1
....... 15
1.1
15
...........
1.2 ... 35
1.3 .. 46
2
62

2.1
62
...
2.2
83

2.3
99

.. 116
123
1
2010 . 139
.
2
.. 140
3
2012 . 141
3

.

XX . .

,

.

,

,
, .

, ,
, ,
-
, .


.



,
. ,
,
4

, :
-
;
-
;
-

;
-
.
.
,

. ,
,
. :
1. ,
, ,
.
. , .. , ., . , .
,
. , . 1. .
1
. . ., 2000. .52-145; Dahl R. Polyarchy. New Haven and London, 1971; Dahl R. Democracy and
Its Critics. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1989; .. -
// . 1998. 2. .13-17;
. . .,
1997; . ? // . 1997. 4; ..
: -
: // . 1999. 3. . 34; ..,
.. .
: // . 2011. 3. . 164-183; Huntington
S. The Third Wave. Democratization in the Late Twentieth Century. Oklahoma, 1991; Huntington S. How Countries
5

,
. ..

. .
. . .
, ,
,
.

,
,
, .
2. ,
. . , .
, . , . , . , . , . , .. 2.
Democratize// Political Science Quarterly. 1991-92. Vol. 106. 4; Huntington S. Political Development and Political
Decay // World Politics. 1965. Vol. 17. 3. PP. 386-430; ODonnell G. Delegative Democracy // Journal of Democracy.
1994. 5-1. PP. 56-68; . // . 1994. 2-3. . 52-69; O'Donnell
G. Transitions, Continuities and Paradoxes // Issues in Democratic Consolidation: The New South American Democracies
in Comparative Perspective / Ed. S. Mainwaring, G.O'Donnell, J.S. Valenzuela. Notre Dame, 1992; ODonnell G.,
Schmitter P.C. Transitions from Authoritarian Rule: Tentative Conclusions about Uncertain Democracies. Baltimore and
London, 1986; . // . 1999. 3.
C.30-33;
Karl T.L, Schmitter P. Modes of Transition in Latin America, Southern and Eastern Europe // International Social Science
Journal. 1991. Vol. 128. PP. 269-284; Linz J.J. Transitions to Democracy // The Washington Quarterly. 1990. Vol. 13. 3.
PP. 143-164; Linz J.J., Stepan A. The Problems of Democratic Transition and Consolidation. Southern Europe, South
America and Post-Communist Europe. Baltimore and London, 1996; Stepan A. Rethinking Military Politics: Brazil and the
Southern Cone. Princeton, 1988.
2
Przeworski A. Some Problems in the Study of the Transition to Democracy. In ODonnell et al. eds., Transitions from
Authoritarian Rule. 1986. Part 3; Przeworski A. Democracy and the Market. Political and Economic Reforms in Eastern
Europe and Latin America. Cambridge, 1991; Przeworski A. Democracy and Development. New York, 2000; Przeworski
A. and Limongi F. Modernization, Theories and Facts // World Politics (January). 1997; Przeworski A. Democracy and the
limits of self-government. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010; Gandhi J., Przeworski A. Cooperation,
Cooptation, and Rebellion under Dictatorships // Economics and Politic. 2006. Vol. 18. 1. PP. 1-26; Almond G.A. and
Verba S. The Civic Culture Revisited: An Analytical Study. Boston: Little, Brown, 1980; Almond G., Verba S. The Civic
Culture: Political Attitudes and Democracy in Five Nations. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1963; Zakaria F. The
Rise of Illiberal Democracy // Foreign Affairs. 76-1. 1997. P. 25-40; Inglehart R. The Renaissance of Political Culture //
American Political Science Review. 1988. Vol. 82. 4. PP. 1203-1230; . //
. 1997. URL: http://www.russ.ru/journal/predely/97-11-24/rowen.htm ( : 17.12.2012);
.. : , , .
// . 2004. 4. . 14;
Karl T.L., Schmitter P. Modes of Transition in Latin America, Southern and Eastern Europe // International Social Science
Journal. 1991. Vol. 128. PP. 269-284; Karl T.L. Dilemmas of Democratization in Latin America // Comparative Politics.
1990. Vol. 23. 1. PP. 1-21; Karl T.L. The Conceptual Travels of Transitologists and Consolidologists: How Far to the East
Should They Attempt to Go? // Slavic Review. Spring 1994. Vol. 53. 1. PP. 173-185; Schmitter P., Karl T.L. What
Democracy Is And Is Not // Journal of Democracy. 1991. Vol. 2. 3. PP. 75-88; Carothers T. The End of The Transition
6

, ,
,

. , . ' ,
. , . 3.
3. ,
(. , . , . , . ,
. )4.
4. :
, ,
, : ,
, , ,
Journal of Democracy, Slavic Review, Latin American Politics and Society, World
Politics, American Political Science Review, Economics and Politic, Democratization,
Political Science Quarterly, Comparative Politics5.
Paradigm // Journal of Democracy. 2002. Vol. 13. 1. PP. 5-21; Carothers T. Aiding Democracy Abroad. The Learning
Curve. Washington: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 2000; Lipset S.M. Some Social Requisites of
Democracy: Economic Development and Political Legitimacy // American Political Science Review. 1959. 53. PP. 70-
105; Lipset S.M. Political Man: The Social Bases of Politics. NY: Anchor Books, 1963; Lipset S.M. The Social Requisites
of Democracy Revisited: 1993 Presidential Address // American Sociological Review. 1994. Vol. 59. 1. PP. 1-122.
3
, . // . 1994. 2-3. . 52-69; ODonnell G. Delegative
Democracy // Journal of Democracy. 1994. 5-1. PP. 56-68; Zakaria F. The Rise of Illiberal Democracy // Foreign Affairs.
1997. 76-1. PP. 25-40; Karl T.L. The Hybrid Regimes of Central America // Journal of Democracy. 1995. Vol. 6. 3.
PP. 72-87.
4
.. : // . 1996. 5. .6; Rustow D.
Transitions to Democracy: Toward a Dynamic Model // Comparative Politics. 1970. 2. .20-26; Linz J.J. and Stepan A.
Problems of Democratic Transition and Consolidation. Southern Europe, South America and Post-Communist Europe.
Baltimore and London, 1994; Linz J.J. Transitions to Democracy // The Washington Quarterly. 1990. Vol. 13. 3. PP. 143-
160; Linz J. An Authoritarian Regime: Spain. In Erik Allardt and Stein Rokkan, eds., Mass Politics: Studies in Political
Sociology. New York, 1970. PP. 150-185; Diamond L. Toward Democratic Consolidation. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins
University Press, 1996; Pridham G. Dynamics of Democratization. London and New York: Continuum, 2000.
5
.. (
) // . 1996. 5. . 11-15; .. ? //
. 1997. 4. . 24-31; .. : //
. 1995. . 10-19; ..
// . 2012. 3. .5-20; Allison L. On the Gap Between Theories
of Democracy and Theories of Democratization // Journal of Democracy. 1994. Vol. 1. 1. PP. 8-26; Bunce V. Should
Transitologists Be Grounded? // Slavic Review. 1995. Vol. 54. 1. . 2-13; Cason J. Electoral Reform, Institutional
Change, and Party Adaptation in Uruguay // Latin American Politics and Society. 2002. Vol. 44. 3. P.87-98; Collier D.,
Levitsky S. Democracy with Adjectives. Conceptual Innovation in Comparative Research // World Politics. 1997. Vol. 49.
3. PP. 430-451; Inglehart R. The Renaissance of Political Culture // American Political Science Review. 1988. Vol. 82.
4. . 17-28; Gandhi J., Przeworski A. Cooperation, Cooptation, and Rebellion under Dictatorships // Economics and
Politic. 2006. Vol. 18. .1. PP. 1-26; Grugel J. Democratization and Ideational Diffusion: Europe, Mercosur and Social
Citizenship // Democratization. 2013. Vol. 4. PP. 172-173; Huntington S. How Countries Democratize // Political Science
Quarterly. 1991-92. Vol. 106. . 42-57; Karl T.L. Dilemmas of Democratization in Latin America // Comparative Politics.
1990. Vol. 23. 1. PP. 1-21.
7

5. ,
,
, ,
. XIX .
,
,
, .
. , . , . , . , .
, . , . , . , . 6.

.. , .. , .. , ..
, .. , .. 7.

.
, ,
,
, ,
8.

6
Carey J. Institutional design and party systems. Baltimore, 1997; Cason J. Electoral Reform, Institutional Change, and
Party Adaptation in Uruguay // Latin American Politics and Society. 2002. Vol. 44. 3. P. 92; Sondrol P.C. Paraguay and
Uruguay: modernity, tradition and transition. Third World Quarterly. 1997. Vol. 18. 1. P. 109; Peeler J. Elite Settlements
and Democratic Consolidation. In Higley J. and Gunther R., Elites and Democratic Consolidation in Latin America and
Southeastern Europe. New York, 1991; Oxhorn P., Starr P. Markets and Democracy in Latin America: conflict or
convergence? Boulder, CO, 1999; Starr P. International Financial Institutions in Latin America: adjusting to the
Internationalization of Financial Markets. NY, 2000; O'Donnell G. Transitions, Continuities and Paradoxes // Issues in
Democratic Consolidation: The New South American Democracies in Comparative Perspective / Ed. S. Mainwaring, G.
O'Donnell, J.S. Valenzuela. Notre Dame, 1992; Domnguez J. Free Politics and Free Markets in Latin America // Journal of
Democracy. 1998. Vol. 9. . 4. PP. 70-84; Hellinger D. Comparative politics of Latin America. Routledge edition, 2011.
7
.. // .
2012. 3. .5-20; : . . 2- .
. .. ., 2009; .., .. :
. ., 2008; : .
., 2010; . .
.. ., 2009; : ( . ).
., 2009.
8
. =
// . 2008. 4. . 1-9; .
: = :
// . 2009. 1. . 14-19; .
=
// . 2012. 3. . 5-14.
8

6. ,
(.. , .. , .. , ..
)9.
,
,
,
.

.

.

.
:
1)
;
2)
;
3)
;
4)

.

,
, (. . ,

9
.. : : . . . . .
, 2009; .. :
: . . . . . , 2012; ..
( ): . . .
. . , 2008; .. : , , : . .
. . . ., 2009.
9

. , . , .).
, ,

,
.
-
, , , .

- .
,
.

.
: ,
, , , , .
,
, :
, ,
, ,
.
:
- - , , :
,
, ,
,
,
,
: , -
,
10

, ,
10.
- .

