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Subject Topic Variable X Variable Y

Biology DNA Structure presence of G-C base pairs DNA stability

concentration gradient,
surface area,
Biology Diffusion and/or rate of diffusion
kinetic energy (aka

Biology Blood Pressure presence of proteins Oncotic pressure

Biology Nervous System presence of Myelin conduction speed of an action


Amino Acids, Hydrogen Bonding within a

secondary structure
Biochemistry Peptides, and polypeptide chain (between
Proteins amine and carbonyl groups)

Amino Acids, heat

Biochemistry Peptides, and and/or protein denaturation
Proteins solute concentration

Amino Acids,
Biochemistry Peptides, and pH and pKa protonation state

Amino Acids, protonation state of an amino

direction of migration in
Biochemistry Peptides, and acid
Proteins (which depends on pH and pI)

DNA distance migrated in DNA

Biochemistry size (molecular weight)
electrophoresis electrophoresis

Ion exchange binding affinity to cation-

Biochemistry Overall Charge on a protein
chromatography exchange column
Ion exchange |magnitude| of the overall concentration of NaCl required
chromatography charge on a protein for elution

Biochemistry Enzymes [substrate] reaction rate

Biochemistry Enzymes Km binding affinity for substrate
Biochemistry Enzymes catalytic efficiency Kcat
Biochemistry Enzymes catalytic efficiency Km

charge on an amino acid

Biochemistry Enzymes ligand affinity/stabilization

Regulation of
Biochemistry breathing rate (ventilation) blood pH
blood pH

Regulation of
Biochemistry [blood CO2] blood pH
blood pH

General principle quantum number n

Atomic Structure radius
Chemistry (energy level)

Atomic Structure isotope number magnetic moment

& isotope abundance half life
Bonding & intermolecular forces boiling point
General Reactions
Chemical intermolecular forces surface tension
Bonding &
Chemical fluid flow rate intermolecular forces
Bonding &
Chemical degree of fatty acid saturation membrane fluidity
General Acid-Base
pKa acidity
General Chemistry
pKb basicity
Chemistry Chemistry

Solubility concentration of reactants solubility product Ksp

Electrochemistry ion concentration electrical conductivity
Electrochemistry # of free electrons electrical conductivity

Gas Phase Pressure P Volume V

General Temperature T
Gas Phase Volume V
Chemistry (in Kelvin)

General Temperature T
Gas Phase Pressure P
Chemistry (in Kelvin)

Gas Phase number of moles n Volume V

Boyle's Law
General Charles' Law
Gas Phase Ideal Gas Law
Chemistry Gay-Lussac's Law
Avogadro's Principle

Gas Phase volume of a sample of gas ideal gas behavior
Gas Phase pressure on a sample of gas ideal gas behavior

Spectroscopy ROY G BIV wavelength

General principle quantum number n

Spectroscopy wavelength
Chemistry (energy level)

General wavelength absorption of a

Spectroscopy effectiveness
Chemistry sunscreen

Organic strength of bond

Spectroscopy vibration frequency
Chemistry (single < double < triple)

Spectroscopy mass of atoms in a bond vibration frequency
Organic Reactions basicity leaving group
Organic Reactions Electron-Withdrawing Groups acidity
Organic Reactions ring strain reactivity
Organic Separations &
which compound elutes first similarity to the mobile phase
Organic Purifications
Thin Layer polarity of an unknown
Rf value
Chemistry Chromatography compound
Hydrostatics &
Physics cross sectional area A fluid speed v
Fluid Dynamics

Hydrostatics &
Physics fluid speed v internal pressure P
Fluid Dynamics

Hydrostatics &
Physics cross sectional area A internal pressure P
Fluid Dynamics
Hydrostatics &
Physics flow rate Q internal pressure P
Fluid Dynamics
Hydrostatics &
Physics flow rate Q radius r
Fluid Dynamics
Hydrostatics &
Physics flow rate Q fluid viscocity
Fluid Dynamics
Hydrostatics &
Physics flow rate Q length of tubing l
Fluid Dynamics
Hydrostatics & density of fluid surrounding buoyant Force acting on said
Fluid Dynamics an object object

positive or negative sign for

Physics Optics mirrors vs. lenses
focal length f

index of refraction n bending of light towards the

Physics Optics (aka the density of the material) normal

Physics Sound stiffness of the medium speed of sound wave

Physics Sound temperature speed of sound wave

distance between the source of

Physics Sound the sound (like a train) and the frequency f'
detector (listener)

Atomic and electromagnetic radiation

Physics Nuclear number of photons and
Phenomena intensity of radiation
Physics Kinematics height h above the earth acceleration due to gravity g
forced needed to keep a spring the displacement that spring is
Physics Kinematics
compressed compressed
Physics Kinematics contact area frictional forces f

Psychology Sexuality Rating on Kinsey Scale degree of homosexuality








if pH < pKa, then protonated

if pKa < pH, then deprotonated

if protonated amino acid ---> cathode (-)

if deprotonated amino acid ---> anode (+)



logarithmically proportional (until a max

value is reached)




ODD isotope # = magnetic moment

EVEN isotope # = less/none





if [reactants] > Ksp, then precipitate WILL

if [reactants] < Ksp, then precipitate will
NOT form






PV = nRT



wavelength decreases from left to right

frequency increases from left to right
energy increases from left to right










exponentially proportional (by a power of 4)


same side = +f
opposite side = -f

same side = -f
opposite side = +f







Example / Explanation / Tips to help with memorization

GC base pairs increase the stability of DNA and RNA structure because it has 3 hydrogen bonds,
as opposed to AT or AU base pairs that only have 2 hydrogen bonds.

Demyelination of the axon is a major concern for Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients. The
scavenging of myelin on the axon results in a greater surface area of the neuron exposed for
interaction. Thus there is increased diffusion of electrolytes down their neural concentration

Oncotic pressure defined as a form of osmotic pressure, exerted by proteins. Therefore, low
albumin levels in the blood would cause a low oncotic pressure.

Myelin is an insulator that surrounds the axons and helps speed up action potential transmission,
similar to how a rubber coating helps conduct and speed up electrical transmission in a wire. (note
that since myelin is a good insulator, this also means that by definition it must be a poor conductor)

Secondary structure, which includes -helices and -pleated sheets, are stablized by hydrogen
bonding between the amine and carbonyl groups of the component amino acids of a polypeptide

- Heat denatures proteins by increasing their average kinetic energy, thus disrupting hydrophobic
- Increasing the amount of solutes denatures proteins by disrupting elements of secondary, tertiary,
and quaternary structure.

- At low (acidic) pH, there is more free H+ floating around to interact with the amino acid to
protonate it.
- At high (basic) pH, there is more free OH- present to deprotonate the amino acid.

according to the rules that:

if pH < pI, then the amino acid will be in a protonated state
if pI < pH, then the amino acid will be in a depronated state

if an amino acid with a pI of 5 is run in an electrophoresis that has a pH environment of 8 (aka pI is
less than the pH), the amino acid will be deprotonated. Deprotonated amino acids migrate toward
(the reason why the anode is positively charged as opposed to negatively charged is because
electrophoresis occurs in an ELECTROLYTIC CELL, not a galvanic/voltaic cell.. so that's why the
signs are flipped)

smaller fragments (or more compact DNA if under native conditions) travel the furthest because
they are easiest to push via the electrical field. The larger and heavier fragments so not migrate as
far from the well.
- Proteins with an overall positive charge will bind better to cation-exchange columns. More
positive charge = tighter binding to the cation exchange column.
- Oppositely, proteins with an overall negative charge will bind better to anion-exchange columns.
More negative charge = tighter binding to the anion exchange column.
Proteins with a higher magnitude of overall charge (aka more charged proteins, as opposed to
moderately charged proteins) require a higher salt concentration for elution. (e.g. a protein with an
demonstrated in a Michaelis-Menten Plot: An increase in the substrate concentration (while
overall charge of +5 and a protein with an overall charge of -4 would both require a higher
maintaining a constant enzyme concentration), leads to a proportional increase in the rate of the
concentration of NaCl for elution than a protein with an overall charge of +1)
reaction only initially. However, once most of the active sites are occupied, the reaction rate levels
Km = highof further
affinity forincreases
substratein substrate concentration. At high concentrations of substrate,
the reaction rate approaches its maximal velocity, called Vmax, and is no longer changed by further
High Km = low affinity for substrate
increases in substrate concentration.
based on the equation: Catalytic efficiency = (Kcat) / (Km)
based on the equation: Catalytic efficiency = (Kcat) / (Km)

Ligands that have a negatively charged group, such as phosphate groups, would have a high
binding affinity to an enzyme active site that contains positively charged side chains on an
enzyme, such as His, Lys, and Arg. (aka ionic interactions; "opposites attract")

During hypoventilation, breathing rate is slower than normal.. and it causes blood pH to be low
due to the following reason:
- less CO2 is exhaled (aka less CO2 leaves the body) than normally
[CO2] inside the body is high
according to the equation "CO2 + H2O H2CO3 H+ + HCO3-"
an increase in [CO2] will shift the equilibrium to the right according to Le Chatlier's Principle
this shift will cause [H+] to increase
blood pH will decrease (becomes more acidic due to more H+ present)
(this is refered to as respiratory acidosis)

refer to explanation above

The principal quantum number (n) represents the shell of an atom. The larger the integer value
of n, the higher the energy level and thus the higher the radius of the electron's orbit.

Isotopes that have a magnetic moment (and can thus be imaged by an MRI) are ones with an odd
atomic mass. This is because an odd atomic mass number indicates an odd number of neutrons +
protons. This allows it to have a magnetic moment and thus be affected by a B field. (e.g. Carbon-
13 can be used in MRI because its atomic mass is odd; Phosphorus-32 and Carbon-14 cannot be
used in MRI because its atomic mass is even)

An isotope with a longer half-life is more stable and is therefore more abundant in nature.
A compound
Surface that is
tension exhibits more
defined as aintermolecular forces will have
measure of intermolecular forcesa (and
higher boiling
only point. Also,
intermolecular the
stronger the intermolecular forces, such as more hydrogen bonding, the higher the boiling point.
acting between molecules on the surface of a liquid. (e.g. if molecule A can participate in hydrogen
bonding while molecule B cannot, then molecule A will exhibit greater surface tension than
molecule B) increases, there is greater kinetic energy and therefore the intermolecular forces
As flow rate
become weaker and more transient.
Saturated fatty acids can pack more tightly against each other and therefore will be more viscous.
An cell membrane with unsaturated fatty acids will have higher membrane fluidity because they
cannot pack as tightly.
The strongest acids, such as HCl, have low pKa's (and high pKb's)
The strongest bases, such as NaOH, have low pKb's (and high pKa's)

In comparing MgCl2 and HNO3, since MgCl2 dissociates into 3 ions total in solution (one Mg2+ and
two Cl- ions) and HNO3 dissociates into 2 ions total (one H+ and one NO 3- ion) MgCl2 is said to
have a higher electrical conductivity.
Materials such as graphite are good electrical conductors because its structure consists of carbons
that are covalently bonded to 3 other atoms (recall that cabon is tetrahedral), leaving a "sea" of
free electrons that can conduct electricity. In contrast, diamond is a poor conductor because each
of its carbon atoms are bound to 4 other atoms, leaving no free electrons.
shown by Boyle's Law:

PV = constant = (P2)(V2)

shown by Charles' Law:

(V1) / (T1) = constant = (V2) / (T2)

shown by Gay-Lussac's Law:

(P1) / (T1) = constant = (P2) / (T2)

shown by Avogadro's Principle:

(n1) / (V1) = constant = (n2) / (V2)

notice how the Ideal Gas Law, PV = nRT , is basically just algebraic paraphrase of all of the
equations shown above (Boyle's, Charles', Gay-Lussac's, and Avogadro's Principle) all
combined into one simplified equation. The relationships in the PV = nRT explain in each of those
individual scientist's discoveries, where R is the constant (0.0821 Latm / Kmol)
Decreasing the volume of a sample of gas makes it behave less ideally because the individual gas
particles are in closer proximity in a smaller volume. Thus, this makes them more likely to engage
in intermolecular interactions. By definition, an ideal gas is one that does not participate in any
air behaves more ideally at 1 atm rather than 5 atm
intermolecular reactions.
(recall that since pressure and volume are inversely related... since volume of a gas is directly
Red Orange to ideal gas behavior...
Yellow Green Blue this relationship
Indigo Violetmakes sense mathematically)
700 600 575 500 450 425 400 (approximate wavelengths absorbed)
energy energy
wavelength (~750 nm) wavelength (~400 nm)
frequency frequency

the energy level n = 3 absorrbs 656 nm

the energy level n = 4 absorbs 486 nm

in a wavelength vs. absorption curve, the area under the curve represents the amount of UV light a
sunscreen can absorb. For a given sunscreen, more area under the curve = better sunscreen

due to combining the concept that bonds are like springs and Hooke's Law

due to combining the concept that bonds are like springs and Hooke's Law

weaker bases = better leaving groups because they can stablize extra electrons.
The presence of an EWG (and especially the closer its proximimity to the acidic hydrogen), results
in increased acidity because the EWG stabilizes the conjugate base of that compound via
Rf is calculatedIn contrast, the presence
as (the distance of an EDGmigrates)
the compound decreases acidity because
/ (distance it destabilizes
to the solvent front). the
In chromatography, if the reactive
mobile phase beingstructures
used is nonpolar, thenstrain.
more nonpolar compounds
4-ring structures are more than 6-ring due to ring
-will elute
Polar first and migrate
compounds do not the farther.
migrate far Think
(sinceabout it as "likephase,
the stationary dissolves
suchlike". Because
as silica gel, aisnonpolar
very polar),
therefore is "like" the nonpolar
mathematically mobile
results in aphase,
low Rfit. will migrate toward that mobile phase. Oppositely,
-polar compounds
Nonpolar compoundsare more similar
travel farthestto the polar
up the stationary
card (towards phase, and therefore
the nonpolar solventthey
frontwill not
like hexane),
which far because they
this mathematically likeintoa stay
results higher close
Rf. to a phase that is "like" them.

(e.g. a compound with an Rf of 0.20 is more polar than a compound with an R f of 0.75)
demonstrated via the Continuity Equation:

A1 V1 = A2 V2
demonstrated via Bernoulli's Equation:

P + (1/2)v^2 + gh = constant

a tube that has a fluid traveling at a very high velocity has low pressure
demonstrated by combining the Continuity Equation and Bernoulli's Equation
demonstrated by Poiseuille's Law Equation:
demonstrated by Poiseuille's Law
(e.g. if radius r doubles, then flow rate Q increases by a factor of 2^4; if radius triples, then flow
rate increases by Poiseullie's
a factor of 3^4)
demonstrated by Archimedes'Law Principle:
F bouy = (fluid)(g)(Vsubmerged)
demonstrated by Poiseullie's Law
The buoyant force acting on an object is equal in magnitude to the weight of the fluid it displaces
(e.g. if two identical objects of equal mass were placed in either water or mercury, the bouyant
force acting on the object submerged in mercury would be greated because mercury is MORE
dense than water; the same principle applies for dense air vs. less dense air. A skydiver would
If you think about
experience "+" as meaning
more buoyant force in what
air"expect" to happen,
than in thin air) lenses and mirrors flip flop signs
for f because:
- for mirrors, you EXPECT the image to be on the same side as the light...
- for lenses, you EXPECT the image to be on the opposite side

think about how you expect a bathroom mirror vs. your eyeglasses to works.

demonstrated by Snell's Law (e.g. light bends toward the normal in water or glass, and it bends
away from the normal in air because air has a n = 1 and water and glass n > 1)

Sound travels fastest through a solid, such as the bones of the ossicles, than it does through
gases, such as air. Assuming the same stiffness, sound travels fastest though solids with low
density than solids with high density.