Freedom House,
11.

,
Latinobarometro12.
, ,

.

:

, , ,
.

10
, 2000.
URL:http://www.un.org/ru/documents/decl_conv/declarations/summitdecl.shtml; International Covenant on Economic,
Social and Cultural Rights, 1966.
URL: http://www.un.org/ru/documents/decl_conv/conventions/pactecon.shtml; International Covenant on Civil and
Political Rights, 1966. URL: http://www.un.org/ru/documents/decl_conv/conventions/pactpol.shtml;
International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, 1965.
URL: http://www.un.org/ru/documents/decl_conv/conventions/raceconv.shtml; International Convention on The Prevention
and Punishment of The Crime of Genocide, 1948.
URL: http://www.un.org/ru/documents/decl_conv/conventions/genocide.shtml; Convention Relating to the Status of
Refugees , 1951. URL: http://www.un.org/ru/documents/decl_conv/conventions/refugees.shtml.
American Convention on Human Rights, "Pact of San Jose", 1969. URL: http://www.oas.org/dil/treaties_B-
32_American_Convention_on_Human_Rights_sign.htm; Additional Protocol to the American Convention on Human
Rights in the Area of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights "Protocol of San Salvador", 1988. URL:
http://www.oas.org/juridico/english/sigs/a-52.html; Protocol to the American Convention on Human Rights to Abolish the
Death Penalty, 1990. URL: http://www.oas.org/juridico/english/Sigs/a-53.html;Inter-American Convention to Prevent and
Punish Torture, 1985. URL: http://www.oas.org/juridico/english/treaties/a-51.html; Inter-American Convention on the
Forced Disappearance of Persons, 1994. URL: http://www.oas.org/juridico/english/treaties/a-60.html; Inter-American
Convention on the Prevention, Punishment and Eradication of Violence Against Women, 1994. URL:
http://www.oas.org/juridico/english/treaties/a-61.html.
11
Freedom House 2011. Freedom in the World 2011: The Annual Survey of Political Rights & Civil Liberties
[ ]. URL: http://freedomhouse.org/template.cfm?page=22&year= 2011&country=8019.
12
Latinobarometro 2010 Report [ ].URL: http://venezuela-us.org/es/wp-content/uploads/ 2011/04
/latinobarometro_report_2010.pdf.
11


(, , ).
,
(, , ),
;

,
: , , ,
.

(, ,
-),
,
, ,
.
, :
1.

-
( ,
,
, ,
).
:
.
.
,
.
,
, .
12

2.

: (
, ) (, ,
).

. ,

, .

.

.
3.
:
(, , ), (,
), (,
).
, ,
.
.
:
.
4.
, ,
,
.
,
, ,
.
13

, , -,

.
,
,

,

.
.


, . , ,
, ,
,

.
,


. ,
,

.

,
, , ,
, .
.

14

, -,
.

, .
,
.
III


(. , 27 2011 .) I
-
(. , 30-31 2011 .).
,
,
.

, ,
, , , 171
( 105 ), .
15

1.1


, , ,
.
1980-
,

,
, 13.
1990- ,
1960- .
,

14.
,
. .. ,

.
, ,
, , .
,
15.
13
.. : . ., 2006. C.125.
14
.. ?
// . 2001. 4. . 6.
15
.. : // .
., 1995. . 10.
16

.
,
,
, - ,
XVII XIX .
, XIX XX .
, 16.
,
:
-, ,
.
1970-
.
, -
, .
, ,

.
. ,
.
;
,
, ,
, 17.
1980- 1990-
,

, ,

16
Eisenstadt S.N. Modernization Protest and Change. Prentice-Hall, 1966. . 101.
17
. : . ., 2003. .62.
17

18.

.

.
,
19. ..
, 70- .
. , ,
, .
.
.
.
, , ,
? -
20.
, ,
, ,
,
21.
,
: , ,
. ,
,
,
18
. . 339.
19
.. [ ].
[]. URL: http://sbiblio.com/biblio/archive/shevchenko_
etatistskie/05.aspx#_ednref4 ( : 03.07.2012).
20
.. : // .
., 1995. . 13.
21
Cohen S. Failed Crusade: America and the Tragedy of Post-Communist Russia. New York, NY: W.W. Norton, 2000. P.
21.
18


22.
,
23.
, ,
,
. ,
( )
. ,
,
,
,
24.
,
,
25. ,
,
,
,
26.

,

22
Cohen S. Russian Studies Without Russia // Post-Soviet Affairs. 1999. 1. P. 48.
23
Reddaway P., Glinski D. The Tragedy of Russias Reforms: Market Bolshevism Against Democracy. Washington, DC:
United StatesInstitute of Peace Press, 2001. PP. 64-65.
24
Bunce V. Comparative Democratization: Big and Bounded Generalizations // Comparative Political Studies. 2000. 6.
PP. 703733; Carothers T. The End of The Transition Paradigm // Journal of Democracy. 2002. Vol. 13. 1. PP. 5-21;
Jowitt K. Challenging the Correct Line // East European Politics and Societies. 1998. 1. PP. 87-106; Kubicek P. Post-
Communist Political Studies: Ten Years Later, Twenty Years Behind? // Communist and Post-Communist Studies. 2000.
3. PP. 295-309; Verdery K. What Was Socialism and What Comes Next? Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1996.
25
Terry S. Thinking About Post-Communist Transitions: How Differ-ent Are They? // Slavic Review. 1993. 2. PP. 333-
337; Wiarda H. Southern Europe, Eastern Europe, and Comparative Politics: Transitology and the Need for New Theory //
Eastern European Politics and Societies. 2001. 3. PP. 485-501.
26
Stark D. From System Identity to Organizational Diversity: Analyzing Social Change in Eastern Europe // Contemporary
Sociology. 1992. 3. PP. 299304; Stark D., Bruszt L. Postsocialist Pathways: Transforming Politics and Property in East
Central Europe.Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1998.
19

.
- ,
27.
,

.
, , , , .
,
transit transition.
. ,

, , , ,
..

.
,
.
.
, ,
.

,
28.
,
. , ,

27
. [ ]. . 1997. . 24
[]. URL: http://www.russ.ru/journal/predely/97-11-24/rowen.htm ( : 21.12.2012).
28
ODonnell G., Schmitter P.C. Transitions from Authoritarian Rule: Tentative Conclusions about Uncertain Democracies.
Baltimore and London, 1986. .6.
20

,
29.
,
.

,
30.


.
31.
,
. , -
, ,
, ..32.

.
, , ,
33.
. ,
.
.
,

,
. , (

29
.. // . 1994. 3. . 114.
30
. ., 1997. .111.
31
.. -
// . 1998. 2. .13-17.
32
.. . . . 12-13.
33
. . ., 2000. .52.
21

) ( ),

.
,
,

34.

,

, .

.
,
. ,
.
, ,
, ,
,
35.

. ,
, ,
, ,
,

36. :
.
34
Rueschemeyer D., Stephens E.H., Stephens J.D. Capitalist Development and Democracy. Cambridge, 1992. P. 10.
35
Schumpeter J. Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy. London, 1942. P. 269.
36
Huntington S. The Third Wave. Democratization in the Late Twentieth Century. Oklahoma, 1991. P. 7.
22

, , ,
. ,
: , ,
. . ,
.
,
37.

. , ,

. ,
.


, .
,

, 38.

, .
. :
1) ;
2)
, 39.
, :
1) ;
2) ;
3) ;
37
. P. 6.
38
Dahl R. Polyarchy. New Haven and London, 1971. P. 2.
39
Dahl R. Democracy and Its Critics. New Haven and London, 1989. P. 220.
23

4) ;
5) ;
6) ;
7) 40.
.
. ,

, .
,
, , ,
, .

.
,

, .
, , ,

,
41.
, , ,
, ,
, 42. ,

, , 43.
,
,
40
. P. 221.
41
Gandhi J., Przeworski A. Cooperation, Cooptation, and Rebellion under Dictatorships // Economics and Politics. 2006.
Vol. 18. 1. PP. 1-26.
42
Boix C., Svolik M. Non-tyrannical Autocracies. UCLA Comparative Politics Seminar, 2007.
43
Geddes B. Why Parties and Elections in Authoritarian Regimes? American Political Science Association, 2005.
24

, ,
,
, ,
- 44. ,
,
.
, , , ,
,
- ,
, ,
, - 45.
, ,
.
,
,
.

, ,
.
,
46.

,
. ,
, ,

44
Collier D., Levitsky S. Democracy with Adjectives. Conceptual Innovation in Comparative Research // World Politics.
1997. Vol. 49. 3. PP. 430-451.
45
Linz J.J., Stepan A. The Problems of Democratic Transition and Consolidation. Southern Europe, South America and
Post-Communist Europe. Baltimore and London, 1996. P. 3.
46
Allison L. On the Gap Between Theories of Democracy and Theories of Democratization // Journal of Democracy.
1994. Vol. 1. 1. PP. 8-26.
25

, .
,
. ,
.
1970- 1980-
, 1950- 1960- ,
,
. ,
,
47. ,
, : .
, ,
.

,
.
, ,
.

();
,
.
,

, .
,
48. ,
,
47
Karl T.L., Schmitter P. Modes of Transition in Latin America, Southern and Eastern Europe // International Social
Science Journal. 1991. Vol. 128. PP. 269-284.
48
ODonnell G., Schmitter P.C. . . .6.
26

,

. ,
,
49. :
,
50.
?
, ,
. ,
, A ,
51.
,

52.
. ,
,
. :
, ,
, , , , :
,
53.

49
Linz J.J., Stepan A. . . P. 3.
50
ODonnell G., Schmitter P.C. . . .8.
51
Kaufman R. Liberalization and Democratization in South America: Perspectives from the 1970s. In ODonnell et al. eds.,
Transitions from Authoritarian Rule. 1986. Part 3. PP. 85-107; ODonnell G., Schmitter P. Tentative Conclusions about
Uncertain Democracies. In ODonnell et al. eds., Transitions from Authoritarian Rule. 1986. Part 4. PP. 1-77. Przeworski A.
Some Problems in the Study of the Transition to Democracy. In ODonnell et al. eds., Transitions from Authoritarian Rule.
1986. Part 3. PP. 47-62.
52
Chalmers D., Robinson C. Why Power Contenders Choose Liberalization // International Studies Quarterly 26 (March),
1982. PP. 3-35.
53
Stepan A. Rethinking Military Politics: Brazil and the Southern Cone. Princeton, 1988. P.27.
27


: , ,
?
. -,
, ,
. -, ,
. , , -,
, ,
.
,
.
,
.