Sound travels fastest in hot air than cold air because the hot air is less dense than cold air

The closer the source and the detector are, the higher the frequency of the sound detected (e.g.
Imagine how when you standing still at a subway station... when the train is far from you, the pitch
starts off low. As the train gets closer, the pitch of the sound emitted gets higher, aka the frequency
is higher)

acceleration due to gravity, g, decreases with as the height of the object above Earth increases.
And vice versa, acceleration increases the closer one gets to the Earth's center of mass. Near the
Earth's surface, g = 10 m/s^2. (e.g. acceleration due to gravity is less up in mount everest than it is
based on Hooke's Law: F = -kx
at sea level)

the Kinsey Scale scores sexuality from a scale of 0-6, with 0 being completely heterosexual and 6
being completely homosexual. A Kinsey Scale score of 3 would equate to bisexuality.
(e.g. a man claims to have had sexual relationships with mostly other men, although he
occasionally has been attracted to women at times. Thus this man would likely score a 4 or 5 on
the Kinsey Scale)















































System Topic Mnemonic

reproductive Sperm Pathway SEVE(N) UP

reproductive Estrogen Estrogen Establishes

reproductive Progesterone Progesterone Protects the endometrium

embryogenesis Ectoderm "attract"oderm

embryogenesis Mesoderm "means"oderm

embryogenesis Endoderm linings of the "endernal" organs

endocrine Peptide Hormones "in" the know

Anterior Pituitary
endocrine FLAT PEG

Calcitonin tones down calcium levels in the

endocrine Calconin

endocrine Corticosteroids functions the 3 S's

endocrine Glucagon Glucagon levels are high when Glucose is gone

cardiovascular Atrioventricular Valves LAB RAT

cardiovascular Exercise is the right thing to do!
Dissociation Curve
immune T-Cells and MHC CD x MHC = 8

digestive Small Intestine Pathway Dow Jones Index (DJI)

digestive Fat-Soluble Vitamins "ADEK"
excretory Waste products in Urine Dump the HUNK
Z is at the end of the alphabet
integumentary Layers of the Epidermis Come, Let's Get Sun Burned
M = "middle"
muscular Sarcomere parts IOsteoBlasts
is a thin letter
Build bone
skeletal Bone H is a thick letter
A = "all"
OsteoClasts Cleave bone
waves of increasing
"Real Men In Violet Underwear... eXtremely
waves frequency (and thus

- Cones are for color vision; The fovea contains

only cones. (both have the long "o" sound)
vision Cones and Rods
- Rods function best in "roduced" lighting. Rods are
found more on the peRiphery.

optics types of images "IR" and "UV"

Converging Systems:
optics - concave mirrors Behind the RIM
- convex lenses

Converging Systems:
optics - concave mirrors MUV in front
- convex lenses

Diverging Systems:
that's a VURy Diverging system? (idk i need
optics - convex mirrors
help coming up with one on this; any ideas?)
- concave lenses

Different eye conditions

optics and which lenses treat My New Dog is Hyper For Candy
the Lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) is for
sensation Vision and Sound
the Medial geniculate nucleus (MGN) is for
genetics Patterns of Inheritance "X-linked
Music. is sex linked"

genetics DNA nitrogenous bases CUT the Pye

genetics DNA nitrogenous bases PURe As Gold

EXons EXpressed
genetics DNA Splicing
INtrons IN the trash

genetics Start codon the students MET in AUGust

genetics translation APE

prokaryotes Shape of bacteria COCCI (they're thicc)

Distinguishing between
prokaryotes gram-positive vs. Gram-NEGATIVE :(
gram-negative bacteria

Isoelectric Focusing
Protein Analysis Anode gets an "A+"
(electrolytic cell)

"snow drop"

Lab Techniques Different kinds of Blots

- Carrotene/vitamin A --> vision

Vitamins Fat-Soluble Vitamins - Vitamin D --> milk --> calcium.
- Vitamin K --> Koagulation

Osmosis hypOtonic
Ribose is ALL RIGHT
"fuck you Glucose (middle finger)"
Carbohydrate Structures of Common Mannose looks like a man holding a gun (C-2
Structure Monosaccharides epimer)
Galactose is the C-4 epimer of glucose
Fructose is the ketose of glucose

Carbohydrate Irreversible Steps of "How Glycolysis Pushes Forward the Process:

Metabolism Glycolysis Kinases."
Carbohydrate -1,4 keeps the same branch moving "4ward"
Glycogenesis Enzymes
Metabolism -1,6 puts a branch in the mix

Carbohydrate Citric Acid Cycle "Citrate Is Krebs' Starting Substrate For Making
Metabolism Substrates Oxaloacetate!"

Amino Acids essential or non-essential Very Heavy MILK is essential??? WTF.

strictly Ketogenic amino

Amino Acids the two L's

Glucogenic AND
Amino Acids FITTT
Ketogenic amino acids

Equation for Catalytic

Enzymes the Cat jumps on top of the Mouse

Freud's Theory of
Theories of
Psychosexual Orangutans Always Play with Little Gorillas

Consciousness Sleep Waves Order BAT-D

Psychological Depressive Dissorder

Psychological Symptoms
Bipolar Dissorder
Disorders Symtoms

the three W's (in alphabetical order)

Psychological Personality Disorder
A) weird
Disorders Clusters
B) wild
C) worried
Isomers Enantiomers vs. Diastereomers

Redox LeO the lion says GeR

Electrochemistry Red Cat
Electrochemistry An Ox

Seminiferious Tubules
Vas deferens
Ejaculatory Duct


Estrogen is responsible for the development and maintenance of the female reproductive system and
female secondary sexual characteristics (breast growth, widening of the hips, changes in fat distribution).
In the embryo, estrogens stimuluate the development of the reproductive tract.

Progesterone is involved in the development and maintenance of the endometrium, but not in the initial
thickening of the endometrium--this is the role of estrogen.

The things that arise from the ectoderm are things that attract us to others, such as cosmetic features and
- nervous system, epidermis, lens of eye, inner ear
the means of getting around as an organism, such as bones and muscle
the means of getting around IN the body, such as the circulatory system and kidney
the means of "getting around ;)" such as the gonads
the digestive and respiratory tracts, and accessory organs (liver, pancreas, thyroid, and bladder) to these

if a hormone endshormone
with "in" (FSH)
then it is likely a peptide hormone, with the exception of glucagon (insulin,
oxytocin, prolactin, vasopressin,
Luteinizing hormone (LH) somatostatin)
hormones that endhormone
in "-one" (ACTH)
or "-ol" are steroid hormones, with the exception of estrogen (testosterone,
progesterone, estrogen)
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)

Growth hormone
calcitonin (GH)
acts to decrease plasma calcium levels in three ways: increased calcium excretion from the
kidneys, decreased calcium absorption from the gut, and increased storage of calcium in the bone ("tones
up 4 hormones in FLAT
stimulated by are
calcium inThe 3 hormones in PEG are all direct hormones.
the blood
Salt (mineralcorticoids)
Sugar (glucocorticoids)
Glucegon is secreted
Sex (cortical during times of fasting in order to stimulate the degradation of protein and fat,
sex hormones)
conversion of glycogen to glucose, and production of new glucose via gluconeogenesis
Left Atrium = Bicuspid
Right Atrium = Tricuspid

everything associated with Exercise causes the curve to shift right:

- increased partial pressure of CO2 in the body (b/c CO2 is a byproduct of Krebs Cycle)
- increased [H+] aka decreased blood pH
- increased body temperature
- increased 2,3-DPG

This is because exercised muscle benefits from more oxygen being unloaded from the RBC (aka
decreased affinity of Hb)
CD4 cells respond to MHC-II (4 x 2 = 8) and goes on to activate the rest of the immune system
CD8 cells respond to MHC-I (4 x 1 = 8) and kills the infected cell then and there
Duodenum major waste products
--> Jejunum -->inIleum
the kidneys to be excreted in the urine:
Vitamins superficial
A, D, E,toand
K are the 4 fat-soluble vitamins.
These vitamins will be absorbed into the lympatic system instead of the circulatory system.
Urea Corneum
NH3 the Z-lines are found at both ends of a sarcomere
K+ the M-line is the middle of the myosin filaments (and sarcomere)
the I-band cells are responsible
Spinosum for building
of thin filaments only bones using high calcium concentration in the blood to deposit
the bones,
H-zone stimulated
Basaleconsists ofby calcitonin.
thick filamentsOsteoclasts
only promote resorbtion of calcium from bones into the blood
stream, stimulated
- the A-band by of
consists Vitamin D and
all of the Parathyroid
thick Hormone.
filament, whether Vitamin
or not D is also activated
it is overlapping with theby Parathyroid
thin filament

Radiowaves --> Microwaves --> Infrared --> Visible light --> UV --> X-rays --> Gamma-rays

Cones are used for color vision and to sense fine details; they are most effective in bright light. However in
reduced illumination, rods are more functional and only allow sensation of light and dark because they all
contain a single pigment called rhodopsin. Rods have low sensitivity to details and are not invovled in color
vision, but permit "night" vision. The fovea is the part of the retina that contains a high density of cones for
daytime vision, whereas the periphery of the retina contains a high density of rods which are more
photosenstitive and can detect dim light.

ALL Inverted images are Real

ALL Upright images are Virtual

an object behind the focal point (but still in front of the center C) = Real, Inverted, Magnified

an object in front of the focal point = Magnified, Upright, Virtual

diverging images are Virtual, Upright, Reduced.

think of those black round security cameras you see in department stores, which are convex mirrors. The
image of yourself that you see in those mirrors makes you look smaller, the images are upright, and virtual.

Myopia = Nearsightedness; corrected with Diverging lenses

Hyperopia = Farsightness; corrected with Converging lenses

X-linked traits have no male-to-male transmission, and more males are affected

C, U, and T are Pyrimidines.

- Note that a pie only has one ring of crust, and likewise pyrimidines have only one ring in their structure
A and G are purines
- Think of Gold wedding rings. It takes TWO gold rings (bride + groom) to complete a wedding, and
likewise purines have two rings in their structure

exons fragments of pre-mRNA that are are kept and later on translated
intron fragments of pre-mRNA are spliced out and are not translated

school starts in august and the start codon for translation is AUG (which codes for methionine)

the order of sites in the ribosome during translation: the A site, then the P site, then the E site.

- spirili are spiral-shaped bacteria

- Cocci are spherical shaped (the letters C and O are round letters)
- bacilli are rode shaped (the letter l looks like a rod)

Unlike gram-positive :) bacteria... gram-negative :( bacteria can set off an immune response due to the
presence of lipopolysaccharides in its peptidoglycan wall. (immune responses are NEGATIVE b/c I hate
getting sick).

Gram-positive bacteria DO NOT have lipopolysaccharides in its peptidoglycan wall, and thus do not set off
an immune response, which is a positive!

Anode has Acidic (H+ rich) gel and a (+) charge

Southern blot = DNA

Northern blot = RNA
(O) (O)
Western blot = Proteins

- one way to remember Carotene (another name for vitamin A) is to remember that carrots are high in
Vitamin A, which is why eating carrots is colloquilly suggested to improve vision.
- to remember that Vitamin D regulates calcium, remember that it is frequently added to milk in order to
aid in the absorption of calcium.
- Vitamin K is for Koagulation (as it is vital in the formation of clotting factors in blood).

to remember that water flows into a cell placed in a hypOtonic solution, imagine the cell swelling to form a
giant letter O.

watch the video at 7:40 for explanation --->

Pyruvate Kinase
- Glycogen Synthase (synthase = building more glycogen), which creates -1,4 glycosidic links between
glucose molecules, is activated by insulin in the liver and muscles.
- Branching Enzyme, which moves a block of oligoglucose from one chain and connects it as a branch
using an -1,6, glycosidic link.

Citrate, Isocitrate, -Ketoglutarate, Succinyl-CoA, Succinate, Fumarate, Malate, Oxaloacetate

the 9 essential amino acids are ones with the one-letter abbreviations:
V, H, M, I, L, K, W, T, F

all the remaining 11 amino acids excluded from the list above are therefore non-essential.

leucine and lysine

the amino acids that are exclusively ketogenic (and not glucogenic) are the only two amino acids that begin
with the letter L.
(F)henylalanine, Isoleucine, Tyrosine, Tryptophan, Threonine

the 5 amino acids that are BOTH glucogenic and ketogenic are:
- the amino acids with the abbreviations F and I
- the 3 amino acids that start with the letter T
Catalytic Efficiency of an Enzyme = (Kcat) / (Km)

Kcat goes on the top (numerator), while K M goes on the bottom (denominator)

Oral (0-1 years)

Anal (1-3 years)
Phalic (3-5 years)
Latency (5 years - puberty)
Gential (puberty - adulthood)

Beta (awake; REM is mostly beta with dreams)
Alpha (awake)
Theta (stage 1-2) (stage 2 hase sleep spindles and K-complexes)
Delta (stage 3-4) (Dreams)
a BAT sleeps during the Day
Psychomotor (which means excessive involvment in pleasure activities like sex)
Flight of ideas
Sleeplike how the Clusters A-C are listed in alphabetical order, "wEird, wild, and wOrried" are also listed in
Talkativenessorder and correspond to those clusters A, B, and C respectively.
Cluster A personality types have symptoms you normally associate with as being weird: paranoid,
schizotypal, schizoid.
Cluster B personality types have symptoms you normally associate with as being wild: antisoscial,
borderline, histrionic, narcissistic.
Cluster C personality types have symptoms you normally associate with as being worried: avoidant,
dependent, OCPD.
Enatiomers differ at Every single chiral carbon.
Diasteromers Don't (because they differ at only some chiral carbons)

Losing electrons = Oxidized

Gaining electrons = Reduced
(think: if you gain electrons, that's the same as "reducing your overall charge from high to low")

Reduction occurs at the Cathode

Anode has Oxidation occuring there

Also Related To:










Liver, Insulin,
Gluconeogenesis Strong


Bohr Effect Strong

Helper T-cells (CD4)
Cytotoxic T-cells (CD8) Strong

nephron Strong








color blindness
hemophilia A Strong
male-pattern baldness







Proteins Unsure








Krebs Cycle Weak

Krebs Cycle Unsure








System Organ
Central Nervous System Hindbrain
Central Nervous System Midbrain

Central Nervous System Forebrain

Central Nervous System "dominant" hemisphere

Central Nervous System
Central Nervous System Thalamus
Central Nervous System Hypothalamus
Central Nervous System Septal Nuclei
Central Nervous System Amygdala
Central Nervous System Hippocampus
Central Nervous System Fornix
Central Nervous System Medulla Oblongata
Central Nervous System Pons

Central Nervous System Cerebral Cortex

Central Nervous System Cerebrum

Central Nervous System Cerebellum
Central Nervous System Brocca's Area
Central Nervous System Wernicke's Area
Central Nervous System Pituitary

Vision Visual Pathway

Vision Cones
Vision Rods

Hearing Auditory Pathway

Hearing Cochlea
Hearing Utricle
Hearing Saccule
Hearing Semicircular canals
Digestive Pancreas
Digestive Gallbladder
Digestive Liver
Digestive Stomach
balance, motor coordination, breathing, digestion, and general arousal
sensorimotor reflexes to visual and auditory stimuli

complex percetual, cognitive and behavior processes such as emotion

and memory (e.g. a developed forebrain is what separates the
cognitive ability of humans from wild animals)

language comprehension, motor function

sense of direction

relay station for sensory information

in charge of homeostasis (body temperature, endocrine)
emotions (fear and agression)
memory and learning
communication within limbic system
vital functions (breathing, heart rate, blood pressure)
complex percetual, cognitive and behavior processes such as emotion
and memory (e.g. a cerebral cortex is what separates the cognitive
ability of humans from wild animals)

posture, balance, motor coordination

motor production of speech
language comprehension
secretes hormones

detects color
detects light

detects sound
detect linear acceleration in the ear
detect linear acceleration in the ear
detect rotational acceleration in the ear

stores bile
creates bile
detoxifies drugs
protein digestion
Anatomy Also Related To
contains the cerebellum, medulla oblongata, and reticular brain stem
contains the inferior and superior colliculi; gives rise to brain stem
some cranial nerves

contains the thalamus, hypothalamus, basal ganglia, limbi cerebral cortex

system, and cerebral cortex

usually the left-hemisphere of the brain

usually the right-hemisphere of the brain, even for left handed

forebrain limbic system
forebrain limbic system
forebrain limbic system
forebrain limbic system

outer layer of cerebrum forebrain

contains the cerebral cortex, limbi system, and basal

BELow the cerebrum hindbrain
frontal lobe
temporal lobe

retina ---> optic nerve ---> optic chiasm ---> optic tracts --->
lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) of the thalamus ---> visual
radiations ---> visual cortex
around the periphery of the retina

cochlea ---> vestibulocochlear nerve ---> medial geniculate

nucleus (MGN) of the thalamus ---> auditory cortex










Chapter Page Importance System Topic Term

6 ** Respiratory Mast Cells

Bicarbonate Buffer
6 **** Respiratory

6 * Respiratory Intercostal Muscles

External Intercostal
6 * Respiratory
Internal Intercostal
6 * Respiratory

6 ** Respiratory Surfactant
7 228 *** Cardiovascular LAB RAT

7 229 * Cardiovascular Intercalated Discs

7 235 *** Cardiovascular Portal Systems

7 238 ** Cardiovascular Hematocrit

7 241 ** Cardiovascular Hematopoietic Stem Cell

7 243 ** Cardiovascular Rh Factor

7 250 ** Cardiovascular Bohr Effect

7 251 ** Cardiovascular Fetal Hemoglobin

8 277 ** Immune Lysozyme

8 273 ** Immune Humoral Immunity

8 273 ** Immune Thymus

8 278 * Immune Complement

8 278 * Immune Interferon

Major Histocompatibility
8 279 * Immune



Pattern recognition
8 281 * Immune

8 281 * Immune Natural Killer Cells

8 281 * Immune Neutrophils

8 281 * Immune Eosinophils

8 281 * Immune Histamine

8 281 * Immune Basophils

Plasma Cells
8 ** Immune
(Effector B-Cells)

8 ** Memory B Cells

Salivary Amylase
9 310 *** Digestive Digestion
9 310 **** Digestive Digestion Lipase
9 311 *** Digestive Digestion Epiglottis

9 311 *** Digestive Digestion Peristalsis

9 312 *** Digestive Digestion Stomach Anatomy

9 312 *** Digestive Digestion Gastric Glands

9 312 *** Digestive Digestion Mucous Cells

9 312 *** Digestive Digestion Chief Cells

9 312 *** Digestive Digestion Pepsin

9 312 *** Digestive Digestion Parietal Cells

9 313 *** Digestive Digestion Intrinsic Factor

9 313 *** Digestive Digestion G-Cells

9 313 *** Digestive Digestion Gastrin

9 313 *** Digestive Digestion Pyloric Glands

9 313 *** Digestive Digestion Chyme
9 311 *** Digestive Digestion Cardiac Sphincter
9 313 *** Digestive Digestion Pyloric Sphincter

9 313 *** Digestive Digestion Small Intestine

9 313 *** Digestive Digestion Duodenum

9 313 *** Digestive Digestion Brush Border Enzymes

Lack of Digestive
9 313 *** Digestive Digestion

9 314 *** Digestive Digestion Bile

9 314 *** Digestive Digestion Bile Salts

9 315 *** Digestive Digestion Pancreatic Juices

Accessory Organs
9 316 *** Digestive Acinar Cells
of Digestion
Accessory Organs
9 316 *** Digestive Pancreatic Enzymes
of Digestion

Accessory Organs
9 317 *** Digestive Duodenal Papillae
of Digestion

Accessory Organs
9 317 **** Digestive Liver
of Digestion

Accessory Organs
9 318 *** Digestive bilirubin
of Digestion

Accessory Organs
9 318 *** Digestive Gallbladder
of Digestion

Absorption and
9 322 ** Digestive Villi

Absorption and
9 322 ** Digestive Lacteal

Absorption and
9 323 ** Digestive Hepatic Portal System

Absorption and
9 324 ** Digestive Chylomicrons
Absorption and
9 324 ** Digestive Fat Soluble Vitamins
Absorption and
9 325 ** Digestive Water Soluble Vitamins

Absorption and
9 325 ** Digestive Cecum

Absorption and
9 325 ** Digestive Appendix

Absorption and
9 325 ** Digestive Colon

Absorption and Internal and External

9 325 ** Digestive
Defecation Anal Sphincters

10 343 **** Excretory Renal Vasa Recta

10 344 **** Excretory Renal Bowman's Capsule
10 344 **** Excretory Renal Detrusor Muscle

10 345 **** Excretory Renal Micturition reflex

10 345 **** Excretory Renal Starling Forces

10 349 **** Excretory Renal
Multiplier System

10 348 **** Excretory Renal Loop of Henle

10 349 **** Excretory Renal Diluting Segment

Proximal Convoluted
10 348 **** Excretory Renal

Distal Convoluted
10 350 **** Excretory Renal

10 350 **** Excretory Renal Collecting Duct

Osmotic vs Oncotic
10 351 **** Excretory Renal
Renal Bicarbonate
10 352 **** Excretory Renal
Buffer System
Innate Immune
10 356 *** Immune Langerhans cells

11 *** Musculoskeletal Muscles Red Fibers

**** Endocrine Pancreas Islets of Langerhans

** Nervous Medulla Oblongata

* Vagus Nerve
**** Renal System Kidney
*** Musculoskeletal Muscles White Fibers
*** Musculoskeletal Muscles Myogenic Activity
*** Musculoskeletal Muscles Tropomyosin
*** Musculoskeletal Muscles Troponin

*** Musculoskeletal Muscles Myosin

*** Musculoskeletal Muscles Tetanus

** Musculoskeletal Bones Harversion Systems

** Musculoskeletal Bones

** Musculoskeletal Bones Synovial Fluid

* Musculoskeletal Bones Flat Bones

* Musculoskeletal Bones Long Bones

404 **** Genetics Penetrance
404 **** Genetics Expressivity

Fundamental Mendel's First Law (Law

404 **** Genetics
Concepts of Segregation)

Mendel's Second Law

405 **** Genetics (Law of Independent

Approaches in

Evolution Inclusive Fitness

Punctuated Equilibrium

Adaptive Radiation
Genetics Translation Start Codons

Genetics Translation Stop Codons

Genetics Transcription Spliceosomes

Taq polyermase

Genetics Mitosis Open Mitosis

Genetics Mitosis Closed Mitosis

Genetics RNA techniques Northern Blot

Genetics DNA techniques Southern Blot

Genetics Protein Isolation Western Blot

Endomembrane System

Immune Phagocytosis Phagolysosome

Incomplete Dominance


Aspartate Transanimase

2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP)


Pentose Phosphate

cytochrome p450

Heterozygote Advantage


Binary Fission

Natural Selection Directional Selection

Natural Selection Stablizing Selection

Natural Selection Disruptive Selection

Evolution Divergent evolution

Evolution Convergent evolution

Gram-Positive Cell Walls

Gram-Negative Cell
Obligate Aerobes

Obligate Anaerobes

Facultative Anaerobes

Aerotolerant Anaerobes


Genetics of
Prokaryotic Cells
Genetics of
Prokaryotic Cells
Genetics of
Prokaryotic Cells
#5 transcriptional splicing
sample test Why might there be an
AAMC Prokaryotic gene initial lag in bacterial
#14 prokaryotic mRNA
sample test expression colony growth before
AAMC Prokaryotic gene increasing, after there is a
sample test expression changeanswer
Which to their choice
AAMC tricky MCAT environment,
will such"largest
result in the as the
sample test question wording addition ofin
decrease a new
mRNA 5' Cap

mRNA 3' poly-A tail

Exonuclease activity
("exo" means on the end)
Endonuclease activity
("endo" means in the
Mismatch repair
Nucleotide Excision
E. Coli

Lactose breakdown
(in prokaryotes)
What determines
which genes are
Lac Operon
expressed in DNA? How is the Lac Operon
What kind of DNA is
better for PCR?
Lab Techniques DNA Electrophoresis
Polymerase Chain
Lab Techniques
Reaction (PCR)
Lab Techniques Southern Blot

Immune cells in lungs covered with antibodies. Release inflammatory chemicals upon
antigen binding to promote immune response. Responsible for respiratory allergic reactions
due to reactions with things like pollen and molds.
Mechanism where respiratory system controls blood pH via controlling carbondioxide
concentrations. Less CO2 in blood = More Basic = Body responds with slower breathing to
retain CO2. More CO2 in blood = More Acidic = Body increases breathing rate to remove
CO2. Hyperventilation decreases CO2 levels in blood, making blood more basic. Body
responds with trying to slow breathing rate.
Layers of muscles between the ribs
contract upon inhalation to pull ribcage up and expand intrathoracic volume (chest cavity

contract upon forced exhalation only

Detergeny covering alveoli to reduce surface tension and prevent alveolus from collapsing
on itself. Premature babies do not have surfactant.
Left Atrium = Bicuspid (mitral) Valve, Right Atrium, Tricuspid Valve
Connect muscle cells in the myocardium of the heart. Contain many gap junctions to
connect the cytoplasm of adjacent cells and allowing for quicker signal propogation and
coordinated ventricular contraction.
Transport systems where blood traveling through these systems goes through two capillary
beds in series before returning to the heart. The three portal systems are the:
1) Hepatic (gut --> liver)
2) Hypophyseal (hyopthalamus --> anterior pituitary)
3) Renal (glomerulus -> vasa recta)
a measure of how many Red Blood Cells are in blood, given as a percentage of total cells in
Stem cell which can differentiate to create Red Blood Cells, White Blood Cells, and
Surface Protein expressed in red blood cells in the presence of allele called D. Leads to (+)
or (-) blood type classifications. Dominant allele.

a shifting of the oxyhemoglobin curve to the right, indicating a lower affinity of hemoglobin
for oxygen so that oxygen can be transported from the RBC to tissues that need it. The Bohr
Effect can be due to decreased pH and increasing the H+ concentration in the blood. H+
binds to hemoglobin allosterically and reduces affinity for oxygen. This allows more oxygen
to be delivered to tissues that need it for aerobic production of ATP. Decreased pH can be
caused by increased CO2 and lactic acid in blood. Right shift of curve can also be caused
by increased temperature, and 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate (2,3-BPG).

(HbF) has higher affinity for oxygen than adult hemoglobin (HbA), in order to pull oxygen
from mother's hemoglobin and onto fetal hemoglobin. Results in left shifted oxyhemoglobin
dissociation curve
Enzyme able to attack petidoglycan walls of gram positive bacteria. Found in nasal cavity,
tears, and saliva
Division of adaptive immunity that includes antibodies and B-cells which act within the blood
rather than within cells.

Gland that matures T-cells. Located between the lungs, just above the heart.
Proteins that nonspecifically will punch holes in the cell membranes of bacteria, making
them osmotically unstable. Can use the classical pathway which requires antibody binding,
or alternative pathway which doesn't)

Proteins produced by cell upon viral infection to block cellular and viral protein production.
Decrease permeability of cell membrane and upregulate MHC class 1 and class 2
molecules on cell surface to signal immune system. Responsible for malaise, tiredness,
muscle soreness,
(MHC) binds and feverpeptides
to pathogenic during viral infections.
(antigens) and carries it to cell surface where it can be
recognized by other immune cells. Produced by virally infected cells via interferons. Also
produced by macrophages. MHC-1 is produced by all cells except RBC's and carries many
proteins to cell surface. When foreign proteins are presented, immune cells know that the
presenting cell is infected and needs to be destroyed. Called endogenous pathway. MHC-2
are mainly displayed by professional antigen presenting cells like macrophages, dendritic
can present
and someselfB-cells.
OR non-self
Takes antigens
antigens from environment, processes them inside the cell,
are found in every cell ofthe
them to activate therest
bodyof EXCEPT for system.
the immune red blood cells.exogenous pathway.
- bind to CD8 Cells, aka cytotoxic T cells
- only present non-self antigens
- they are found on only Antigen-Presenting Cells (APC's)
- bind to CD4 Cells, aka helper T cells
(PRR) able to recognize category of invaders (bateria, virus, fungus, parasite) in order to
initiate appropriate cytokine response. These receptors are presented on macrophages and
dendritic cells.
Detect and destroy cells with downregulated MHC; they basically poke holes in the cell's
membrane, which prevents that cell from keeping a stable membrane potential and
therefore it dies.type
Most abundant Includes cancer
of white bloodcells and
cells some
in the virally
body. Theyinfected cells to respond than
are quicker
macrophages because they "come in hot with guns-a-blazing and ask questions later".
Short lived (5 days). Dead neutrophils are responsible for formation of pus. Follow bacteria
Release large amounts
via chemotaxis of histamine
and phagocytize them.upon
Canactivation for inflammation.
also destroy Contain bright, red-
opsonized cells.
orange ganules.
Released by Eosinophils and Basophils. Cause inflammation by inducing vasodilation and
increased leakiness of blood vessels so additional immune cells can enter tissue.
Have large, purple granules. Least populus leukocyte. Produce large amount of histamine in
response to allergens. Closely related to mast cells.

"anti-body creating factories"

stick around longer than Plasma Cells; their main function is to make proliferation easier
(more rapid and more prolonged proliferation) for the next time you encounter a certain

Enzyme in saliva capable of hydrolyzing starch into smaller sugars.