, ,
. ,
.
,
, ,
54. ,
, ,
, .
, ,
,
,
.

54
Smith W. The Political Transition in Brazil: From Authoritarian Liberalization and Elite Conciliation to Democratization.
In Baloyra E., Comparing New Democracies: Transition and Consolidation in Mediterranean Europe and the Southern
Cone. Westview Press, 1987. PP. 179-240.
28


,
.
, .
,
,
55.
,
.
,
,
.
, .
56.
. . ,
,
57. , .
,
.
,
, ,
,
58.
,
(, , ) ,

55
ODonnell G., Schmitter P. Tentative Conclusions about Uncertain Democracies. In ODonnell et al. eds., Transitions
from Authoritarian Rule. 1986. Part 4. PP. 1-77.
56
Karl T., Schmitter P. . . P. 270.
57
ODonnell G., Schmitter P.C. . . .4.
58
Khanna P. The Second World. Publisher: Penguin Books, 2008.
29

,
.


,
.
.
,
,
59.
, ,
,
-
.
, .
,
,
.
,
,
.
, , ,
Freedom House, ,
, 1970
, 118 60.
,
() :

59
..
// . . 2011. . 27. .5.
60
Freedom House reports: URL: http://www.freedomhouse.org/reports ( : 12.09.2012).
30

1960- 1980- . 60-



,
61,
, 62. -
,
, ,
.
(
), 1970 ,
,
( ,
,

)63.
,
,


64.
, ,

, ,
.
,

61
Frank A.G. The Development of Underdevelopment. In Cockroft, Frank, and Johnson eds., Dependence and
Underdevelopment: The Political Economy of Latin America. Garden City, NJ, 1972; Wallerstein I. The Rise and Future
Demise of the World Capitalist System: Concepts for Comparative Analysis // Comparative Studies in Society and History.
1974. Vol. 16. 4. PP. 387-415.
62
Bendix R. Nation-Building and Citizenship: Studies of Our Changing Social Order. Berkeley, CA, 1977.
63
Rustow D.A. Transitions to Democracy: Toward a Dynamic Model // Comparative Politics. 1970. Vol.2. 3. PP. 337-
363.
64
. P. 357.
31

, ,
, ,
7080- .
,
, ,
, , -
. ,

:
, ,
65.
1980- 1990- .


(
, , .)66.

. XX
, ,
67.
, , 1990-
.
,
. ,

.

65
ODonnell G., Schmitter P.C. Transitions from Authoritarian Rule: Tentative Conclusions about Uncertain Democracies.
Baltimore and London, 1986.
66
Huntington S. The Third Wave. Democratization in the Late Twentieth Century. Oklahoma, 1991; Karl T. L. Dilemmas
of Democratization in Latin America // Comparative Politics. 1990. Vol. 23. 1. PP. 1-21; Przeworski A. Democracy and
the Market. Political and Economic Reforms in Eastern Europe and Latin America . Cambridge, 1991.
67
Huntington S. . ., P. 22.
32

. 2002
,
68.
, ,
,
. ,
,
,
, -
,

69.
,
.
, ,
,
, - ,
,

, .
,
, ,
,
- ,
,
, -I .

,
68
Carothers T. The End of The Transition Paradigm // Journal of Democracy. 2002. Vol. 13. 1. PP. 5-21.
69
. P. 9.
33


70.
,
, , .,

,
(. , . , . , . , . , .
, . , . .) 71. ,

,
.

- (
, , ), , ,
,
,
72.
,
.
,
73, , ,
-
.
. ,

70
.. . . .14.
71
Di Palma G. To Craft Democracies. Reflections on Democratic Transitions and Beyond. Berkeley: University of
California Press, 1990; Przeworski A. . .; Huntington S. How Countries Democratize // Political Science Quarterly.
1991-92. Vol. 106, 4; Schmitter P., Karl T. The Conceptual Travels of Transitologists and Consolidologists: How Far to
the East Should They Attempt to Go? // Slavic Review. Spring 1994. Vol. 53. 1; O'Donnel G. Delegative Democracy//
Journal of Democracy. 1994. Vol. 5. 1; Linz J.J. and Stepan A. Problems of Democratic Transition and Consolidation.
Southern Europe, South America and Post-Communist Europe. Baltimore and London, 1994.
72
Terry S.M. Thinking About Post-Communist Transitions: How Different Are They? // Slavic Review. 1993. Vol. 52. 2;
Bunce V. Should Transitologists Be Grounded? // Slavic Review. 1995. Vol. 54. 1.
73
., .: .. . . .15.
34

,
.

74,
,


.
- ,
.
,
, .
,
, .

, , ;
.
: ,
.
, ,
.

,
(, ..),
75.
,

74
. . //
. ., 1997; . ? // .
1997. 4.
75
Karl T.L. The Hybrid Regimes of Central America // Journal of Democracy. 1995. Vol. 6. 3. PP. 72-87.
35

,
76.

,
(-, ,
..).
,
, , , ,
..
,
.

1.2


,
,
, , ,
.
,
, ,

,
.

76
Morlino L. Are There Hybrid Regimes? Or Are They Just an Optical Illusion? // European Political Science Review.
2009. Vol. 1. 2. P. 276.
36

,
, ,
.
.

,
. , ,
,
( -
),
- (
, ) 77.

.

.

. ,
.
:
. .
,
.
, ;
78. ,
, ,
,

77
. // . / .
. . . . .: Academia, 1999. .55.
78
Karl T.L. Dilemmas of Democratization in Latin America // Comparative Politics. 1990. Vol. 23. 1. PP. 8-9.
37

, 79.
, , ,
.
:

,
. ,
. ,
,
,
. ,
80.


. ,
. ,
,
.

-
, , 81. ,
:
1) ,
;
2) , ,
,
;

79
Schmitter P., Karl T. What Democracy Is And Is Not // Journal of Democracy. 1991. Vol. 2. 3. PP. 75-88.
80
Karl T.L. . . PP. 9-11.
81
.. : // . 1996. 5. .6.
38

3) ,
,
.
,

- , ,
(
)82:
) (
);
) (
);
) .

. , , 83,
,
: ,
( ). , ,
. ,
( , )
. ,
, .
, ,
84.

.

82
: - / .. , .. . .: , 2001. .77.
83
Huntington S. The Third Wave. Democratization in the Late Twentieth Century. Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma
Press, 1991.
84
. P. 114.
39

. . ,

, []
85.
, . ,
.
,
, . ,
,
.
, , .
,
,
. ,
.
, -
, ,
, , , ,
, , 86.
, ,
, .

87,
:

85
. P. 152.
86
. PP. 153-154.
87
. // . 1999. 3. . 31;
.. : , , .
// . 2004. 4. . 14.
40

,

;
,
;
,
;
.

:
,
, ;
, ;
.
, ,
,
- .


.
,
, -
, 88.
, , -

: , .

88
..
: . : - , 2009. .43.
41

89
:
1) ;
2) .
, ,

. ,

,
90.

. ,
,

.
,
. ,
. ,
,
. ,
, , .
- ,
,
.
,
; ,
,

89
Przeworski A. Democracy and the Market. Political and Economic Reforms in Eastern Europe and Latin America.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991.
90
. PP. 26-27.
42

. ,
: 91.
,

.
, ,

.
,
.
.
,
.
,
,
, ()
92.
(
-) .
, .
,

, .

.
.
,
,
91
. PP. 51-95.
92
ODonnell G., Schmitter P.C. Transitions from Authoritarian Rule: Tentative Conclusions about Uncertain Democracies.
Baltimore and London, 1986. .33.
43

.
:
, , , ,
,

93.

, . ,

.
.
,

,
.
,
94.
,
, ,
,
.
-
.
,
,
,
.
,
93
Pridham G. Dynamics of Democratization. London and New York: Continuum, 2000. .65.
94
Higley J., Gunther R. Elites and Democratic Consolidation in Latin America and Southern Europe. New York:
Cambridge University Press, 1992. P. 3.
44

,
, . ,
:
1) ;
2) ;
3) 95.
,

. ,
, .
, ,
, .
,
, .
, ,
,
96.
,
,
, ,
.
,
.

97. ,

.

95
Mainwaring S. Transitions to Democracy and Democratic Consolidation: Theoretical and Comparative Issues. Notre
Dame, 1992. P. 322.
96
. . 328.
97
Higley J., Gunther R. . . . 3.
45

, ,
,
,
98.
, ,

.
,

,
,
, ..99.
, ,
, 80-90- ,
,
. ,
, (
,
),
,
. ,
,
(
)100.
,
.
.

98
ODonnell G., Schmitter P.C. . . . 37.
99
. . 47.
100
.. ( ) // .
1996. 5. . 70-79; , . // . 1994. 2-3. . 52-69.
46


, .
,

,
.
,
, ,
,
.
,
,
, , ,
,

.
,
,
, . ,

,
, ,
.
,
101.

, .
.

101
.. // . 2006. 3. .26.
47

, ,
, , , 102.

1.3


, ,

- -
, ,

.
, (C ,
, , , .) 103
- -

.
: ,
,
.
- (
) ,
, , (
-, ..)

102
.. // : 2008 [ ].
URL: http://msu-research2008.ru/index.php/gmu/57-politprocess/710-demtransit ( : 15.09.2012).
103
Lipset S.M. Some Social Requisites of Democracy: Economic Development and Political Legitimacy// American
Political Science Review. 1959. 53; Lipset S.M. The Social Requisites of Democracy Revisited. Inkeles, Alex and
Sasaki, Masamichi (eds.). Comparing Nations and Cultures. Readings in a Cross-National Disciplinary Perspectives.
Englewood Cliffs, 1996; Almond G.A. and Verba S. The Civic Culture Revisited: An Analytical Study. Boston, 1980;
Rustow D. Transitions to Democracy // Comparative Politics. 1970. 2; Inglehart R. The Renaissance of Political
Culture // American Political Science Review. 1988. Vol. 82. 4, etc.
48

,
104.
,
,
, ,
, 105.
,
,
,
.
,
,
106.
,
-
. ,
(, ,
).