Enzyle in saliva that catalyzes the hydrolysis of lipids.
Cartilaginous structure that folds down to cover larynx during swallowing, so food doesn't
enter and lead to choking.
Involuntary, rhythmic contraction of smooth muscle that propels food down digestive tract.
Can be reversed during emesis (vomiting) to move contents from the stomach, out the
Consists of the Fundus (top), Body (middle), Pylorus (bottom), and Antrum (exit). Lesser
curvature is the inside curve, Greater Curvature is the outside curve. Rugae is the internal,
folded lining of the stomach.
Dominant glands in the Fundus and Body. Stimulated by the Vagus Nerve of the
Parasympathetic Nervous System. Contain three main cell types: Mucous Cells, Chief Cells,
and Parietal Cells.
secretes bicarbonate-rich mucous that protects the inner lining of the stomach from the
harshly acidic pH environment.
secretes pepsinogen in the stomach, the inactivated form of pepsin; digests proteins once
the persinogen is activated by H+
Enzyme produced from pepsinogen being cleaved by hydrogen ions in the stomach.
Cleaves peptide bonds near aromatic amino acids, resulting in short, peptide fragments.
Uniquely most active at low pH.
secretes HCl and intrinsic factor. The HCl decreases pH so that the H+ ions can cleave
pepsinogen into pepsin. The low pH also helps kill most harmful bacteria and denature
proteins and break down some intramolecular bonds that hold food together. Intrinsic factor
aids in the absorption of vitamin B12
Glycoprotein secreted by the parietal cells in the gastric glands in the stomach. It is involved
in the absorption of vitamin B12
Cells in the pyloric glands of the stomach that secrete Gastrin
Peptide Hormone that induces the parietal cells in the stomach to secrete more HCl and
also signals the stomach to contract. Secreted by G-cells
Dominant glands in the Antrum and Pylorus sections of the stomach. Contain G-cells that
secrete gastrin.
Acidic, semifuild mixture in the stomach resulting from the digestion of solid food.
Sphincter that controls the movement of the bolus from the esophagus into the stomach
Sphincter that controls movement of chyme from the stomach to duodenum
Responsible for continued digestion and absorption of nutrients. Approximately 7 meters
long. Consists of three segments: Duodenum, Jejunum, and Ileum. The majority of chemical
digestion takes place in the duodenum while the majority of absorption takes place in the
jejunum and ileum.

Site of chemical digestion in the small intestine. Releases tons of enzymes such as brush
border enzymes, secretin, and cholecystokinin.

Enzymes present on the inside surface of cells lining the duodenum that are released in the
presence of chyme. These enymes break down dimers and trimers of biomolecules into
absorbable monomers. Include disaccharidases and peptidases

Intestines can't cleave disaccharaide for digestion. This increases osmolarity and pulls water
into the intestines to form diarrhea. Bacteria in the small intestine are able to break down
disaccharides, but result in methane gas as a biproduct, resulting in farts.

Complex fluid of bile salts, pigments, and cholesterol. Produced by the liver and stored in
the gallbladder before secretion into the small intestine.
Have hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions to act as an emulsifier in the duodenum to allow
fats and cholesterol to form micelles and giving access to pancreatic lipase digestion (a
water soluble enzyme). The creation of micells increases surface area of fats for aided
digestion by lipases. Formation of micelles is a form of mechanical digestion.
Secreted by pancreas into duodenum due to stimulation by cholecystokinin (CCK). Complex
mixture of ezymes in bicarbonate-rich solution. This basic solution neutralizes chyme to
allow for ideal pH for enzymatic digestion (most active around pH 8.5). Contains enzymes to
digest carbohydrates, fats, and proteins.
Cells that make up the bulk of the pancreas and participate in its exocrine functions.
Produce pancreatic juices.
Secreated by Acinar Cells.

Pancreatic Amylase: Digests carbohydrates.

Trypsinogen: Activated by Enteropeptidase (produced in Duodenum) to form trypsin, which
then activates chymotrypsinogen. Procarboxypeptidases A and B to protein digestion.
Pacreatic Lipase: Breaks down fats into free fatty acids and glycerol

Secretion point of pancreatic juices into duodenum from pancreatic ducts.There is a major
and a minor duodenal papilla.
- Regulates blood sugar via glyogenesis, glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis, and the storage
and release of fats.
- Converts Ammonia (waste product of amino acid metabolism) into Urea
- Detoxifies chemicals such as drugs and alcohol
- Produces Bile
- Synthesizes albumin and clotting factors
Major pigment in Bile, which is the byproduct of the breakdown of hemoglobin. Inability to
process or excrete bilirubin results in Jaundice.

Stores and concentrates bile. CCK stimulates the gallbladder to contract and push bile into
the billiary tree, which merges with the pancreatic duct before entering the duodenum via
the duodenal papillae. Gallbladder stones made of cholesterol or bilirubin can cause
inflammation of the gallbladder and blockage of both the biliary tree and pancreatic ducts.

Small, fingerlike projections from the epithelial lining of the small intestine. Each villus is
covered in microvilli. This greatly increases surface area for absorption. Each villus contains
a capillary bed for absorption of water soluble nutrients and small fatty acids into the blood
and a lacteal to transport fats into the lymphatic system
Lymphatic channel that takes up fats in the form of milky fluid chylomicron for transport into
the lymphatic system. Located in the Villi.
Portal system in which blood first travels through capillaries in the villi of the small intestine
to absorb nutrients, then again through the capillaries in the liver for nutrients to be
processed and for toxins to be removed.
Packaged triglycerides and esterified cholesterol that gets transferred from the mucosal
cells of the villi of the small intestine into the lacteal for insertion into the lymphatic system
Vitamins A, D, E, and K. Easily dissolve into chylomicrons to enter body. Failure to digest or
absorb fat may lead to deficiencies in fat soluble vitamins.

Vitamin B complex and C. Absorb directly from small intestine into blood plasma.

Outpocketing of the Large Intestine that accepts fluid exiting the small intestine through the
ileocecal valve and is the site of attachment of the appendix. Home to many aerobic
bacteria that produce a symbiotic relationship that helps produce vitamin K and biotin
(vitamin B7).
Originally thought to be vestigial, but now thought to aid in warding off bacterial infections
and repopulating the large intestine with normal flora after diarrhea.
A part of the large intestine that's main function is to absorb water and salts from indigested
material left over from the small intestine. Absorbs less water than the small intestine, but
still aids in formation of feces. Too much or too little absorption causes constipation or
diarrhea respectively.

Seperate the rectum from the outside. Internal sphincter is involuntary. External is voluntary.

Capillaries that surround the loop of Henle as the second capillary be in the renal portal
system (the first being the glomeruli)
Cuplike structure around glomerulus that leads to the proximal convoluted tubule.
Muscular lining of the bladder which contracts after stimulation from the parasympathetic
nervous system.
When stretch receptors in bladder recognize that it is full, they fire parasympathetic neurons
to the detrusor musccle and internal urethral sphincter causing them to contract and relax
Forces that govern the movement of fluid into the Bowmen's Capsule from the Glomerulus.
This is a result of the hydrostatic and oncotic forces of the Bowman's Space and
Glomerulus capillaries.
The system in which the Vasa Recta and Nephron flow in opposite directions, allowing more
hypertonic blood (high osmolarity) to be exposed to the loop of Henle, allowing for maximum
water absorption.
Descending Loop: Only permeable to water. Water leaves the loop, creating an increasingly
concentrated solution at the end of the loop.
Ascending Loop: Only permeable to salts. This allows the highly concentrated fluid at the
end of the loop to be reabsorbed by the vasa recta, decreasing concentration by the time
the fluid gets to the distal convoluted tubules.

Thicker portion of the ascending loop of Henle with larger cells due to more mitochondria in
these cells to facilitate active transport. These cells are pushing out salts against their
concentration gradient, since the fluid inside the loop of Henle has become hypotonic
compared to the interstitium. This is the only portion of the nephron that can produce urine
more dilute than blood.
Proceeds the Bowmans Capsule. Amino Acids, Salts, Glucose, Water Soluble Vitamins
reabsorbed into the Vasa Recta along with water. About 70% of the filtered sodium is
reabsorbed here. H+, K+ NH3, Urea are all secreted here.
Responds to Aldosterone, which promotes sodium reabsorption. Water will follow the
sodium, concentrating the urine and decreasing its volume. Waste products are also
secreted here.
Final concentration of urine largely dependent on permability of collecting duct, which is
affected by ADH and Aldosterone to increase water absorption and concentrate urine
output. Water travels to Vasa Recta, where it reenters blood stream.
Osmotic Pressure = "Sucking" pressure that draws water into blood
Oncotic Pressure = Osmotic Pressure specifically caused by Proteins
When pH is too high, kidneys can selectively excrete more bicarbonate and reabsorb more
H+. When pH is too low, kidneys exctrete more H+ and reabsorb more bicarbonate.
Special macrophages that reside within the stratum spinosum of the epidermis. Capable of
presenting antigens to T-cells to activate the immune system.
Slow twitch fibers, high mioglobin content and derive energy aerobically. Lots of
Pancreatic bundles of cells that release hormones. Include alpha, beta, and delta cells,
which release glucagon, insulin, and somatostatin respectively.
Below the pons. Connects brain to spinal chord.
Mostly Parasympathetic Nerve that slows down heart rate when activated. Originates in
Medulla Oblongata.
Secretes erythropoietin to stimulate red blood cell development and thromboprotein which
stimulates platelet development.
Fast twitch fibers. Less myoglobin. Contract rapidly, but fatigue more quickly.
Both smooth muscles and cardiac muscles can contract without nervous system input.
Protein that spirals around actin in muscles, covering the myosin binding sites.
Protein on tropomyosin. Has a Ca2+ binding site. When activated by calcium binding,
troponin causes tropomyosin to undergo conformational change, exposing myosin binding

Motor protein in muscles. Binds to Actin filaments in the cocked position, with ADP + Pi
bound. This happens only when actin filaments have exposed myosin binding sites after
Ca2+ is bound to troponin.

After myosin-actin binding, ADP + Pi dissociate from myosin, causing the power stroke. This
contracts the sarcomere. ATP then binds to myosin, freeing it from actin. ATP is hydrolyzed
to ADP + Pi, recocking the myosin (which is unbound from actin).

When muscle contracts do not get the chance to relax at all due to constant stimulation at a
high frequency. E.g. after a tough workout, your muscles are still tense, even though you
aren't flexing.
Structural Unit of Bone, also called Osteons. Have Harversian and Volkmann's Canals
(longitudinal and transverse canals) that allow blood vessels, nerves, and lymph vessels to
maintain bone health.
Process of hardening cartilage into bone. Responsible for formation of most of the long
bones of the body.
Lubricates the movements of structures in the joint space. Secreted by soft tissue called the
synovium, which is enclosed inside of the joint cavity by the synovial capsule.
Contains red bone marrow, indicating that high RBC production occurs here; usually provide
protective functions and are found in areas associated with little movement, such as skull
bones, ribs, and vertebrae.
Contains yellow bone marrow, indicating that low RBC production occurs here; found in
areas associated with physical movement such as the arms, legs, hands, and feet.
The proportion of individuals in the populations carrying an allele who actually express the
Different manifestations of the same genotype across the population. Constant expressivity
means all individuals with a given genotype experience same phenotype.
Genes exist in alleles, of which each person has two of (one from each parent). Gametes
only carry one allele due to separation during meiosis of the alleles. Only one allele will be
fully expressed if two alleles are different, while one is silent (except for codominance and
incomplete dominance)

Inheriting one gene does not affect the inheritance of another gene. This was later explained
by recombination during meiosis. Problematic when linked genes were discovered.

p^2 + 2pq + q^2 = 1

Equations show the frequency of alleles in a population and also the frequency of a given
genotype or in the population. There will always be twice as many alleles as individuals in a

Measure of an organism's success in the population. Based on number of offspring, ability

to support offspring, and ability of the offspring to support others. Promotes altruism since
sacrificing oneself, commonly for offspring, can ensure passing of genes to future
Some species have "Explosions" of evolutionary change that occur in rapid bursts, rather
than slowly over a long period of time.
Natually occuring differences in form between members of the same population, such as
light and dark coloration in the same species of butterfly.
Rapid rise of a number of different species from a common anscestor.
AUG (also known as Methionine)
responsible for removing introns from mRNA after it is synthesized

used in PCR

mitosis that occurs in the cytoplasm because the nuclear envelope has degraded

mitosis that occurs in the nucleus that occurs in some unicellular eukaryotes

used to analyze RNA

used to analyze DNA

used to analyze proteins (and anything associated with proteins such as posttranslational
modificaiton of proteins via histone acetylation)

when a macrophage ingest a foreign material, the material initially becomes trapped in a
phagosome. The phagosome then fuses with a lysosome to form a phagolysosome. Inside
the phagolysosome, enzymes digest the foreign object.
when there is a mixing of two phenotypes (e.g. red flower + white flower = pink flower; tall +
short = medium height)
when two phenotypes are simultaneously expressed (e.g. blood type antigens; Type AB
blood expresses both the A and B receptors simulataneously and is thus an example of
enzyme that transfers an amino group to -ketoglutarate to form Glutamate and
a lethal uncoupling agent that binds protons in the intermembrane space and transfers them
across the inner mitochondrial membrane, thus dissapating the proton gradient and blocking
ATP synthesis
sugar composed of a 5-membered ring

sugar composed of a 6-membered ring

primary purpose is to regenerate NADPH, which is used as a reducing equivalent with
glutathione for biosynthesis. Occurs in the cytoplasm. Rate limiting enzyme is glucose-6-
phosphate dehydrogenase, which is inactivated by NADP+ and insulin. Inhibited by
sufficient levels of NADPH of course

enzyme used in drug detoxification in the liver; sometimes coincidentally it can also
inadvertently activate carcinogenic compounds that are not otherwise harmful

the tendency for a carrier of a dangerous condition to have a survival advantage (e.g.
heterozygotes for sickle cell anemia are protected against malaria)
cells use flippases to move lipids between leaflets of the cell membrane because there is a
high entropy cost ot moving them from one side of the membrane to the other
the process of cell replication by prokaryotes (bacteria such as E.coli) where the new copy
of DNA is attacted to the cell membrane and then the cell splits in half between the two
copies of
occurs DNAindividuals with only a certain more extreme form of a trait has greater fitness
than an individual with an average form of the trait (e.g. dark color moths have better
occurs when individuals with the average form of a trait have the highest fitness
advantage because of camoflauge than light color moths and are thus more fit for survival)
(e.g. when laying a medium number of eggs is better than: laying too little eggs--not enough
to ensure
occurs whensurvival of generations,
individuals with eitherorextreme
too many eggs---too
variation of a many offpsring
trait have to feed
greater with
fitness scarce
than the
resources)with the average form of the trait
(e.g. small salmon and large salmon have better fit than medium sized salmon because they
can orrunmore species diverge
away/harder to catch)from a common ancestor (e.g. dog, wolf, and fox; elephant and
whooly mammoth)
"diverge" means
species to separate
share from
traits but theNOT
are same point
due to a common ancester. (e.g. birds, bats,
and butterflys share the similar trait of wings but they do not share a common ancestor)
- hint: things that "converge" mean that they are coming closer together even though they never touch
- dyes purple
- contain a THICK peptidoglycan layer
- dyes pink
- contain a thinner peptidoglycan layer
- has a lipopolysaccharide layer, that can can set off an immune response
need oxygen in order to live

are killed in the presence of oxygen

do not necessarily need oxygen, but they can grow better if oxygen is present

can live without oxygen and ignore oxygen regarless whether it is present or not
an RNA molecule that is capable of catalyzing reactions. It is composed of RNA and is
therefore susceptible to phosphodiesterases since it has phosphodiester bonds in the ribose
weeks 4-9 ofbackbond
prenatal development where production and development of the organs begin.
Chemical or radiation exposure during this time is more likely to cause abnormalities that
occurs when viability of theacquires
a bacterium embryo)a piece of genetic material from the environment and
is that piece
the bacterial form ofofMATING
genetic material into the host cell
(sexual reproduction). genome.two
It involves This is aforming
cells common a
method by which
cytoplasmic bridgeantibiotic
between resistance
them that allowscan be foracquired
the transfer of genetic material. The
transfer is ONE-way, from the donor male (+) to the recipient female (-). The bridge is made
occurs when a bacteriophage acquires genetic information from a host cell. Sometimes,
from appendages called sex pili that are found on the donor male. To form the pilus,
when the new virions are assembled in a host cell, some of the genetic material from the
bacteria must contain plasmids known as sex factors.
host cell is packaged along with the viral genetic material. Then, the pacteriophage infect
occurs ONLY in eukaryotes. The removal of introns and splicing of the remaining pieces
another bacterium, resulting in transfer of gacterial genetic material.
(exons) occurs as a in-between step in the production of mature mRNA from the transcript
the lag may no addition
to due toprocessing,
a period in unlike
which eukarotic
bacteria are mRNA. Because
regulating theirtranscription
gene expression in (of
produced from DNA (pre-mRNA); done by Spliceosomes.
enzymes). occurs in the cytoplasm
regulation (as opposed
of gene expression to in
is one the nucleus
method by which for bacteria
eukaryotes), the to
changes ribosomes
in their are allowed
environment, tocase
in this bind theto the
new mRNA
additionandofbegin translation
something even before
that would aid in
their growth. is complete.
Before this addition, the bacteria lacked any enzymes to facilitate this growth
because the genes for these enzymes were not yet expressed. However upon addition to a
new polysaccharide
another way of saying to "which
their environment,
answer choice theywill
be mostgene expression
energetically of the necessary
favorable" because a
enzymes ininorder
"decrease to use
entropy" it as fuel.
is always The growthEntropy
unfavorable. of the colony
is favoredoccurs when these genes have
in nature.
been on
goes expressed
the 5' end.andItthus they are able
is a Guainine; to digest
protects the polysaccharide
the mRNA from degrative forenzymes
fuel. as it travels
from the nucleus to the cytoplasm.
goes on the 3' end. Contains a shit load (200+) of Adenosines, hence that's why it's called
DNA ; protects
repair the mRNA
that occurs at thefrom
of a DNA enzymes as it travels
strand. Performed when from the Polymerase
DNA nucleus to the III in
which there was an accidentally mismatched nucleotide (such as a Thymine with a Guanine)
but the DNA Polymerase III detects this mistake and corrects it (pairing the Thymine with an
DNA repair that occurs at the middle of a DNA strand. Performed by DNA Polymerase III in
Adenosine). Occurs in 3' to 5', aka backwards. Performed by DNA Polyermase I when it
which there was an accidentally mismatched nucleotide (such as a Thymine with a Guanine)
Occurs the replication
RNA primer. when a mutation as occured. This mechanism is composed of a
but the DNA Polymerase III detects this mistake and corrects it (pairing the Thymine with an
number of proteins that recognize if there is a mismatch in DNA (aka a mutation). They mark
The process of fixing damaged and broken double stranded DNA that resulted from
the mismatch area with a "cut". Then an exonuclease removes the incorrect nucleotide.
exposure to things such as UV rays, reactive oxygen species, gamma rays, etc. First, an
Then DNA Polymerase fixes it by inserting the correct nucleotide pair. Then DNA Ligase
happens removes the
after translation andpyramidine
mostly Then
the ER a DNA
or GolgiPolymerase
Apparatus; brings the correct
includes (1)
connects the new nucleotides, "sealing the deal".
nucleotides. Then
glycosylation DNA of
(adding Ligase connects those
carbohydrates to the correct
that eventually together
end up andon seals the
the cell
happens to the polypeptide as it is being put together during translation; includes
deal. Failureitof
membrane; the nucleotide
helps excision types
to identify different repair ofsystem may as
cells such result
the in
ABO uncontrolled
blood groups) cell division
or (2)
acetylation, in which the start codon (met) is removed and replaced with an acetyl group;
and cancer.(adding a lipid to the protein such as GPI anchors that aids in attaching a protein
the significance of acetylation is still not yet fully understood by biologists
to the lipid cell membrane) or (3) phosphorylation (adding of a phosphate group to the
protein to cause a change in conformation/function, as seen in the Sodium-Potassium
Pumps), (4)
normally usesmethylation
glucose as (adding
its energymethyl
source groups in order
as default. to turn genes
However if glucose off from
is nottranscription,
as Coli
E. seenwillin histones),
metabolize(5) proteolysis
lactose instead(cutting a protein
by expressing thetoLacinactive
Operon. it into its zymogen form),
a ubinquination
segment of DNA (adding
(aka a gene) a protein calledContains
in E.Coli. ubiquitin3ontogenes another protein,
that helps which
E. Coli marks
break downit for
(via the enzyme -Galactosidase)
lactose for energy only when glucose is not available.
Lactose (disaccharide) ---> glucose (monosaccharide) + galactose (monosaccharide)
1) Lac Z codes for -Galactosidase, which is the enzyme that breaks down lactose
2) LacaYlactose
when codes molecule
for Lactose Permease,
(inducer) bindswhich
to theisrepressor
the enzyme that helps
protein (whichE.Coli bring
is found onlactose
the Lac
into the cell
Operon's operator region), the repressor will then change shape and the repressor will come
3) Lac
off A codes for
the operator site.other enzymes that aid in lactose metabolism (though not important for
the MCAT
now RNA Polymerase is not blocked and is free to transcribe the lac Z, Y, and A region in
order DNA
E. Coli
G-C bonds)
composed of two nucleotides joined by their phosphate groups (similar to nucleic acids)
- the oxidized form is NAD+ (which is an oxidizing agent)
- the reduced form is NADH (which is a reducing agent) (can break disulfide bonds)
Also Related To Understanding

Immune System

pH Homeostasis Unsure








Exercise Strong









Granulocyte Unsure

Granulocyte Weak


Granulocyte Weak






Mucous Cells, Chief Cells,

Parietal Cells Weak

Gastric Glands Unsure

Gastric Glands

Chief Cells

Gastric Glands
Intrinsic Factor

Parietal Cells

Pyloric Glands






Acinar Cells

Pancreatic Juices
Acinar Cells

Pancreatic Juices

fats Unsure




Aldosterone, ADH

Hind Brain
Rigor Mortis Strong


Altruism Strong
amino acids Strong

amino acids Strong

enzymes Unsure




macrophage Weak



Krebs Cycle Weak

Electron Transport Chain
Oxidative Phosphorylation Strong




drug detoxifcation Weak









immune system Weak







antibiotic resistance

mRNA processing Weak





DNA Polymerase III
DNA Polymerase I Unsure



Damaged DNA

Protein modifications

Protein modifications


prokaryotes Unsure
gene expression in Strong


Agarose Strong

Taq Polymerase Strong

identifying DNA Strong

System Secreted from Hormone
Endocrine Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH)
Endocrine Corticotropin-Releasing Factor (CRF)
Endocrine Thyroid-Releasing Hormone (TRH)
Hypothalamus Prolactin-Inhibiting Factor (PIF)
aka dopamine
Endocrine Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone (GHRH)

Endocrine Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)

Endocrine Luteinizing Hormone (LH)

Endocrine Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)

Endocrine Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
Anterior Pituitary
Endocrine Prolactin

Endocrine Endorphins

Growth Hormone (GH)

aka somatotropin

Endocrine Anti-Diuretic Hormone (ADH / vasopressin)

Posterior pituitary
[produced by the hypothalamus
but stored here]

Endocrine Oxytocin

Endocrine Triiodothyronine (T3)

Endocrine Thyroxine (T4)

Endocrine Calcitonin

Endocrine Parathyroids Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)

Endocrine Cortisol (glucocorticoid)

Adrenal Cortex
(aka the outer region of
the adrenal gland)

Endocrine Aldosterone (mineralocorticoid)

Endocrine Epinepherine
Adrenal Medulla
(aka the inner region of
Endocrine the adrenal gland) Norepinepherine

Endocrine Pancreas -cells Glucagon

Endocrine Pancreas -cells Insulin

Endocrine Pancreas -cells Somatostatin

Reproduction Testes Testosterone

Reproduction Estrogen
Reproduction Ovary/Placenta Progesterone

Immume Thymus Thymosin

Digestion Stomach Ghrelin

Digestion Fat Cells (in stomach) Leptin

Digestion G-cells Gastrin

Digestion Duodenum Secretin

Digestion Duodenum Cholecystokinin (CCK)

Sleep Pineal Gland Melatonin

Sleep Adrenal Cortex Cortisol

RAAS; Liver
Blood Pressure Kidneys Renin-Aldosterone-Angiotensin System (RAAS)
Regulation Lungs

Blood Pressure Angiotensin II

Blood Pressure
Heart Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP)

secreted from Neurotransmitters

presynaptic &
postsynaptic synapses of
Nervous Acetylcholine
the parasympathetic
nervous system

sympathetic nervous
Nervous Epinephrine

Digestion hypothalamus Orexin

In Response To: To Act On: To Cause:
puberty Anterior Pituitary FSH and LH
Anterior Pituitary ACTH
Anterior Pituitary TSH

Always Anterior Pituitary prolactin secretion

Anterior Pituitary

follicate maturation;
GnRH Gonads
egg and sperm production
ovulation (when follicle releases the egg);
GnRH Gonads
CRF Adrenal Cortex glucocorticoids (like cortisol)
TRH Thyroid thyroid hormones (T3 and T4)
Breasts milk production and secretion
the perception of pain in the brain;
Muscles and brone and muscle growth;
(also peaks during
Bones lipolysis
slow-wave sleep)

water reabsorption in the kidneys via

High Blood permeability in the collecting duct via
Osmolarity aquaporins
(aka high salt blood pressure
concentration) blood osmolarity due to blood volume
urination (aka less water loss)

uterine contractions during childbirth;

Uterus pleasure feelings (bonding);
milk secretion during lactation

metabolic activity;
(rapid, shorter duration effects on metabolism.
Small Intestine;
TSH Derived from T4 via deiodonases. Clears
cholesterol from plasma and glucose
absorption from small intestine)
metabolic activity;
Small Intestine; (slower, longer lasting effects on metabolism.
Blood Clears cholesterol from plasma and glucose
absorption from small intestine)
blood calcium level
" tones down [blood Ca] "

blood calcium level by promoting

reabsorbtion of calcium into blood from the
activates Vitamin D and osteoclasts.
blood glucose level via gluconeogenesis
Stress (exercise,
inflammatory response
cold, emotional,
Blood immune function
protein synthesis

Na+ and water reabsorption in kidneys via

Kidneys sodium-potassium channels
(distal convoluted blood volume
Angiotensin II
tubule; collecting blood pressure
duct) K+ and H+ (via excretion)
does not change in
glycogenolysis liverosmolality, unlike ADH
Liver, Muscle blood glucose level
heart rate
glycogenolysis in liver
Liver, Muscle blood glucose level
heart rate
blood glucose via:
when blood glucose
glycogenolysis in the liver
blood glucose via:
levels are low
when blood glucose Blood gluconeogensis
conversion of glucose into its storage form,
(during fasting)
levels are high (after Blood glycogen
a meal)
uptake of blood glucose into tissue
inhibits BOTH Glucagon and Insulin

maintains male secondary sex characteristics

maintains female secondary sex characteristics

growth/maintainence of the endometrium

T-cell development

knowing that a meal appetite

is coming Orexin


HCl secretion
gastric motility to mix contents

Pancreatic Enzyme release into Duodenum

motility through digestive tract to allow
digestive enzymes to act on chyme;
regulates pH by:
HCl secretion from parietal cells
bicarbonate secreation from pancreas

Amino Acids and Fat release of bile

in Chyme as it enters Pancreous, Brain release of pancreatic enzymes
duodenum satiety
light (night time in
circadian rhythm)
light (early morning wakefulness
in circadian rhythm)

basically... the liver is constantly secreting a

protein called Angiotensinogen. When the
kidneys detect a drop in blood pressure, it
secretes the enzyme Renin, which catalyzes a
reaction that converts Angiotensinogen to
when the kidney Angiotensin I. Angiotensin I then travels
blood pressure
detects a drop in throughout the circulatory system and when it
blood pressure reaches the lungs, it encounters an enzyme
called ACE (angiotensin converting
enzyme). ACEs job is to convert Angiotensin I
into Angiotensin II, which is the more potent
hormone that brings blood pressure back up by
various ways in order to restore homeostasis

increases blood pressure when it is low via:

being converted from Aldosterone
adrenal cortex
Angiotensin I via ADH
posterior pituitary
ACE sympthetic activity

decreases blood pressure when it is high via:

when blood pressure
urination (aka promotes water loss)
is too high
water retention
blood volume

Ghrelin, appetite
hypoglycemia alertness
Note: Understanding





inhibited by dopamine Strong



ADH release is
inhibited by diuretics
such as alcohol and

under positive
feedback with itself







Excess leads to mania.