107.
(
) . ,

, . ,
,

104
ODonnell G., Schmitter P.C. Transitions from Authoritarian Rule: Tentative Conclusions about Uncertain Democracies.
Baltimore and London, 1986.
105
.. : -
: // . 1999. 3. . 34.
106
Mahoney J. and Snyder R. Rethinking Agency and Structure in the Study of Regime Change. UC Berkeley
(Unpublished manuscript). .9.
107
Przeworski A. Democracy and Development. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
49

108.
.
,
, ,
.
. ?
, ,
, ,
? ,
,
. , ,
? ,
.
, .
,
.
, , ',
, 109,
, .
, ,
, ,
,
, ,
, ,
. ,
,
, , .
108
. PP. 13-78.
109
ODonnell G., Schmitter P.C. . . 1986; Przeworski A. Some Problems in the Study of the Transition to
Democracy. In ODonnell et al. eds., Transitions from Authoritarian Rule. 1986. Part 3; Huntington S. The Third Wave.
Democratization in the Late Twentieth Century. Oklahoma, 1991.
50

,
. ,

,
. ,

. ,
.
,
, ,
.
,
,
.

,
,
110. ,
, ,
, ,
111.
,
, ,
-

.
.

110
. .: Przeworski A. and Limongi F. Modernization, Theories and Facts // World Politics (January). 1997.
111
.. -
// . 1998. 2. .15.
51


,
. ,
,
112.

,
,
,
( ', , , .) 113.
,
-
.

, ,


,
,
. ,
. ,

, 114.

112
Fish M. St. Democracy from Scratch: Opposition and Regime in the New Russian Revolution. Princeton, 1995. .79.
113
O'Donnel G. and Schmitter P. . .; Linz J.J. Transitions to Democracy // The Washington Quarterly. 1990. Vol.
13, 3; Di Palma G. To Craft Democracies. Reflections on Democratic Transitions and Beyond. Berkeley, 1990;
Przeworski A. Democracy and the Market. Political and Economic Reforms in Eastern Europe and Latin America .
Cambridge, 1991; Schmitter Ph. C. with Karl T.L. The Conceptual Travels of Transitologists and Consolidologists: How
Far to the East Should They Attempt to Go? // Slavic Review. 1994. Vol. 53, 1.
114
. // . 1999. 3. C.30-33.
52


, ,
.
, ,
.
.

115.
, , ,
116.
:
. ,
.
, .
,
,
117.
, ,
.

, .
,
118.

. ,

115
Grugel J. Democratization and Ideational Diffusion: Europe, Mercosur and Social Citizenship // Democratization. 2013.
Vol. 4. PP. 172-173.
116
Starr H. Democratic Dominoes: Diffusion Approaches to the Spread of Democracy in the International System // The
Journal of Conflict Resolution. 1991. 35. P. 360.
117
. P. 360.
118
Haerpfer C.W., Bernhagen P., Inglehart R.F., Welzel C. Theories of Democratization. Oxford University Press, 2008. PP.
74-90.
53

,
, ,
. , ,
,
, .

,
,
119.
, , .

.
,
, .
, ,

, , ,
120.
,

121.
, ,
,
, ,
122. ,

119
Sandschneider E. External Promotion of Democracy. Theoretical and Practical aspects of External Support of
Transformation Processes. 2003. P.10 [ ]. URL: http://mercury.ethz.ch/serviceengine/
Files/ISN/43272/ipublicationdocument_singledocument/afaf9249-9c74-4b00-9c48-
a012ac2a72eb/de/2003_Aug_01_\theoretische.pdf. ( : 21.09.2012).
120
.
121
Scott J.M. Transnationalizing Democracy Promotion: The Role of Western Political Foundations and Think-Tanks //
Democratization. 2013. Vol. 4. PP. 321-344.
122
. P. 321.
54

,
.
.
,
123.
,
:
- , ,
;
- , ;
- ;
- 124.
,
- ,
.
.
.
, .

. ,
125.

, ,

. , ,

,

123
Grugel J. Democratization and Ideational Diffusion: Europe, Mercosur and Social Citizenship // Democratization. 2013.
Vol. 4. P. 171.
124
Sandschneider E. . . P.10.
125
. P.12.
55

,
-, ,
126. ,
.
, ,
, 127.

. ,
, .
,
, .

,

.
,
.
, ,
,
.
, , , ,
.
, ,

128.

, ,

126
Mair S. International Democracy Assistance: Experiences and Tasks. SWP, 1997. P. 6.
127
Sandschneider E. . . P.10.
128
Carothers T. Aiding Democracy Abroad. The Learning Curve. Washington, 2000. . 127.
56

.
.
, ,

.
,
.

.
, .
, ,
,
.
( )
, 129.

.
,
,
.

. , ,
,
, , , ,
. ,

130. C
, ,

129
Kaplinsky R. Globalization, Poverty and Inequality: Between a Rock and a Hard Place. Cambridge, 2005. P.9.
130
Beck U., Cronin C. Cosmopolitan Vision. Cambridge, 2006. . 52.
57


131. ,
.

.
,

.

.
,

.

, .
,
.
.
,
.
.
,
.
,

. ,

.

131
Sassen S. Territory, Authority, Rights: From Medieval to Global Assemblages. Princeton, 2006. PP. 148-204.
58

,
, , ,
,
132. , ,
,
. , ,
,
.
,
, ,
133.

.
, , ,
,
, , .
, . ,

,
,
:
, /.
,
, .
,
. ,
,
, , ,

132
Tulchin J., Bland G. Inequalities and the Globalization Debate. Boulder, 2005. P. 221.
133
Huntington S. The Third Wave. Democratization in the Late Twentieth Century. Oklahoma, 1991. P. 33.
59

, , ,
134.
, ,
. ,
, - ,
,
,
- .
, , ,

,
. ,
,
,
, .
,
, , , ,
,
135.
,

,
,
.
.

134
Lipset S.M. The Social Requisites of Democracy Revisited: 1993 Presidential Address // American Sociological Review.
1994. Vol. 59. 1. PP. 1-122; Almond G., Verba S. The Civic Culture: Political Attitudes and Democracy in Five Nations.
Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1963; Huntington S. Political Development and Political Decay // World Politics.
1965. Vol. 17. 3. PP. 386-430.
135
Haynes J. Democracy and Political Change in the Third World. New York: Routledge, 2001.
60


- .
,
:
1.
.
.
-
, .

.
, , , ,
.


,
.
.
,
,
.

. ,
, ,
-
.
. ,
,

.
61

, ,
,
.
,

, , ,
,

.
2. ,
, ,
.
.
,
.
, ,
(
- ),
- (
,
).

-
, , . ,
: 1) ; 2) ; 3)
.
(
): )
; ) ; ) .
62


. , , . ,
,
: , ( ).

. . , :
, ,
.
-
: ,
.
,
, .

,
.
3. ,
.
, , . ,
, ,


.

.
, , .

.
.
63


, .

, ,
.
,

.

2.1


,
. 1980-
.
. 1960-
,
,
( ) (
). ,
,
; (
);
( ); (, ,
) ,
64

136.

. . ,
,
, .
,
. . XX
,
, . ,
, ,
,
.
,
. ,
.
:
- ,
( ).
.
.
,
( ):
1) ,
,
( );
2) ,

( , ).
136
Linz J. An Authoritarian Regime: Spain. In Erik Allardt and Stein Rokkan, eds., Mass Politics: Studies in Political
Sociology. NY, 1970. PP. 150-185.
65


, (
) .
,
.
. -
. - ,
,
,
, ,
.

137.


.
,
.
, ,
.

. ,
, .
'
,
138. ,
, ( )

137
. ., ..
// . .:
. 2012. 5. . 33-36.
138
ODonnell G. Delegative Democracy // Journal of Democracy. 5-1. 1994. PP. 56-68.
66

.
.
,
.
, ,
, .
,
.
,
,
, .
,
,
.
,
139. ,
.
, (
),
.

140.
1990- , :
, , ,
,
, ,
.
, ,

139
Hellinger D. Comparative Politics of Latin America. Routledge edition, 2011. PP. 387-390.
140
Zakaria F. The Rise of Illiberal Democracy // Foreign Affairs. 76-1. 1997. PP. 25-40.
67

.
, .
,
. ',
,
( ) 141.

, ,
. ,
;
, .


.
,
:
- 1900 1940 ;
- 1940- 1970- ;
- 1970- .

, , ,

. 1930-
- .
( ) ,
,
, .

141
ODonnell G. Delegative Democracy // Journal of Democracy. 5-1. 1994. P. 62.
68

.

;
; ( ) ,
. ,
- .
,
. , 60-70- XX
.
1970-
.

.
,
. ,

.
, ,
.
. ,
, .
. XXI
,
.
,
.
.
() ().

, , . ,
69

,
: , ,
,

.
.
, ,
. , ,
,
.

; ,
.
, ,
, .
, XX
.
: ,
,
. ,

. ,
,
.

:
- ,
, ,
;
70

- , ,
,

, (
);
- , ,
. ,
;
- ,
.
,
.
, ,
. , ,
,
.

.

. , ,
,
. ,
,
1820- , 1920 .
(
)
.
.

. , (1891-1923)
71

.
(1924-1932) .

(1933-1972). 1973

, 1990 ,
142.
()
, . 1915
. 1916
,
,
. 1930
.
, :
. , 1932
1942 .
1943 1946
.
, 1951 1954
. 1955
1958 1965 .
,
( 1962
,
).
(1966-1972), (1973-1975),

142
..
XX . // , , ,
. . : . 2011. 7. . 162-166.
72

(1976-1982) , , ,
1983 1990- 143.
. XX
, ,
1876 . 1911 ,
,
144.
,
.
:
- , 100 (1828-1926)
(1922-1942);
- (1943-1962),
(1958-1975);
- (1974-1990), .
145.
,
.
, , 1828
(, , ,
). XX
: , , .
.
- - ,
( , )

143
.. // Scanning: , , . .
.: . 2010. 2. . 93-106.
144
ODonnell G. Modernization and Bureaucratic-Authoritarianism: Studies in South American Politics. Institute of
International Studies, 1974.
145
Huntington S. The Third Wave: Democratization in the Late Twentieth Century. University of Oklahoma Press, 1991.
73

-, , , ,
.
1974
,
.
1970- 1990-
.
,
. .
XX
.
. ,
.
,
, ,

.
XIX .
1900-1939
.
,
1930- 1950-
. :
() 1950- , ( )
1960-1970- . ( ) (1978-2000- )
.

,
. , ,
.
74

.
,
, , - .
,
, , ,
.
- .
,
. ,
( , , )
. ,
,
XX .
:
.
,
. -,
. .
, .
,
, .
: , ,
, , , , . ,
.