Deficiency leads to Strong

"statin" means











this involves a system (RAAS

itself is not a single hormone) Strong


antagonistic to



lack of Orexin can

result in cataplexy Unsure
In: Process Enzyme Name



PhosphoGlucoIsomerase (PGI)

Phosphofructokinase-1 (PFK-

Phosphofructokinase-2 (PFK-
Glycolysis Topoisomerase



Pyruvate Kinase

bisphosphoglycerate mutase

Fermentation Lactate Dehydrogenase

intermediate step
between Pyruvate Dehydrogenase
Glycolysis & the Citric (PDH)
Acid Cycle
mitochondrial matrix

Isocitrate Dehydrogenase

Citric Acid Cycle

Succinyl-CoA Synthetase

Nucleosidediphosphate kinase

Glycogen Synthase
Brancing Enzyme
Glycogen Phosphorylase

Debranching Enzyme
cytoplasm AND mitochondria (in liver)

Pyruvate carboxylase




Pentose Phosphate glucose-6-phosphate

Pathway dehydrogenase

Fatty Acid Synthesis Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase

Digestion Pepsinogen

Digestion Pepsin

(formerly enterokinase)

Digestion Aminopeptidase
Digestion Dipeptidase
Digestion Lipase

Digestion Amylase

Blood Pressure
Blood Pressure ACE (angiotensin-converting
Regulation enzyme)
Action Produced by:
functions irreversibly just like hexokinase; only present in the pancreatic -
islet cells as part of the glucose sensor and is responsive to insulin in the
Irreversibly phosphorylates glucose by using one ATP, facilitated by Mg
2+; this "traps" the glucose and prevents it from exiting the cell.

converts Glucose-6-Phosphate into Fructose-6-Phosphate

irreversibly transforms Fructose 6-Phosphate into Fructose-1,6-

Rate-limiting enzyme in Glycolysis

produces F2,6-BP, which activates PFK-1

converts Fructose-1,6-Bisphosphate into GAP and DHAP
converts DHAP into GAP

produces NADH

Irreversibly dephosphorylates phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) into pyruvate

while turning ADP into ATP (via substrate-level phosphorylation)

In red blood cells. Transforms 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate (1,3-BPG) into 2,3-

bisphosphoglycerate (2,3-BPG), which decreases hemoglobin affinity for
oxygen. Shifts oxygen dissociation curve right. Does not bind well to fetal
hemoglobin (HbF), which is why HbF has higher affinity for oxygen than

reduces pyruvate to produce lactate

oxidizes NADH to produce NAD+
- this replenishes NAD+ for GAPDH to function.
Rate-limiting enzyme in Fermentation

Irreversibly converts Pyruvate into acetyl-CoA

Rate limiting step of the Citric Acid Cycle.

reduces NAD+ to produce NADH
Isocitrate becomes oxidized to oxalosuccinate (Reducing NAD+ to NADH in
the process), which is decarboxylated to produce alpha-ketoglutarate and
Transforms Succinyl-CoA to Succinate with energy input from turning GDP
into GTP
Transfers a phosphate from GTP to ADP in order to produce ATP. This is
the only time in Citric Acid Cycle that ATP is created.

Forms alpha-1,4 glycosidic bond for linear chains of glycogen.

Rate-limiting enzyme in Glycogenesis

Forms alpha-1,6 glycosidic bonds for brancing chains of glycogen by

breaking off an alpha-1,4 chain and transfering it to a alpha-1,6 bond in a
different location.
breaks the alpha-1,4 glycosidic bonds
Rate-limiting enzyme in Glycogenolysis

Breaks the first alpha-1,4, bond from the branch and moves to end of a
linear chain, then hydrolyzes alpha-1,6 bond and releases a final glucose

Converts pyruvate into oxaloacetate

Converts oxaloacetate into phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP). Bypasses

pyruvate kinase.

Rate limiting step in gluconeogenesis that replaces PFK-1

Rate-limiting enzyme in Gluconeogenesis

Reverse of Glucokinase. Only found in ER of liver cells

Rate limiting step in Pentose Phosphate Pathway (PPP) which irreversibly

turns glucose 6-phosphate into 6-phosphogluconate while reducing NADP+
Rate-limiting enzyme in Pentose Phosphate Pathway

Converts Acetyl-CoA to Malonyl-CoA by adding a carboxylic acid to the

acetyl end. It achieves this via ATP converting to ADP and a CO2 molecule.
This is the rate limiting step of Fatty Acid Synthesis.
zymogen (inactive) form of pepsin. It only becomes activated into pepsin at
Chief cells
low pH

derived from the

inactive form called
cleaves peptide bonds near aromatic side chains. pepsinogen,
secreted by Chief

activates other digestive enzymes from the accessory organs of digestion:

Activates trypsinogen to form trypsin. Also Activates procarboxypeptidases duodenum
A and B into active forms.
removes the N-terminal (aka amino end) amino acid from a peptide. duodenum
removes the C-terminal (aka carboxy end) amino acid from a peptide duodenum
Breaks dipeptides into monopeptides (e.g. 2 ---> 1 and 1) duodenum
hydrolizes lipids pancreas
Class of enzymes that hydrolyze starch into sugars
aka they digest carbohydrates

found as salivary amylase or pancreatic amylase

converts Angiotensisogen to Angiotensin I kidneys

converts the weak hormone Angiotensin I into its more potent form,
Angiotensin II, in order to eventually bring low blood pressure back up to lungs
Promoted by: Inhibited by: Also Related To: Understanding:

Insulin in the liver Weak

Mg 2+ Unsure

AMP, Fructose
ATP, Citrate Weak




Absence of
(aerobic Weak

Insulin in the liver Acetyl-CoA Strong




Insulin epinepherine and

glucose 6- glucagon, which Weak
phosphate phosphorylate it.

Glucagon in the
liver, AMP and
ATP Weak
epinephrine in
skeletal muscles.


Acetyl-CoA Weak

Glucagon, cortisol Weak

ATP, glucagon AMP, insulin Weak


Insulin, NADP+ NADPH Weak

Long Chain Fatty
(allosterically), Weak
Acids, Glucagon


low pH due to HCl

secreted by Unsure
Parietal Cells

trypsinogen Weak


a drop in blood normal or high angiotensin I and II
pressure blood pressure aldosterone
a drop in blood normal or high angiotensin I and II
pressure blood pressure aldosterone
Chapter Page Importance Topic Term
How many different peptides
can be formed from the
1 N/A *** amino acids
combination of n number of
amino acids
1 16 *** amino acids Isoelectric point (pI)
pI of amino acids w/o charged
1 16 *** amino acids
side chains

1 *** amino acids Acidic amino acids

1 16 *** amino acids pI of Acidic amino acids

Basic amino acids

1 16 *** amino acids pI of Basic amino acids

Ketogenic Amino Acid

2 Enzymes Km

****** Catalytic Efficiency

2 46 **** Enzymes Cofactors/Coenzymes

2 46 **** Enzymes Apoenzymes
2 46 **** Enzymes Holoenzymes
2 56 **** Enzymes Allosteric enzymes

Allosteric activators vs.

2 56 **** Enzymes
Allosteric inhibitors

2 56 **** Enzymes Zymogens

teriary structure stabiliztion

7 240 **** Genetics Acetylation of Histone

7 239 **** Genetics Heterochromatin

7 240 **** Genetics Euchromatin

7 **** Genetics N-terminus
7 **** Genetics C-terminus
7 **** Genetics Peptidyl Transferase

12 399 **** Bioenergetics Gibbs Free Energy Equation

12 399 **** Bioenergetics Standard Free Engery

12 402 *** Bioenergetics Hess's Law

12 405 *** Bioenergetics Postprandial State

12 *** Bioenergetics Postabsorptive State

12 *** Bioenergetics Prolonged Fasting

Respiratory Quotient
12 419 *** Bioenergetics (also called Respiratory
Exchange Ratio, or RER)

9 *** Metabolism Glycolysis

9 294 *** Metabolism

*** Metabolism Gluconeogenesis

*** Metabolism Ketogenic Amino Acids

*** Metabolism Glucogenic Amino Acids

*** Metabolism GLUT 2

*** Metabolism GLUT 4

**** Enzymes Dehydrogenase
Ketone Bodies
Isoelectric Focusing
n factorial (n!)

(ex: How many possibile tripeptides can be formed using Alanine, Valine, and
Leucine? 3! = 3*2*1 = 6)
the pH at which the molecule has an electrically neutral charge
around 6

each contribute a -1 charge to a peptide at physiological pH 7.4

1) Aspartic acid / Asp / D
2) Glutamic acid / Glu / E
well below 6

each contribute a +1 charge to a peptide at physiological pH 7.4 (except Histidine)

1) Lysine / Lys / K
2) Arginine / Arg / R
3) Histidine / His / H (histidine only contributes a +1 charge when pH < 6)

well above 6

can be directly degraded into Acetyl-CoA

the substrate concentration at one-half Vmax

is equal to (Kcat) / (KM)

(to help remember the equation: "the cat jumps on top of the mouse"

an enzyme without its cofactor

an enzyme with its cofactor
enzymes that alternate between an active and an inactive form, based on whether
another molecule is bound to its active site.
Allosteric activators are molecules that bind to an allosteric site on an enzyme,
causing a conformational shift in the protein that makes the active site more
available to binding for the stubstrate, whereas an inhibtior will make it less

an inactive form of an enzyme that is secreted and are activated by cleavage. Most
zymogens have the suffix -ogen. (e.g. the digestive enzyme trypsin is secreted in its
inactive zymogen form trypsinogen because this enzyme would be particularly
dangerous if it is activity is not tightly controlled. If trypsin was released as the active
form from the pancreas in an uncontrolled manner, it would digest the organ itself.)
the 3D structure of a protein is stabilized by:
- hydrophobic interactions
- salt bridges
- hydrogen bonding
- disulfide bonds
Decreases positive charge of lysines, unbinding DNA, results in increased
Tightly coiled DNA that in inaccessible to transcription.
think "dark, dense, and silent"
Loosely coiled DNA that allows transcription machinery access.
think "light, unconsensed, and expressed"
5' end of DNA/RNA
3' end of DNA/RNA
Enzyme that forms peptide bond in ribosome between incoming amino acid in A-site
with polypeptide chain in P-site
G = H - TS. A reaction proceeds spontaneously if G is negative

G is energy change tht occurs at 1 M, 1 atm, and 25C.

G = G + RT ln(Q)

Total Enthalpy change of a reaction is the sum of the enthalpy change of each step
of the reaction
"well-fed state" occurs after eating. Greater anabolism than catabolism. Lasts 3-5
hours after
"Fasting a meal
state" where catabolism dominates and glucagon and cortisol are very
active vs insulin in the postprandial state.
"Starvation" where glucagon and epinephrine are very high. Rapid degredation of
glycogen stores in liver. Brain adapts to use Ketones for energy, muscles rely on
fatty acids. Rapid lipolysis, excess acetyl-CoA production.
RQ = (CO2 produced) (O2 consumed)
If RQ = 1.0, this means that carbohydrates is the fuel source being used.
If RQ = 0.7, this means that fats is the fuel source being used.
If RQ = 0.85, this means that 50% carbs and 50% fats is being used.
(Amino Acid Metabolism has RQ of 0.8-0.9.)
Process in which glucose is broken down, 2 ATP molecules are consumed, 4 ATP
molecules and 2 NADH molecules are produced along with two pyruvate molecules.
Facilitated by Insulin. Limited by PFK-1 activity, which is inhibited by ATP and Citrate
and stimulated by AMP.
ADP is directly phosphorylated into ATP. Alternative to oxidative phosphorylation to
produce ATP in cells without mitochondria or oxygen. This is the only method of
generating ATP in anaerobic respiration.
Production of glucose in Liver and Kidneys to raise blood sugar. Promoted by
glucagon and epinepherine. Inhibited by insulin.
Lysine and Leucine. Can be converted into Ketone bodies for alternative fuel during
prolonged starvation.
All except Lysine and Leucine. Can be converted in order to feed into
Glucose transporter in the Liver and Pancreous cells. Senses glucose levels for
insulin release.
Present in Adipose and Muscle tissue. Increase in expression on cell surface in
presence of insulin, promoting more glucose transport into cells.
Transfer a hydride ion (H-) to an electron acceptor such as NAD+ or FAD.
a detergent that denatures proteins to make sure that all proteins have a uniform
size-to-charge ratio
separates proteins based on size; smaller fragments migrate farther; larger
fragments are heavier and thus are less moved by the electric field
separates proteins based on their pI, aka based on their charge on the protein
Also Related To Understanding














gene silencing Weak

gene expression Weak







Oxidative Phosphorylation Strong

epinephrine Strong
Krebs Cycle Weak

Krebs Cycle Weak


Krebs Cycle Weak
electrophoresis Unsure

DNA; RNA; proteins Weak

proteins Weak
Chapter Page Importance Topic Term
(R) configuration
(S) configuration
How to find the number of
4 110 *** Stereochemistry stereoisomers of a given
4 108 *** Triose
4 108 *** Tetrose
4 108 *** Pentose
4 108 *** Hexose
4 108 *** Aldoses
4 108 *** Ketoses

4 109 *** D-sugars

4 109 *** L-sugars

4 111 *** Enantiomers

4 111 *** Diastereomers
4 111 *** Epimers

Cyclic Sugar
4 112 ** the "Anomeric" Carbon

Cyclic Sugar
4 112 ** Anomers

Cyclic Sugar
4 112 ** Cyclization
Cyclic Sugar
4 112 **
Molecules - anomers
Cyclic Sugar
4 112 **
Molecules - anomers
Cyclic Sugar
4 112 ** Furanose
Cyclic Sugar
4 112 ** Pyranose
Cyclic Sugar
4 113 ** Mutarotation
4 115 ** Monosaccharides Monosaccharides

4 116 ** Monosaccharides Deoxy Sugars

4 117 ** Monosaccharides Glycoside Formation

4 119 *** Sucrose

4 119 *** Lactose

4 119 *** Maltose

4 121 *** Polysaccharides Cellulose

4 121 *** Polysaccharides Starches
4 121 *** Starches Amylose
4 121 *** Starches Amylopectin
4 122 *** Polysaccharides Glycogen
**** Amino Acids Chiral Amino Acids
**** Amino Acids L Amino Acids
**** Amino Acids S Amino Acids
The Best Buffers

Concentration After


Density of Water



Homocyclic compounds

Heterocyclic compounds


sp3 bond angle

sp2 bond angle
sp bond angle
Double Bond formation

Triple Bond formation

Bonding orbital
Anti-bonding orbital

Principal quantum
number n

Azimuthal quantum
number l

Spin quantum number ms

Magnetic quantum
number ml

**** Diamagnetic

**** Paramagnetic

Redox Reactions Oxidizing Agent

Redox Reactions Reducing Agent
*** Disproportionation

Unsaturated fatty acid

Saturated fatty acid
keto- vs. enol- form of
primary vs. secondary
amino group
secondary amino group

Silica Gel

Important wavenumbers
to memorize for IR
At a stereocenter, after putting the lowest-priority group in the back and drawing a circle from
group 1 to 2 to 3 inafter
At a stereocenter, descending priority...
putting the the circlegroup
lowest-priority is clockwise
in the back and drawing a circle from
group 1 to 2 to 3 in descending priority... the circle is counterclockwise

2^n, where n is the number of chiral centers in the molecule

3-carbon sugars
4-carbon sugars
5-carbon sugars
6-carbon sugars
sugars with aldehydes as their most oxidized group
sugars with ketones as their most oxidized group

(in a Fischer projection) sugars with their highest-numbered chiral carbon with the -OH
group on the RIGHT

*naturally occuring sugars are only found as D isomers, not L*

(in a Fischer projection) sugars with their highest-numbered chiral carbon with the -OH
group on the LEFT
have opposite sterochemistry at Every chiral carbon.
- two enantiomers will have similar chemical and physical properties, except for rotation
of plane-polarized light and reactions in a chiral environment.
(e.g. D- and L- forms of the same sugar are enantiomers because they are non-
Don't differ at every
superimposable chiral
mirror carbon,
images, only to
similar some
how(at least
your leftone)
and right hand are to each other)
- unlike enantiomers, two diastereomers have different chemical and physical properties
from each other.
- the category of diasteromers can also include either (1) epimers or (2) anomers.
special types of diastereomers that differ EXACTLY ONE chiral carbon.

another name for the C-1 carbon in a carbohydrate.