, .
.
XIX XX ,
,
.
75

. (
, )

. ,
, , ,

146. .
,
1931 1944 .
.

.
,
( ,
. 1992 2000 ).
, ,

.

. ,
147.
.
. ,
,

.
.

146
Lopez-Alves F. State Formation and Democracy in Latin America, 1810-1900. Duke University Press, 2000.
147
Drake P. Between Tyranny and Anarchy: A History of Democracy in Latin America, 1800-2006. Stanford University
Press, 2009.
76

, ,
.
, ,
.

.
, , - ,
.
1960
.
.

, ,

. , ,
, ,
.


148.
,
,
.
,
, .

.
- , , ,

148
Collier D. The New Authoritarianism in Latin America. Princeton University Press, 1979.
77

.
,
. ,
,
.

,
.
,
,
.

.
, ,
.
,
, .
,
. ,
,
,
.
,
.

:
,
( ).
, ,
( )
78

,
.

.

.
, ,
.
,
.
( 1910 ,
). (1930- ) (1940-
). ,
.
,
.
149.
.
,
, .
, ,
1940-1950- , 1964
, . 1985
,
(1985-1989).
, .
(1990-2003).

149
Smith P. H., Kearney M. C. Transitions, Interrupted: Routes toward Democracy in Latin America // Taiwan Journal of
Democracy 6. 1. 2010. PP. 137-160.
79

, 2004
.
:

(1988-1999),
,
.
(2000-2001),
(2002-2005). 2006 ,

.

. ( ,
),
. ,
,

.
, ,
.
.
,
.
: ,
.
,
. ,

,
80

.
.
;

, . ,

. ,
,
.

, . ,
.
, ,
, .
, 1980- ,
,
.
,
: .
(, ) ,
() ( )
.
. ,
,
. :
( ) ,
, .
.
.
,
81

. , ,
.
, .
.
-
. ,
.

, .

,
- . ,

,
. ,

.
,
.
,
, , ,
. , ,
, :
, 150.
. , -
.
, -
.
,
150
Lipset S.M. Political Man: The social Bases of Politics. NY: Anchor Books, 1963. P.31.
82
151
. . ,
:
-
- (
)152;
- -
, ;
- -
, ,
.
: -
, :
- .
, .
-

. ,
- , , ,
.
, ,
() .
1900 1939
(, )
(
). .
: -
, .

151
Landman T. Economic Development and Democracy: The View from Latin America // Political Studies. 47. 1999. PP.
607-624.
152
Acemoglu D., Robinson J. A. Economic Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy. Cambridge University Press, 2006.
83

(1940-1977)
. ,
, .

(, , , -,
), (, ).
1940 .
(,
, ),
(, , ).
-
, 1940 1977
, 1900 1939 .
1978 4 : -,
, , ,
. 1940
. ,
1940 1977 , 1978 .
:
1940-1977 .
(, , )
1940-1950- .
, -
.
,
,
.
, . :
84


, , 153.
(1978-2000) , -
.
, ,
.
, , , -,
.
1980-
(, , ),
1990- .
1980- ,
1990- .
(- ),
, .
1980-,
1990- (, ). ,
: ,
.
, , -

XX . 1900 1939
. 1940 ,
.
,
,
.

.
153
Collier R. B. Paths Toward Democracy: The Working Class and Elites in Western Europe and South America.
Cambridge University Press, 1999.
85

,

( :
- ),


.

2.2


.
(
- ),
(,
)154.
,
.

. , , ,
,
, - ,

.
,
.
155.

154
.. . ., 2009. . 72.
155
: . . . / . . -. .2010. . 43.
86



25-30 ,
, , ,
, ,
.
,
, ,

,
,
,
. ,
.
,

,
156.
, ,

.
,

, .
,
,
,
-
156
O'Donnell G. Transitions, Continuities and Paradoxes // Issues in Democratic Consolidation: The New South American
Democracies in Comparative Perspective / Ed. S. Mainwaring, G.O'Donnell, J.S.Valenzuela. Notre Dame: University of
Notre Dame, 1992.
87

157.
,


158.


, (
, )159.
,

.
(
) ,
, .
,
, ,
,
.

, . ,
, .

,
, , ,
157
.. () : //
. 2012. 3. . 5-35.
158
ODonnell G. Counterpoints Selected Essays on Authoritarianism and Democratization [ ]. URL:
http://undpress.nd.edu/ book/P00524 ( : 17.09.2012).
159
.. ?
// . , -
. , 2006. . 4. . 119-150; Przeworski A. Democracy and the limits of
self-government. Cambridge, 2010. . 200.
88

, ,
.

,
.
,

,
-
.
()
,
, -

, ,
160. , , ,
..
, ,
. ,
:
;
,
;
.
,
,
: ( ,
) (, ,
160
..
// . 2010. 3. . 84-86.
89

).

. , ,
.
. ,
, .
, , ,
.


.


. :
, , , ,
, ,
, ( )
( ), CELAC (
), (
).
,
, ,

.
, 8 2000 .,
:
,
,
161.
161
[ ]. URL:
http://www.un.org/ru/documents/decl_conv/ declarations/summitdecl.shtml ( : 01.10.2012).
90

, ,

, -

.
, ,

162,
, .
, ()
163.
, ,
.
, ,
,
, . , ,
- ,
, ,
. ,
. ,

, ,

, ,
164. ,
162
.., .. .
: // . 2011. 3.
. 164-183.
163
Larsen Stein Ugelvik. Introduction. The Democratic Latecomers. Transition to Democracy in Portugal, Spain and
Greece / Modem Europe after Fascism / Social Science Monographs. N.Y., 1997. . 132.
164
, :
23 2011 [ ]. URL: http://www.levada.ru/18-11-2011/otkrytyi-seminar-levada-
tsentra-23-noyabrya ( : 04.08.2012).
91


,
, .
,

.
, , ,
,

.
,
, .
, , ,
,
,
.
,
. ,
, ,
.
,
( ).
, . 1948

(), .
.

.
, ,
, ,
92

.
,
,
, . .

. :
, ,
.. ,
,
:
.
1998 .

(USAID)
(NED).
165.

.
, : ,
.
. 166. , ,
, ,
,
. , ,
,
, .
,
165
. : [ ]. URL:
http://www.fondsk.ru/news/ 2012/03/11/latinskaja-amerika-zakony-protiv-cvetnyh-revoljucij.html ( :
19.11.2012).
166
? [ ]. []. URL:
http://izvestia.ru/news/330309 ( : 15.09.2012).
93

, .
20

. VI
C , 13-15 2012
,
167.
,
, . ,
,
- ,
. ,
, ,
168.

, ,
,
, ,
, -
,
. ,
,
,
, ,
.
,
.

167
. , [ ]. // []. URL:
http://russiancouncil.ru/ inner/?id_4=341 ( : 30.04.2012).
168
.. // .
2012. 3. . 5-20.
94


,
.

.
,
,
169.
1999 ,
.
, ,
, ..
,
. , ,

.

, .

.
,
,
().

. ( )
.

,
169
. [ ]. []. URL:
http://www.ng.ru/world/2008-05-15/9_merkel.html ( : 25.08.2012).
95

.

(, ,
, ). 42-
, 3 5 2012 .
, .
,
, ,
,
.
, ,
: , ,
170.

2011
(CELAC). 33 ,
. ,
. CELAC
, ,
.
, ,
, ,
, , 171.
,
,
, ,
, , .
170
: [ ]. URL: http://www.warandpeace.ru/ru/reports/view/70562/ (
: 11.09.2012).
171
[ ]. PolitBoard.
[]. URL: http://www.inomnenie.ru/debate/9149/ ( :
11.09.2012).
96

,
,
: ,
, ,
,
,
, :
, - ,
- ,
,
,
, ,
,
172.
,
,

,
.
172
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, 1966 [ ]. URL:
http://www.un.org/ru/documents/decl_conv/ conventions/pactecon.shtml ( : 12.09.2012). International
Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 1966 [ ]. URL:
http://www.un.org/ru/documents/decl_conv/conventions/ pactpol.shtml ( : 12.09.2012). International
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, 1965 [ ]. URL:
http://www.un.org/ru/ documents/decl_conv/conventions/raceconv.shtml ( : 12.09.2012). International
Convention on The Prevention and Punishment of The Crime of Genocide, 1948 [ ]. URL:
http://www.un.org/ru/ documents/decl_conv/conventions/genocide.shtml ( : 12.09.2012). Convention
Relating to the Status of Refugees, 1951 [ ]. URL:
http://www.un.org/ru/documents/decl_conv/conventions/ refugees.shtml ( : 12.09.2012). American
Convention on Human Rights, "Pact of San Jose", 1969 [ ]. URL: http://www.oas.org/dil/treaties_B-
32_American_Convention_on_Human_Rights_sign.htm ( : 12.09.2012). Additional Protocol to the
American Convention on Human Rights in the Area of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights "Protocol of San Salvador",
1988. http://www.oas.org/juridico/english/sigs/a-52.html ( : 12.09.2012). Protocol to the American
Convention on Human Rights to Abolish the Death Penalty, 1990 [ ]. URL:
http://www.oas.org/juridico/english/Sigs/a-53.html ( : 12.09.2012). Inter-American Convention to Prevent
and Punish Torture, 1985 [ ]. URL: http://www.oas.org/juridico/ english/treaties/a-51.html (
: 12.09.2012). Inter-American Convention on the Forced Disappearance of Persons, 1994 [
]. URL: http://www.oas.org/juridico/english/ treaties/a-60.html ( : 12.09.2012). Inter-American
Convention on the Prevention, Punishment and Eradication of Violence Against Women, 1994 [ ].
URL: http://www.oas.org/juridico/english/treaties/a-61.html ( : 12.09.2012).
97


,
.

, , ,
, -
, ,
.
,

, ,
,
.


,
, ,
.
, ,
,
,
.
,

, , , ,
. ,
,
, ,
, ,
, , .
98

.

,
.
.

, ,
, ,
, .
, ,

(, , ,
..),
.
,
, ,
.
,
.
(
) ,
.
,
.
,
, 173.

173
..
// . .: .
2011. 3. . 241-245.
99

,

. , ,
,
. ,

,

. ,
,

. ,
,
,
, , , ,
174.

, .
, -
,
,

.
, 2008 .
--, , ,
, ,

.
, , ,
174
. . : . , 1920-2000. ., 2000. . 49.
100

. .
, , , ,
, ,
,

,
,
- .
, ,
,
, ,

. ,
, , , .

,
.
, -
, ,
,
. ,
. ,

.
,
,
,
. ,
, ,
.
101

,
, ,
,
. ,
,
,
. ,
,
.

.

,

.


,
.

,
,
.

2.3


(, , -)
102


.
- .

, ,
,
.
. , ,
,
, , -
,
, 175.


: ,

.
, ,
, XX
,
.


.
1994 , (),
, ,

, ,
.
175
.. : //
. .: . 2011. 9. . 441-447.
103


.
,
.
, ,
,
, ,


,
176. , ,
, , ,
,
, 177.
,

, ,
178. ,
.
, ,
,
.
,
.
,
,
, , 179.

176
Domnguez J. I. Free Politics and Free Markets in Latin America // Journal of Democracy. 1998. Vol. 9. 4. P.74.
177
. .74.
178
Oxhorn P., Starr P. Markets and Democracy in Latin America: conflict or convergence? Boulder, CO, 1999. P. 245.
179
Domnguez J. I. . . P.70.
104


.

,
.
180.
,
.
, ,
181.
,

. ,
,

182.

, .
,
, ,
.

.

,
. -

180
Starr P. International Financial Institutions in Latin America: adjusting to the Internationalization of Financial Markets.
NY, 2000. P. 147.
181
Haggard S., Kaufman R. The Political Economy of Democratic Transitions. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press,
1995. P.325.
182
. . 325.
105

-
.


.
,
,
, , ,
.
,
. :
,
.

, -
- .
,
1980-
.
1990- ,
,
, .
,
, ,
, .
1990- ,

. , ,
,
,
106

.
,
, ,
,

. ,
,

.
.
,
,
.
.

. Latinobarmetro 2010
, , , 60% ,
183. 75%
, 66% 65% .
44%
184.
.
,
: 34%
, 23% .

1 2 .

183
Latinobarometro 2010 Report [ ] URL: http://venezuela-us.org/es/wp-
content/uploads/2011/04/latinobarometro_ report_2010.pdf ( : 09.09.2012).
184
.
107

, ,
, (39,8% , 209
, , 15,4% , 81
), :
. , ,
,
, ,
185.
, ,
, , ,
.
, ,
,
.
,
:
.

, ,
,
, ,
, ,
.

, , ,
,

185
Escalante F. Mxico, fin de siglo. Mexico City: FCE, 2006. P. 22.
108

, ,
, .

, .

,
, , ,
,
.
, -


,
.
,
.

XIX ,
186. -
, ,
187.
,
XIX . ,
,

.
,

186
Centano M. Blood and Debt: War and the Nation-State in Latin America. University Park, 2002.
187
.. -: // -
. I - 30-31
2011 . .: . 2011. . 374-379.
109

, .
,
. , ,
, ,
. ,
,
- ,
.
, (
) .
,
.
,
. ,
,
. , ,
,
.
3
.

:
, ,
, .


,
.
,

110

188.
-
,
.
, .
.

-. ,
, ,
, ,
, , .

,
,
, ,
.
,
.
,
,

.
,

.
, , ,

.
188
Teichman J. Redistributive Conflict and Social Policy in Latin America // World Development. 2008. Vol. 36. 3. PP.
446-460.
111

,

. , ,
, ,
, , ,
,
,
, , .

,
, 189.

, ,
,
.
.
,
,

190.
,

, ,
.
,
, ,
( ,
)
189
Diamond L. Toward Democratic Consolidation. Baltimore, MD,1996. P. 238.

190
Haggard S., Kaufman R. The Political Economy of Democratic Transitions. Princeton, NJ, 1995. P.335.
112

, 191.

,
,

.

, ,
192.

.
,
,

193.
,
.

, ,
.
.
, ,

. ,

191
. =
// , 2008. 4. . 33.
192
. : =
: // , 2009. 1.
193
. =
// ,
2012. 3. .27.
113


.


. ,
.
, ,
, ,
,
.

,
.
, , ,
,
, ,
. ,
.
( ), ,
,
. ,
,
,
, ,
, ,
.


.

114

, ,
, .
,
, ,
, 194.
, ,
,
. ,

,
, ,
,

, ,
,
.
,

:
1.
.
. ( )
:
- ,
.
,
,
, (
194
: . . 2- . . 1. ., 2009.
. 68.
115

),
,
.
1970-
.

: ,
,
;
, ,
,

, (
); , ,
; ,

; ,
.

. ,
,
.
(, ).
,
, :
, (
).
2.
, ,
: (
116

, ..) (, ,
).


. :
, , , ,
, ,
, ( )
( ), CELAC (
), (
).
,
.

,
.
,
,
.
,
, ,
,

.
,
.
.
3.
(, , -)

117

.
- .

. ,
,
, , -
,
, .

,
. -
-
.

, ,

.
,

.


.

, ,
, .
,
, ,
,
.
118



.
.
: , ,
,
- ,
.

.

:
1.
.
.
-
, .

.
, , , ,
. ,
transit transition.


,
.
.
,
119

,
.
, ,
,
.
,

, , ,
,

.
2. ,
, ,
.
.
,
.
, ,
(
- ),
- - (
, ).

-
, , . ,
: 1) ; 2) ; 3)
.
(
): )
; ) ; ) .
120


. , , . ,
,
: , ( ).

. . , :
, ,
.
,
, .

,
.
3. ,
.
. ,
, ,


.

. ,
, .

. .

,
.

, ,
121

.
,

.
4.
.
. ( )
:
- ,
.
,
, ,
(
), ,

.
1970-
.

: ,
,
,
; , ,
,

, (
); , ,
. ,

122

; ,
.

.
, ,
.
(, ).
,
, :
,
( ).
5.
, ,
: (
, ) (, ,
).


. :
, , , ,
, ,
, ( )
( ), CELAC (
), (
).
, , ,
.

,
.
123


,
.
6.
(, , -)

.
- .

.
, ,
.
. ,
,
, , -
,
, .

,
. -
-
.
,
, ,

.
,

.

124


.

, ,
, .
,
, , ,
,
.
,
, .

,
.
,
,
,

, ,
,

.
125

1.
[ ]. URL: http://www.un.org/ru/documents/decl_conv/
declarations/summitdecl.shtml ( : 01.10.2012).
2. Additional Protocol to the American Convention on Human Rights in the Area
of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights "Protocol of San Salvador", 1988.
http://www.oas.org/juridico/english/sigs/a-52.html ( : 12.09.2012).
3. American Convention on Human Rights, "Pact of San Jose", 1969
[ ]. URL: http://www.oas.org/dil/treaties_B32_American_
Convention_on_Human_Rights_sign. htm ( : 12.09.2012).
4. Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, 1951 [ ].
URL: http://www.un.org/ru/documents/decl_conv/conventions/ refugees.shtml (
: 12.09.2012).
5. Inter-American Convention on the Forced Disappearance of Persons, 1994
[ ]. URL: http://www.oas.org/juridico/english/ treaties/a-60.html
( : 12.09.2012).
6. Inter-American Convention to Prevent and Punish Torture, 1985
[ ]. URL: http://www.oas.org/juridico/ english/treaties/a-51.html
( : 12.09.2012).
7. Inter-American Convention on the Prevention, Punishment and Eradication of
Violence Against Women, 1994 [ ]. URL:
http://www.oas.org/juridico/english/treaties/a-61.html ( : 12.09.2012).
8. International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 1966 [
]. URL: http://www.un.org/ru/documents/decl_conv/conventions/ pactpol.shtml
( : 12.09.2012).
9. International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, 1966
[ ]. URL: http://www.un.org/ru/documents/decl_conv/
conventions/pactecon.shtml ( : 12.09.2012).
126

10. International Convention on The Elimination of All Forms of Racial


Discrimination, 1965 [ ]. URL: http://www.un.org/ru/
documents/decl_conv/conventions/raceconv.shtml ( : 12.09.2012).
11. International Convention on The Prevention and Punishment of The Crime of
Genocide, 1948 [ ]. URL: http://www.un.org/ru/
documents/decl_conv/conventions/genocide.shtml ( : 12.09.2012).
12. Protocol to the American Convention on Human Rights to Abolish the Death
Penalty, 1990 [ ]. URL: http://www.oas.org/
juridico/english/Sigs/a-53.html ( : 12.09.2012).

13. . .: , 1997. 623 .


14. : - / .. , .. .
.: , 2001. 328 .
15. Freedom House 2011. Freedom in the World 2011: The Annual Survey of
Political Rights & Civil Liberties [ ]. URL:
http://freedomhouse.org/template.cfm?page=22&year=2011&country= 8019 (
: 17.10.2012).
16. Latinobarometro 2010 Report [ ].URL: http://venezuela-
us.org/es/wp-content/uploads/ 2011/04 /latinobarometro_ report_2010.pdf (
: 12.09.2012).

17. , .. :
/ .. . .: . . . -, 2006. 215 .
18. , .. // :
2008 [ ]. URL: http://msu-
research2008.ru/index.php/gmu/57-politprocess/710-demtransit ( :
15.09.2012).
19. , .. : / ..
// . 2002. 10. . 32-38.
127

20. , .. / ..
[ ]. []. URL:
http://www.perspektivy.info/book/teorii_modernizacii_i_ekonomicheskoje_
razvitije_2010-04-13.htm ( : 13.09.2012).
21. , ..
:
/ .. . : - , 2009. 125 .
22. , .. (
) / .. // Pro et
Contra. . 2. 1. . 90-102.
23. , ..
/ .. // . 1994. 3. . 102-114.
24. , .. ?
/ .. // .
, -
. : , 2006 . 4. .
119-150.
25. , . / .
[ ]. []. URL:
http://www.ng.ru/world/2008-05-15/9_merkel.html ( : 25.08.2012).
26. , .. / ..
.: . 2009. 134
27. , .. :
/ .. , .. . .: , 2008. 130 .
28. , .. ?
/ .. // . 2001.
4. . 4-13.
29. / .
.. .: , 2009. 216 .
30. : .
. 2- . 1 / . .. .: ,
2009. 241 .
128

31. , ..
/ .. //
. 2010. 3. . 84-86.
32. , ..
/ .. // . 2006. 3. .19-26.
33. , ..
/ .. //
. .: , 1997. 115 .
34. , .. -
/ ..
// . 1998. 2. .13-17.
35. , ..
: - :
/ .. // . 1999. 3. . 30-
34.
36. , .. ? / ..
// . 1997. 4. . 24-31.
37. , .. .
:
/ ..,
.. // . 2011. 3. . 164-183.
38. , . :
[ ]. URL: http://www.fondsk.ru/news/
2012/03/11/latinskaja-amerika-zakony-protiv-cvetnyh-revoljucij.html (
: 19.11.2012).
39. , .. (
) / .. //
. 1996. 5. . 11-15.
40. , ..
XX . / .. //
, , ,
129