- In straight-chain form, it is the carbon containing the carbonyl.
- In cyclic form that occurs after ring closure, it is the new chiral center formed.

a subtype of Epimers that differ specifically in the arrangement around the C-1 carbon,
called the anomeric carbon
(hint: "A" is the 1st letter of the alphabet and Anomers only affect the C-1 (1st priority)
describes the ring formation of carbohydrates from their straight-chain forms. When these
cyclic sugar rings form, the anomeric (C1) carbon can take on either an - or -
have the -OH on the anomeric carbon TRANS to the free -CH2OH group of the ring
have the -OH on the anomeric carbon CIS to the free -CH2OH group of the ring
5 membered carbohydrate ring (hint: Furanose = Five)
6 membered carbohydrate ring
are process in which oneunits
single carbohydrate anomeric form
and can of a cyclic
undergo sugar
three mainmolecule shifts to another (aka
shifting between -
- oxidation-reduction or - conformation)... with the straight-chain form as an intermediate
- esterfication
- glycoside formation
sugars with a -H replacing an -OH group (e.g. Deoxyribose is the deoxy form of the
"normal" sugar Ribose, since it has an -H group on the 2' carbon instead of an -OH group.
"De" "Oxy" literally means take away and Oxygen.)
is the basis for building complex carbohydrates and requires the anomeric (C1) carbon to
link to another sugar, via a bond called a glycosidic bond.

composed of a glucose + fructrose... connected by a -1,2 glycosidic bond

composed of a galactose + glucose... connected a -1,4 glycosidic bond

composed of a glucose + glucose... connected a -1,4 glycosidic bond

the main structural component of plant cell walls; main source of fiber in the human diet
digestible by humans; main energy storage forms for plants; includes (1) amylose and (2)
the linear glucose unit that makes up starches; linked via -1,4 glycosidic bonds
the branched glucose units that make up starches; linked via -1,6 glycosidic bonds
a major energy storage form for animals; similar to starch except that it has more -1,6
glycosidic bonds, which makes it a more highly branched compound
All amino acids are chiral, except for Glycine
All amino acids are L, except for Glycine
All amino acids are S, except for Cysteine.
have a pKa within 1 pH unit of the desired experimental conditions

(M1)(V1) = (M2)(V2) where M is Molarity and V is volume

the solubility product; it is found by the mathematical product of the dissolved ion
concentrations raised to the power of their stoichiometric coefficients
1000 kg m^-3
consists of two protons and two neutrons bound together into a particle identical to a
HELIUM nucleus

a high-energy, high-speed ELECTRON or POSITRON emitted in beta-decay

a high-energy PHOTON emitted in gamma-decay

- -particles can damage tissue

contain a ring that is made up of the same element (e.g. benzene is made up of carbon only)

contain a ring that is made up of at least two different elements (e.g. the imidazole ring of
histidine contains carbon and nitrogen)
being able to act as either an acid or a base (e.g. Proline is amphoteric because it has the
ability to accept a proton (thus acting as a base) or it can donate a proton (thus acting as an
single bond; 109.5
double bond; 120
triple bond; 180
- a bonding orbital and 2 non-bonding p orbitals
- 1 bond and 1 bond
- a bonding orbital and 4 non-bonding p orbitals
- 1 bond and 2 bonds
formed by 2 in-phase orbitals
formed by 2 out-of-phase orbitals
n describes the energy level (and therefore radius/size) of the electron's orbit; n can be any
number greater than zero

l describes the electron's subshell and gives info about shape, where:
0 --> s
1 --> p
2 --> d
3 --> f

gives the spin of an electron; ms is either -1/2 or +1/2 only

ml describes the orbital that an electron is in; it can be any number between -l and +l (where
l represents the Azimuthal value)

an element with all of its electrons paired in its electron configuration

an element with one or more unpaired electrons in its electron configuration

causes other atom to get oxidized, although they themselves get reduced
causes other atom to get reduced, although they themselves get oxidized
describes a reaction where a species is simultaneously oxidized and reduced (shown via
multiple half-reactions)
has one or more double bonds

has no double bonds (think "saturated" with hydrogens)

- the keto- form is more stable and more predominant than the less stable enol-form

the N atom is only bonded to 1 carbon atom

the N atom is bonded to 2 carbon atoms

POLAR AS FUCK. When silica gel is used as the stationary phase in TLC, compounds that
migrate LESS are thus more polar than compounds that migrate farther

C-O: ~1100 cm^-1

C=O: ~1700 cm^-1
O-H in carboxylic acids: 2800-3200 cm^-1
O-H in alcohols: 3100-3500 cm^-1
amines: 3100-3500 cm^-1
Example Also Related To Understanding
stereocenters Unsure
stereocenters Unsure

Fructoseisisa the
(aka it is a 6-carbon sugar Strong
form of glucose (aka, it
with an aldehyde group Unsure
looks exactly the same
as its most oxidized
as glucose except it has
group) Unsure
a ketone group at the
end instead of an
aldehyde enantiomers
Fischer projections

Fischer projections Sn1 Reactions

glucose vs. galactose vs. epimers
aldose vs. mannose, etc anomers Weak Strong Nucleophiles diastereomers Good Leaving Groups



Weak Sn2 Reactions


Weak Epoxide Reactions
-anomers Strong Elimination Reactions
hemiacetal formation Unsure Electrophiles Unsure
Weak Protic Solvents







Cell Wall Strong
Starches Weak

Starches Weak

isomers Weak
isomers Weak
isomers Weak















He: 1s2
Be: 1s2 2s2
Na+: 1s2 2s2 2p6 Unsure
C: 1s2 2s2 2p2
Na: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1
O2 gas: Unsure

linoleic acid
H(CH2)7COOH)' Strong
cerotic acid
CH3(CH2)24COOH Strong

most amino acids
proline Strong


2 steps. Nucleophilic Substitution with one rate limiting factor (carbocation concentration). *Tertiary

Weak Bases (anions)

Attack and fall off simutaneously. Primary and Secondary carbons. Nucleophile strength important

Weak acids (cations)

Dimethylformamide (DMF), DMSO, Acetone

Water, Acids / Increases in SN1, decreases SN2

Common Examples
Place Theory


Speech Shadowing




Base Rate Fallacy

Maslow's Hierchy of


Incentive Theory



Theory of Mind

Looking-glass Self

reference group


Behaviorist Perspective

token economies

Social Cognitive
(nature + nurture)

reciprocal determinism

dispositional approach
situational approach


Positive vs. Negative

symptoms of

thought broadcasting

thought insertion

lossening of




Major depressive

Seasonal Affective
Disorder (SAD)


Persistent Depressive
Major Depressive

Bipolar I Disorder
Bipolar II Disorder
Cyclothymic Disorder

Manic Episodes

Catecholamine Theory
of Depression


Dissociative Amnesia

Dissociative Identity

Posttraumatic stress
disorder (PTSD)

dissociative fugue


Somatic Sympton

Illness Anxiety Disorder

Conversion Disorder

la belle indiffrence



Cluster A personality
Paranoid Personality
Cluster B personality
Cluster C personality

Antisocial Personality

Borderline Personality


Histrionic Personality

Narcissistic Personality

Schizotypal Personality

Schizoid Personality

Avoidant Personality
Dependent Personality

Obsessive Compulsive
Personality Disorder

Parkinson's Disease

Alzheimer's Disease


Blueberry Phenomenon

Social Action

Social Facilitation
Yerks-Dodson Law of
Social Facilitation


Antinormative Behavior
Bystander Effect

Social Loafing

Peer Pressure

Identity Shift Effect

Cognitive Dissonance

Solomon Asch
Conformity Experiment

Social Interaction

Group Polarization


Irving Janis


Ethnic Enclaves





Cultural Diffusion
Cultural Learning


Agent of Socialization


Labeling Theory

Differential Association

Strain Theory


Normative Conformity

Philip Zimbardo

Stanley Milgram

Social Cognition

Component of Attitude

Component of Attitude

Component of Attitude

Functional Attitudes

knowledge function of

ego-expression function
of attitude
adaptive function of

ego-defensive function of

Learning Theory of

Elaboration Likelihood

Social Cognitive Theory

Ascribed Status
Achieved Status

Master Status

Role Conflict vs. Role


Role Exit

Primary Groups vs
Secondary Groups


System for Multiple

Level Observation of
Groups (SYMLOG)

Group conformity



Iron Law of Oligarchy


Basic Model of
Emotional Expression

Appraisal Model

Social Construction

Display Rules

Cultural Syndrome

Authentic Self
Ideal Self
Tactical Self


Managing Appearances

Aligning Actions



Front Stage Self

Back Stage Self

Lateral hypothalamus




Manifest Function

Latent Function

Conflict Theory

Social Constructionism

Rational Choice Theory

Exchange Theory

Feminist Theory

Glass Ceiling

Material Culture

Symbolic Culture


Kinsey Scale

Environmental Justice

dependency ratio

Source Monitoring

Craving vs. Withdrawal

Sleeper Effect

emotional vs. analytical

vs. creative vs.

Fertility Rate

Conduction Aphasia

Anomic Aphasia

Spreading Activation

Iconic Memory

Self-Reference Effect

Self-Serving Bias

Hindsight Bias



Cohort Study

Hawk-Dove Game


REM Rebound

James-Lange Theory

Cannon-Bard Theory


vicarious learning


Linguistic Relativity
(also known as the
Whorfian Hypothesis)

Nativist Theory

Learning Theory

Social Interactionist

Zone of Proximal

Instinct Theory

Arousal Theory
Drive Reduction Theory



Alcohol myopia

Signal Detection Theory
Trait Theory
Paraphilic Disorders



Theory of General
Theory of Primary
Mental Abilities
Theory of Multiple
Triarchic Theory of
posits that one is able to hear different pitches because different sound waves trigger
activity at different places along the cochlea's basilar membrane
a retrieval cue by recall is aided by a word or phrase that is semantically related to the
desired memory

an experimental technique in which subjects are told to repeat a word immediately after
hearing it (usually through earphones)

simplified principles used to make decisions; also known as "rules of thumb". Can often lead
us to a correct decision, but not always.

a shortcut in decision-making that relies on the information that is most readily available,
rather than the total body of information on a subject

categorizing items on the basis of whether they fit the prototypical, stereotypical, or
represntative image of the catagory

using prototypical or stereotypical factors while ignoring actual numerical information

(e.g. a volunteer at a stroke center might state that he thinks that the prevalance rate for
stroke among perople 65 years or older is probably 40%, even though data analysis
indicates it is actually signifantly lower; this errory may be to to since he works at a stroke
center, he encounters more stroke patients on a daily basis and this experiences affects his
perception of stroke prevalance, resulting in base rate fallacy)

explains behavior based on satisfying needs. Maslow prioritized these "needs" into five
categories (of decreasing importance):
physiological needs (highest priority) --> safety and security --> love and belonging --> self-
esteem --> self-actualization (lowest priority)

3 universal needs that motivate our actions:

- autonomy - the control over our own actions
- competence - need to excel at tasks we find difficult
- relatedness - desire to feel accepted or desired by other

explains that behavior is motivated by the desire either pursue rewards or avoid

the amount of motivation needed to achieve a goal depends on our own expectation of the
outcome and its value sucess (e.g. you are more likely to be motivated by something either
easy to accomplish, or something that you see as valuable to accomplish)

explains motivation of drug use, tolerance to drugs, and dependency on drugs; this theory
states explains how our body changes its physiology to counteract a drug, leading to more
of that substance in order to cause the same amount of effect (e.g. a habitual coffee drinker
will need more cups of coffee to produce the amount of same effect as was caused when he
first started drinking coffee, because overtime he has become more tolerant and less
sensitive to caffeine)
aids in the development of identity; seen when children experiment with other identifies by
taking on the roles of others, such as when they play-pretend house or school. This practice
enables a child to understand the perspectives and roles of others

the ability to sense how another person's mind works. Once a theory of mind is developed,
we begin to recognize and react to how others think about us, becoming aware of
judgments from the outside world and react to those judgments. (e.g. the ability to
understand how your friend is interpreting a story that you're telling them)

suggests that the self-concept is influenced by how we perceive that other people are
viewing us.
(e.g. demonstrated by those memes that say: "how my mom and dad see me vs. how my
friends see me vs. how my ex-girlfriend sees me)

the people in which we compare ourselves to that then determines our own self-concept.
(e.g. even though the average salary of doctors is about $200,000 a year, which is almost
QUADRUPLE that of the national median, 89% of doctors still claim that they are not "rich".
This may be due to the fact that doctors often live in rich neighborhoods and their responses
are biased since they have a different reference group comprised of millionaires)

states that personality can be explained as a result of genetic expression in the brain.
Biological theorists believe that many personality traits can be shown to result from genes or
differences in brain anatomy.

states that personality is simply a reflection of behaviors that have been reinforced over
time; therefore any therapy should focus on learnign skills and changing behaviors through
operant conditioning techniques

method used in inpatient therapy based on the behaviorist perspective, in which positive
behavior is rewarded with tokens that can be exchanged for priviledges, treats, or other
reinforcers. (often seen in elementary school classroooms where students who perform
good behaviors/grades get "gold stars" and can eventually trade in these gold stars for toys,
books, a no-homework pass, etc.)

takes behaviorism one step further, focusing not just on how our environment influences our
personality, but also how we interact with that environment. According to social cognitive
theorists, the best predictor of someone's future behavior is their past behavior in similar

refers to the idea that our thoughts, feelings, behaviors, and environment all interact with
each other to determine our actions in a given situation (e.g. a stressful event can cause
you to be depressed, and as a result some negative feelings can affect your behavior, such
as pushing people away from your life, and thus can expose you to more stress)

suggests that your behavior is primarily determined by your own personality

suggests that your behavior is primarily determined by the environment and context

Suffer from delusions, hallucinations, disorganized thought, disorganized behavior,

catatonia, and/or negative symptoms for more than 6 months. Thought to be related to
excess dopamine in the brain. Active symptoms generally preceded by Prodromal Phase, or
phase of clearly deteriorating behavior with passive symptoms. Partially genetically

a form of visual sensory memory that fades very quickly and is almost always lost, unless
the info is quickly attended to; a partial report of iconic memory is more acurate than the
whole-report (e.g. your memory of the layout of a word search puzzle; it would be easier to
recall a row of the puzzle rather than the whole puzzle)

a positive symptom of schizophrenia in which one's thoughts are broadast directly from
one's head to the external world
a positive symptom of schizophrenia in which one thinks that external thoughts are being
placed in their head
may be exhibited as speech in which ideas shift rapidly from one subject to another in such
a way that a listener would not be able to follow the train of thought

occurs when a person with schizophrenia invents new words

catatonic behavior that involves repeating another's words

catatonic behavior that involves imitating another's actions

loss of interest in all or almost all formerly enjoyable activities

APES & CIGS. At least 5 of the following symptoms must be met for at least two weeks

- Appetite disturbances, massive weight gain or loss

- Psychomotor Symptoms, feeling "slowed down"
- Energy, low energy, always feeling tired
- Sleep disturbances

- Concentration difficulty
- Interest loss. Anhedonia: formerly enjoyable things are no longer interesting
- Guilty and worthless feelings
- Suicidal thoughts or actions

Major Depressive Disorder with a seasonal onset (winter months). May be related to
abnormal melatonin metabolism and is often treated with bright light therapy, where patient
is exposed to a bright light for a period of time each day.