. . - : . - 2011. - 7.
- . 162-166.
41. , .. / ..
// Scanning: , , . . - .: . -
2010. - 2. - . 93-106.
42. , .. -:
/ .. // -
. I - 30-31
2011 . - .: . - 2011. - . 374-379.
43. , ..
: / .. // . - .:
. - 2011. - 9. - . 441-447.
44. , ..
/
.. //
. - .: . - 2011. 3. - . 241-245.
45. : [ ]. URL:
http://www.warandpeace.ru/ru/reports/view/70562/ ( : 11.09.2012).
46. ? [ ].
[]. URL: http://izvestia.ru/news/330309 ( : 15.09.2012).
47. : . . . / . . -. :
, 2010. 290 .
48. , .. () :
/ .. // .
2012. 3. . 5-35.
49. , .. : /
.. // . .: -85, 1995.
. 10-19.
50. , .. , / ..
[ ]. // []. URL: http://russiancouncil.ru/
inner/?id_4=341 ( : 30.04.2012).
51. : .
. .: , 2010. 92 .
130

52. , .. (
) / .. // . 1996. 5. . 70-79.
53. : ( . ).
. ., 2009. 80 .
54. , ..
/ .. // . 2012. 3. . 5-
20.
55. , ..
/ .. //
. . 2011. 27. .4-12.
56. , ..
/ .. [ ].
[]. URL: http://sbiblio.com/biblio/archive/ shevchenko_
etatistskie/05. aspx#_ednref4 ( : 03.07.2012).
57. , ..
/ ..
, .. // . .:
. - 2012. 5. - . 33-36.

58. , . : /
. . .: , 2003. 148 .
59. , . / . . .: , 2000. 204 .
60. , . //
. / . . . . .
.: Academia, 1999. 197 .
61. , .. : , , .

/ .. , . //
. 2004. 4. .14-19.
131

62. , . :
/ . [ ]. URL: http://do.gendocs.ru/docs/
index-242600.html ( : 12.10.2012).
63. , . / . //
. 1994. 2-3. . 52-69.
64. , . . : . , 19202000 / .. . .:
. -. . . , 2000. 230 .
65. , .. : /
.. // . 1996. 5. .4-9.
66. , . / . [
]. . 1997. . 24 []. URL:
http://www.russ.ru/journal/predely/97-11-24/rowen.htm ( : 21.12.2012).
67. , .
=
// . 2008. 4. . 1-9.
68. , .
/ . // . 1999. 3. . 31-33.
69. , . :
= :
// . 2009. 1. . 14-19.
70. , .
=
// . 2012.
3. . 5-14.
71. Acemoglu, D., Robinson J. A. Economic Origins of Dictatorship and
Democracy / D. Acemoglu, J. A. Robinson. Cambridge University Press, 2006. 432
p.
72. Allison, L. On the Gap Between Theories of Democracy and Theories of
Democratization / L. Allison // Journal of Democracy. 1994. Vol. 1. 1. PP. 8-
26.
73. Almond, G. A. The Civic Culture: Political Attitudes and Democracy in Five
Nations/ G.A. Almond, Verba S. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1963. 105 .
132

74. Almond, G.A. The Civic Culture Revisited: An Analytical Study / G.A.
Almond, Verba S. Boston: Little, Brown, 1980. 142 .
75. Bendix, R. Nation-Building and Citizenship: Studies of Our Changing Social
Order / R. Bendix Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1977. 241 .
76. Beck, U. Cosmopolitan Vision / U.Beck, C.Cronin. Cambridge: Polity
Press, 2006. 87 .
77. Boix, C. Non-tyrannical Autocracies. UCLA Comparative Politics Seminar /
C. Boix, M. Svolik. Los Angeles, 2007. 210 .
78. Bunce, V. Comparative Democratization: Big and Bounded Generalizations /
V/ Bunce // Comparative Political Studies. - 2000. Vol. 33. - 6. - PP. 703733
79. Bunce, V. Should Transitologists Be Grounded? / V. Bunce // Slavic
Review. 1995. Vol. 54. 1. . 2-13.
80. Carey, J. Institutional design and party systems / J. Carey. Baltimore: The
Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997. 481 .
81. Carothers, T. Aiding Democracy Abroad. The Learning Curve / T. Carothers.
Washington: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 2000. 209 .
82. Carothers, T. The End of The Transition Paradigm / T. Carother // Journal of
Democracy. 2002. Vol 13. 1. PP. 5-21.
83.Cason, J. Electoral Reform, Institutional Change, and Party Adaptation in
Uruguay / J. Cason // Latin American Politics and Society. 2002. Vol. 44. 3.
P.87-98.
84.Centano, M. Blood and Debt: War and the Nation-State in Latin America / .
Centano. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2002. 182 .
85. Chalmers, D. Why Power Contenders Choose Liberalization / D. Chalmers,
C. Robinson // International Studies Quarterly 26 (March). 1982. PP. 3-35.
86.Cohen, S. Failed Crusade: America and the Tragedy of Post-Communist
Russia / S. Cohen. - New York, NY: W.W. Norton, 2000. 320 p.
87. Cohen, S. Russian Studies Without Russia / S. Cohen // Post-Soviet Affairs.
- 1999. - Vol. 15. - 1. - PP. 37- 55.
88. Collier, D. Democracy with Adjectives. Conceptual Innovation in
Comparative Research / D. Collier, S. Levitsky // World Politics. 1997. Vol. 49.
3. PP. 430-451.
133

89. Collier, D. The New Authoritarianism in Latin America / D. Collier.


Princeton University Press, 1979. 456 p.
90. Collier, R. B. Paths Toward Democracy: The Working Class and Elites in
Western Europe and South America / R. B. Collier. Cambridge University Press, 1999.
230 p.
91. Dahl, R. Polyarchy / R. Dahl. New Haven and London: Yale University
Press, 1971. 271 .
92. Dahl, R. Democracy and Its Critics / R. Dahl. New Haven and London:
Yale University Press, 1989. 312 .
93. Di Palma, G. To Craft Democracies. Reflections on Democratic Transitions
and Beyond / G. Di Palma. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990. 219 .
94. Diamond, L. Toward Democratic Consolidation / Diamond L. Baltimore,
MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996. 247 .
95. Domnguez, J. Free Politics and Free Markets in Latin America /
J. Domnguez // Journal of Democracy. 1998. Vol. 9. . 4. . 5-17.
96. Drake, P. Between Tyranny and Anarchy: A History of Democracy in Latin
America, 18002006 / P. Drake. Stanford University Press, 2009. 344 p.
97. Eisenstadt, S.N. Modernization Protest and Change / S.N. Eisenstadt.
Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1966. 409 .
98. Escalante, F. Mxico, fin de siglo / F. Escalante. Mexico City: FCE, 2006.
140 .
99. Fish, M. St. Democracy from Scratch: Opposition and Regime in the New
Russian Revolution / M. St. Fish. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1995. 148
.
100. Frank, A.G. The Development of Underdevelopment. In Cockroft, Frank,
and Johnson eds., Dependence and Underdevelopment: The Political Economy of Latin
America. Garden City, NJ: Anchor Books, 1972.
101. Gandhi, J. Cooperation, Cooptation, and Rebellion under Dictatorships / J.
Gandhi, A. Przeworski // Economics and Politic. 2006. Vol. 18. 1. PP. 1-26.
102. Geddes, B. Why Parties and Elections in Authoritarian Regimes? /
B. Geddes. Los Angeles, 2005. 120 .
103. Grugel, J. Democratization and Ideational Diffusion: Europe, Mercosur and
Social Citizenship / J. Grugel // Democratization. 2013. Vol. 4. PP. 172-173.
134

104. Haerpfer, C.W. Theories of Democratization / C.W. Haerpfer, P. Bernhagen,


R.F. Inglehart, C.Welzel. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008. 107 .
105. Haggard, S.The Political Economy of Democratic Transitions / S. Haggard,
R. Kaufman. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1995. 347 .
106. Haynes, J. Democracy and Political Change in the Third World / J. Haynes.
New York: Routledge, 2001. 201 .
107. Hellinger, D. Comparative politics of Latin America / D. Hellinger.
Routledge, 2011. 608 .
108. Higley, J., Elites and Democratic Consolidation in Latin America and
Southern Europe / J. Higley, R. Gunther. New York, 1992. 109 .
109. Huntington, S. The Third Wave. Democratization in the Late Twentieth
Century / Huntington S. Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, 1991. 139 .
110. Huntington, S. How Countries Democratize / S. Huntington // Political
Science Quarterly. 1991-92. Vol. 106. . 42-57.
111. Inglehart, R. The Renaissance of Political Culture / R. Inglehart // American
Political Science Review. 1988. Vol. 82. 4. . 17-28.
112. Jowitt, K. Challenging the Correct Line / K. Jowitt // East European Politics
and Societies. - 1998. - Vol. 12. - 1. -PP. 87-106.
113. Kaplinsky, R. Globalization, Poverty and Inequality: Between a Rock and a
Hard Place / R. Kaplinsky. Cambridge: Polity Press, 2005. 59 .
114. Karl, T.L. The Hybrid Regimes of Central America / T.L. Karl //
Journal of Democracy. 1995. Vol. 6. 3. PP. 72-87.
115. Karl, T.L. Dilemmas of Democratization in Latin America / T.L. Karl //
Comparative Politics. 1990. Vol. 23. 1. PP. 1-21.
116. Karl, T.L. Modes of Transition in Latin America, Southern and Eastern
Europe / T.L. Karl, P. Schmitter // International Social Science Journal. 1991. Vol.
128. PP. 269-284.
117. Ken, J. New World Disorder. The Leninist Extinction / J. Ken. Berkeley-
Los Angeles-Oxford: University of California Press, 1992. 91 .
118. Khanna, P. The Second World: Empires and Influence in the New Global
Order / P. Khanna Publisher: Penguin Books, 2008. 200 .
119. Kubicek, P. Post-Communist Political Studies: Ten Years Later, Twenty
Years Behind? / P. Kubicek // Communist and Post-Communist Studies. - 2000. - Vol.
33. - 3. - PP. 295-309;
135

120. Landman, T. Economic Development and Democracy: The View from Latin
America / T. Landman // Political Studies. 1999. 47. PP. 607-624.
121. Linz, J.J. The Problems of Democratic Transition and Consolidation.
Southern Europe, South America and Post-Communist Europe / J.J. Linz, A. Stepan.
Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996. 184 .
122. Linz, J.J. An Authoritarian Regime: Spain. In Erik Allardt and Stein
Rokkan, eds., Mass Politics: Studies in Political Sociology (NY: Free Press, 1970). P.
150-185.
123. Lipset, S.M. Political Man: The social Bases of Politics / S.M. Lipset. NY:
Anchor Books, 1963. 91 .
124. Lipset, S.M. Some Social Requisites of Democracy: Economic
Development and Political Legitimacy / S.M. Lipset // American Political Science
Review. 1959. 53. .10-23.
125. Lipset, S.M. The Social Requisites of Democracy Revisited. Inkeles, Alex
and Sasaki, Masamichi (eds.). Comparing Nations and Cultures. Readings in a Cross-
National Disciplinary Perspectives / S.M. Lipset. Englewood Cliffs : Prentice Hall,
1996. 115 .
126. Lopez-Alves, F. State Formation and Democracy in Latin America, 1810-
1900. Duke University Press, 2000. 295 p.
127. Mainwaring, S. Transitions to Democracy and Democratic Consolidation:
Theoretical and Comparative Issues / S. Mainwaring. Notre Dame: University of
Notre Dame Press, 1992. 347 .
128. Mair, S. International Democracy Assistance: Experiences and Tasks /
S. Mair. SWP, 1997. 105 .
129. Mahoney, J. Rethinking Agency and Structure in the Study of Regime
Change / J. Mahoney, R. Snyder. UC Berkeley (Unpublished manuscript). 100 .
130. Morlino, L. There Hybrid Regimes? Or Are They Just an Optical Illusion? /
L. Morlino // European Political Science Review. 2009. Vol. 1. 2. P. 259-
276.
131. Oxhorn, P. Markets and Democracy in Latin America: conflict or
convergence? / P.Oxhorn, P. Starr. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1999.
260 .
136

132. O'Donnel, G. Delegative Democracy / G. O'Donnel // Journal of


Democracy. 1994. Vol. 5. 1. . 20-29.
133. ODonnell, G. Modernization and Bureaucratic-Authoritarianism: Studies in
South American Politics. Institute of International Studies, 1974. 219 p.
134. ODonnell, G. Transitions from Authoritarian Rule: Tentative Conclusions
about Uncertain Democracies / G. ODonnell, P.C. Schmitter. Baltimore and London:
The John Hopkins University Press, 1986. 320 .
135. Peeler, J. Elite Settlements and Democratic Consolidation. In Higley J. and
Gunther R., Elites and Democratic Consolidation in Latin America and Southeastern
Europe / J. Peeler. New York: Free Press, 1991. 301 .
136. Przeworski, A. Democracy and Development / A. Przeworski. New York:
Cambridge University Press, 2000. 109 .
137. Przeworski, A. Democracy and the Market. Political and Economic Reforms
in Eastern Europe and Latin America / A. Przeworski. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 1991. 271 .
138. Przeworski, A. Democracy and the limits of self-government / Adam
Przeworski. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2010. 200 .
139. Pridham, G. Dynamics of Democratization / G. Pridham. London and
New York: Continuum, 2000. 201 .
140. Reddaway, P., Glinski, D. The Tragedy of Russias Reforms: Market
Bolshevism Against Democracy / P. Reddaway, D. Glinsky - Washington, DC: United
States Institute of Peace Press, 2001. 768 p.
141. Rueschemeyer, D. Capitalist Development and Democracy / D.
Rueschemeyer, E.H. Stephens, J.D. Stephens. Cambridge: Polity Press, 1992. 241 .
142. Rustow, D. Transitions to Democracy / D. Rustow // Comparative Politics.
1970. 2. . 2-31.
143. Sandschneider, E. External Promotion of Democracy. Theoretical and
Practical aspects of External Support of Transformation Processes. 2003. P.10
[ ]. URL: http://mercury.ethz.ch/serviceengine/
Files/ISN/43272/ipublicationdocument_singledocument/afaf9249-9c74-4b00-9c48-
a012ac2a72eb/de/2003_Aug_01_\theoretische.pdf. ( : 21.09.2012).
144. Sassen, S. Territory, Authority, Rights: From Medieval to Global
Assemblages / S. Sassen. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2006. 214 .
137

145. Schmitter, P. The Conceptual Travels of Transitologists and


Consolidologists: How Far to the East Should They Attempt to Go? / P. Schmitter, T.
Karl // Slavic Review. Spring 1994. Vol. 53. 1. . 20-29.
146. Schmitter, P. What Democracy Is And Is Not / P. Schmitter, T. Karl //
Journal of Democracy. 1991. Vol. 2. 3. PP. 75-88.
147. Schumpeter, J. Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy / J. Schumpeter
London: Counterpoint, 1942. 347 .
148. Scott, J.M. Transnationalizing Democracy Promotion: The Role of Western
Political Foundations and Think-Tanks / J.M. Scott // Democratization. 2013. Vol. 4.
PP. 321-344.
149. Smith, P. H., Kearney M. C. Transitions, Interrupted: Routes toward
Democracy in Latin America / P. H. Smith // Taiwan Journal of Democracy. 2010.
1. PP. 137-160.
150. Smith, W. The Political Transition in Brazil: From Authoritarian
Liberalization and Elite Conciliation to Democratization. In Baloyra E., Comparing
New Democracies: Transition and Consolidation in Mediterranean Europe and the
Southern Cone / Smith W. Boulder: Westview Press, 1987. 267 .
151. Sondrol, P.C. Paraguay and Uruguay: modernity, tradition and transition /
P.C. Sondrol // Third World Quarterly. 1997. Vol. 18. 1. P.100-109.
152. Stark, D., Bruszt L. Postsocialist Pathways: Transforming Politics and
Property in East Central Europe / D. Stark, L. Bruszt. - Cambridge, UK: Cambridge
University Press, 1998. 284 p.
153. Stark, D. From System Identity to Organizational Diversity: Analyzing
Social Change in Eastern Europe / D. Stark // Contemporary Sociology. - 1992. - 3.
- PP. 299304.
154.Starr, P. International Financial Institutions in Latin America: adjusting to
the Internationalization of Financial Markets / P. Starr. NY: Routledge, 2000.
160 .
155. Starr, H. Democratic Dominoes: Diffusion Approaches to the Spread of
Democracy in the International System / H.Starr // The Journal of Conflict Resolution.
1991. 35. P. 340-360.
138

156. Stepan, A. Rethinking Military Politics: Brazil and the Southern Cone / A.
Stepan. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1988 217 .
157. Teichman, J. Redistributive Conflict and Social Policy in Latin America / J.
Teichman // World Development. 2008. Vol. 36. 3. PP. 446-460.
158. Terry, S.M. Thinking About Post-Communist Transitions: How Different
Are They? / S.M. Terry // Slavic Review. 1993. Vol. 52. 2. . 333-337.
159. Tulchin, J. Inequalities and the Globalization Debate / J. Tulchin, G. Bland.
Boulder: Lynne Rienner Press, 2005. 241 .
160. Verdery, K. What Was Socialism and What Comes Next? / K. Verdery.
- Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1996. 256 p.
161. Wallerstein, I. The Rise and Future Demise of the World Capitalist System:
Concepts for Comparative Analysis / I. Wallerstein // Comparative Studies in Society
and History. 1974. Vol. 16. 4. PP. 387-415.
162. Wiarda, H. Southern Europe, Eastern Europe, and Comparative Politics:
Transitology and the Need for New Theory / H. Wiarda // Eastern European Politics
and Societies. - 2001. Vol. 15. - 3. - PP. 485-501.
163. Zakaria, F. The Rise of Illiberal Democracy / F. Zakaria // Foreign Affairs.
76-1. 1997. P. 25-40.

164. , .. :
: . . . . / .. . , 2009.
165. , ..
( ):
. . . . / .. . - , 2008.
166. , .. :
: . . . . /
.. . , 2012.
167. , ..
: . . . . / ..
. - , 2004.
139

168. , ..

: . . . . / .. . - ., 2008.
169. , ..
: . . .
. / .. . - ., 2009.
170. , .. : , , :
. . . . / .. . - ., 2009.
171. , ..
: : . . . .
/ .. . - ., 2005.
140

1

2010 (%)
.

- - -

62 45 58 41 71
49 43 38 49 52
- 47 23 46 - 45
44 24 51 63 55
41 23 38 59 58
41 22 34 36 41
39 21 34 37 36
37 29 34 - 60
34 23 32 45 45

33 23 34 58 48
32 22 28 33 34

28 23 27 49 47
28 17 24 38 42
28 19 28 55 34
25 16 22 54 57
24 20 21 53 49
21 17 22 25 37
17 14 17 31 24
14 13 15 35 25

Latinobarometro.
: Latinobarometro 2010 Report [ ]. URL:
http://venezuela-us.org/es/wp-content/uploads/ 2011/04 /latinobarometro_
report_2010.pdf ( : 12.09.2012).
2
(%)

: ;
; ; .

: Latinobarometro 2011 Informe [ ]. URL: http://alertacontraelracismo.pe/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/INFORME-


DE-LATINOBAROMETRO-2011.pdf ( : 12.09.2012).

-


33 8,8 7,0 7,3 7,0
46 8,3 6,5 5,8 3,0
18 9,0 8,5 7,3 6,0
9 9,5 10,0 7,5 7,0
41 6,3 6,0 5,5 5,0
- 10 9,8 9,0 8,8 7,0
106 1,5 1,0 2,3 6,0
36 10,0 7,5 6,8 5,0

73 7,0 4,5 4,5 4,0
30 8,3 8,0 7,0 4,0
74 6,0 5,5 4,8 3,0
54 6,8 6,0 6,0 3,0
35 7,3 7,5 6,3 6,0
66 7,0 4,0 6,0 3,0
22 8,3 8,5 7,3 5,0
40 7,5 7,5 5,8 4,0
34 8,0 7,0 4,8 5,0
4 10,0 10,0 9,8 8,0
97 4,5 3,0 4,0 6,0
3
2012 .

: BTI 2012 [ ]. URL: http://www.bti-project.org/uploads/tx_jpdownloads/BTI2012_Scores.xls ( :


07.02.2013).