Depressed mood that isn't severe enough to meet criteria for a Major Depressive Episode.

Suffering from Dysthymia for a long period of time, generally for at least two years. May
have occasional major depressive episodes.
At least one major depressive episode which causes significant distress or impairment of

Biological Markers:
- High glucose metabolism in amygdala
- hippocampal atrophy
- high levels of glucocorticoids (cortisol)
- decreased noreptinepherine, serotonin, and dopamine (monoamine theory of depression)

Manic Episodes with or without Major Depressive Episodes

Hypomania with Major Depressive Episodes
Energetic and optimistic, but typically doesn't impair functioning or have psychotic features
Cycling between hypomania and dysthymia

DIG FAST. At least 3 of the following symptoms must be met for at least one week along
with a persistently elevated mood.

- Distracted easily
- Insomnia
- Grandiosity

- Flight of Ideas (racing thoughts, fast thinkings)

- Agitated easily
- Speech (Pressured, increased talkativeness)
- Thoughtlessness, or high risk behavior

states that:
too much norepinephrine & serotinin in the synapse leads to mania
too little norepinephrine & serotonin in the synapse leads to depression.
an anxiety disorder characterized by a fear of being in places or situations where it might be
hard for an individual to escape. These individuals tend to be uncomfortable leaving their
homes for fear of a panic attack or execerbation of another mental illness
Amnesia not due to a neurological disorder but often times trauma. It is characterized by an
inability to recall past experiences

Multiple personality disorder, where 2+ personalities recurrently take control of a person's

behavior. Usually results from severe abuse as a child (e.g. as portrayed in the movie Split)

Occurs after experiencing or witnessing traumatic event. Consists of following symptoms for
at least one month (else called Acute Stress Disorder)

Intrusion: Reliving events including flashbacks or nightmares

Avoidance: Deliberate attempt to avoid people, places, objects, or actions associated with
Negative Cognitive: Inability to recall key features of the event, moody, distant, negative
view of world
Arousal: Easily startled, irritable, anxious, reckless behavior, insomnia

a sudden, unexpected move or purposeless wandering away from one's home or location of
usual daily activities. Individuals in a fugue state are confused about their identity and can
even assume a new identity. Significantly they may actually believe that they are someone
else, with a complete backstory
Individuals feel detached from their own mind and body. (e.g. an "out of body experience";
they feel like they feel like they're watching themselves in a dream or behind a movie
Individuals feel detached from their surroundings. (e.g. feeling like they're in a dream and
the world is not theirs; their possessions are not truly theirs; their surroundings are not one
they can help to be in)
Individual is experiencing symptoms and is disproportionately concerned about it, devotes a
ton of time and energy to it, or is overly anxious about it. Symptoms may or may not be
related to underlying medical condition
Like Somatic Symptom Disorder, but without the symptoms. Individuals are consumed with
the idea of having or developing a serious medical condition. Can obsessively check
themselves for illness, or avoid medical appointments altogether.
Unexplained symptoms affecting voluntary motor or sensory functions, usually after
traumatic event. (e.g. claming to become blind as a result of seeing a traumatic event, yet
there is no evidence of true neurological damagge)
seen in Conversion Disorder where the person may by suprisingly unconcerned by a
Individual precieves their abnormal behavior as correct, normal, or in harmony with goals.
(e.g. thinking everyone else is wrong when they say you have a problem)

the individual sees the illness as something thrust upon her that is intrusive and bothersome

Paranoid, schizotypal, and schizoid disorders. Considered odd or eccentric behavior. Weird.

Constant distrust of others. Constantly suspicious of other's motives. May be in prodromal

phase of schizophrenia.
Antisocial, borderline, histrionic, and narcissistic. Overly dramatic and emotional behavior.

Avoidant, dependent, and obsessive-compulsive. Anxious or fearful behavior. Worried

Disregard for rights of others. Repeated illegal acts, deceitfulness, aggressiveness, or lack
of remorse for bad actions. More common in males than females. (e.g. showing no guilt for
serious crime such as murder)
Instable behavior, mood, and self image. Often intense and unstable relationships. Intense
fear of abandonment. Use "splitting" as a defense mechanisms where others are either pure
good or evil. Suicide attempts and self-mutilation are common. Twice as common in
a defense mechanism used in borderline personality disorder in which the individual view
others as all good or all bad (an an angel vs. devil mentality)

Attention seeker. Drama queen. May use seductive behavior to gain attention.

Sense of grandeur, preoccupied with fantasies of own success, need for constant attention
and admiration. Entitled. Very fragile self esteem and concerned with how others fiew them.

Odd or eccentric thinking. Have ideas of reference (everything is directed towards

them...everything has a meaning in their own life somehow. There are no coincidences) as
well as magical thinking
Detachment from social relationships, restricted emotional expression. Little desire for
socializing. Don't have close friends, poor social skills.
Extreme shyness and fear of rejection. See oneself as socially inept and isolated. Intense
desire for social affection and acceptance. Tend to stay in the same job, life situation, and
relationships despite wanting to change
Need continuous reassurance. Emotionally dependent on one specific person, such as
parent or significant other
Perfectionistic and inflexible. Likes rules and order. Stubborn, routine, no desire to change.
NOT SYNONYMOUS TO OCD. OCD is ego-dystonic (Must wash hands because of germs)
while OCPD is ego-syntonic (I like rules and order). OCPD is lifelong.

Damage to dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra for proper stimulation of the basal

- Slow Movement
- Resting Tremor
- Pill-rolling tremor (rolling fingers and thumbs together like you're making a tiny ball of play-
- mask-like facial expressions
- Shuffling gait
- Cogwheel rigitiy (muscle tension that intermittently halts movement)

Dementia characterized by gradual memory loss, disorientation to time and place, problems
with abstract thought, and tendencey to misplace things. Late stages include changes in
mood, personality, poor judgement, loss of initiative, loss of procedural memory. Genetically

Biological Markers:
- Diffuse Atrophy in brain CT/MRI
- Flattened Sulci in cerebral cortex
- Enlarged cerebral ventricles
- Deficient blood flow in parietal lobes
- Low Acetylcholine levels
- Low choline acetyltransferase enzyme
- Low metabolism in temporal and parietal lobs
- B-amyloid plaques (senile plaques)
- Neurofibrillar Tangles or hyperphosphorylated tau protein

states that the concept of "self" is made up of both the intrapersonal self (the ideas you
have regarding your own abilities, traits, and beliefs) and the interpersonal self (the manner
in which other people influence the creation of your ideal self.
Interdependent individuals influence and "sculpt" each other to become closer to their ideal
selves. Opposite of Blueberry Phenomenon.

Interdependent individuals bring out the worst in each other.

actions and behaviors that we are conscious of and performing based on the certain people
that are around. It is based on the idea that humans will behave in different ways depending
on their social environment and how their behavior will affect/cause a reaction from those
around them (e.g. our social action is different when we are with our college roomates vs.
when we are with our church pastor)

Person performing better on simple tasks when in the presence of others.

illustrates that for simple tasks, increased arousal (such as being in the presence of others)
leads to stronger performance... but for complex tasks, increased arousal can lead to a
decline in performance
Being in the presence of a large group provides anonymity and causes a loss of individual
identity, which can dramatically change behavior. May lead to antinormative behavior such
as violence during a riot.

Behavior against the norm.

Individuals do not intervene to help victims when others are present. The more people who
are standing by, the less likely someone is to help. This is attributed to social cues. If no one
seems alarmed of emergency, then individual is less likely to think that there is an

In low danger scenarios, bystanders less likely to intervene. In high danger scenarios,
bystanders are more likely to intervene.

A group made up of strangers has a slower response to emergency than a group of friends
or well acquainted individuals.

Tendency of individual to put in less effort when in a group setting than they would
individually. (e.g. putting in less effort in group powerpoint projects than you would if the
project was to be completed individually)
The social influence placed on an individual by others who are considered equals (peers)
than can modify or continue certain behavior, attitudes, or beliefs

Explains the mechanism of Peer Pressure: when an individual's state of harmony is

threatened by social rejection, the individual will conform to norms of the group. This causes
the individual to experience internal conflict, so he/she will undergo an identity shift where
he adopts the standards of the group as his own to elimiate cognitive dissonance.

Simultaneous presence of two opposing thoughts or opinions. Usually leads to internal

discomfort which may manifest as anxiety, fear, anger, or confusion.

Performed by Soloman Asch to show that individuals will often conform to an opinion held
by a group. Participants were placed in a group with confederates and were given a card
with a line on it along with a reference card with three lines of different sizes. They had to to
unanimously decide which line A, B, or C matched the length of the first card. Confederates
were secretly told to respond correctly or incorrectly. The results showed that the
participants would sometimes provide answers they knew to be untrue if it avoided going
against the group: the urge toward conformity could outweight the desire to provide the
correct answer.

Explores the ways in which 2+ individuals can both shape each other's behavior.
Tendency for groups to make decisions that are more extreme than the individual ideas and
inclinations of the members within the group. Also called "Choice Shift".
Studied effectswhere desirestress
of extreme for harmony
on group or conformity results
cohesiveness in a group
including coming
disastrous to an
incorrect or poor decision. This desire to agree with the group
foreign policy decisions. Examined 8 factors indicitive of groupthink: causes a loss of independent
critical thinking. (e.g. unity of the group > evaluating decisions for better alternatives, leading
to possible
- Illusion of errors)
invulnerability, optimistic and encouraging risk taking
- Collective Rationalization, ignoring warnings against idea of the group
- Illusion of morality, belief the group's decisions are morally correct
- Excessive stereotyping, construction of stereotypes against outside opinions
- Pressure for conformity, viewing opposing arguments as disloyal to the group
- Self-censorship, the withholding of opposing views
- Illusion of unanimity, false sense of agreement within the group
- Mindguards, appointment of members to the role of protecting against opposing views
Beliefs, behaviors, actions, and characteristics of a group or society of people. Learned by
living within a society, observing behaviors and traits, then adopting them.
Process by which an individual's or group's behavior and culture begin to resemble that of
another group. In terms of migrant assimilation, there are four primary factors to assess
completeness of assimilation:

socioeconomic status, geographic distribution, language attainment, and intermarriage

Slow assimilation. Locations with high concentrations of a specific ethnicity (Chinatown,
Little Italy)
Communities or societies containing multiple cultures. "Cultural Mosaic" compared to
assimilation being a "melting pot".
Groups of people within a culture that distinguish temselves from the primary culture from
which they belong. Can be formed based off of race, gener, ethnicity, sexuality, etc.
Subcultures can be perceived as negative if they begin to disagree wit the primary culture,
which can lead to counterculture.
A subculture that directly opposes the majority culture and deliberately opposes primary
cultural norms.

Process of developing, inheriting, and spreading norms, customs, and beliefs.

- Primary Socialization: During childhood, when we initially learn norms, primarily through

- Secondary Socialization: Learning appropriate behavior within smaller sections of the

larger society, outside the home. E.g. learning how to act at school.
The spread of cultural norms, customs, and beliefs throughout the culture
AKA Cultural Transmission: the manner in which society socializes its members
Process by which a person prepares for future changes (occupations, living situations,
Where one discards old behaviors in favor of new ones to make a life change. E.g. Training
military personel to obey orders
Widely observed social normes
Socially unacceptable, disgusting, or reprehensible
Social behavior that is considered polite in particular social interactions, e.g. shaking hands
after a sports match.
Influencing factor that affects socialization. Includes family, peers, religion, ethnicity,
workplace, mass media, school, government, geographical location, etc.
Extreme disapproval or dislike of a person or group based on perceived differences from the
rest of society. (e.g. stigma against fat people or dwarfs as if they are placed in a different
category than normal society)

Theory that labels given to people affect how others respond to that person as well as their
own self-image. This can lead to behavior conforming with society, or deviating from it.

The degree to which one is surrounded by ideals that adhere to social norms vs ideals that
go against them. Says that spending time with a lot of peolpe engaging in antinormative
behavior leads to the individual being more likely to engage in said behaviors.

Says that deviance is a natural reaction to the inability to achieve a normative social goal
while staying within a limiting social structure. Therefore, deviance is a behavior that aims at
achieving a socially desirable goal using antinormative behavior.
Violation of the norms, rules, or expectations within a society. Functionalists believe that
deviance is necessary in a society in order to establish clear perception of social norms and
acceptable bondaries, encourage unity within a society, and promote social change.
Desire to fit into a group because of fear of rejection
Outwardly agreeing to conform while also inwardly agreeing with the ideas of the group
Outwardly agreeing to conform while not personally accepting the ideas.
Directed the Stanford Prison Experiment to study conformity. Prisoners and Guards both
conformed to roles of being submissive and abusive, respectively. When interviewed
afterwards, they were shocked at their behavior.

Obedience experiment with the teacher and learner, and electricuting the learner. The
teachers would increasingly shock the patients and hurt them, even at their screams in
agony and requests to stop the experiment, because the person running the experiment told
them to with demanding language. Milgram was surprised at the level of obedience that was
shown. Were able to get 65% of participants to administer maximum shocks of 450 V.
Repeated tests have shown at least 60% of people will obey even if they do not wish to

the ways in which we think about others and how these ideas impact our behavior. Our
attitudes about a certain person, aka the way in which we perceive them, impacts the ways
we behave toward them
(e.g. if you know that your best friend's new girlfriend has cheated on him many times
behind his back, you might have a *negative attitude* towards her. So when your friend
introduces you to her for the first time, you might behave differently toward her.

The way a person feels towards something. Emotional component of attitude.

"I am SCARED of snakes. I HATE snakes. I have a NEGATIVE FEELINGS about snakes."

The way a person acts with respect to something.

"I RUN AWAY when I see a snake. I SCREAM when I see snakes. I THROW ROCKS at
snakes to make them go away."

The way a person thinks about something. Often a justification for the other two

"I KNOW that snakes are poisonous. I KNOW that snakes can bite. I KNOW that it can be
dangerous to be near a snake." Thus, this *cognitive thinking* about snakes provides a
reason for a me to be afraid (affective component) and avoid them (behavioral component).

this theory states that attitudes serve four functions: Knowledge, Ego-Expression,
Adaptation, and Ego-Defense.

1) Knowledge: knowing attitudes of others helps predict their behavior

2) Ego-Expression: allows one to communicate and express feelings to solidify self-
3) Adaptive: to be accepted socially, one must have the right attitudes about the right
4) Ego-defensive: allow one to justify actions that we know are wrong (e.g. developing bad
attitude towards math because you aren't good at it)

knowing the attitudes of others helps to predict their behavior (e.g. knowing that your friend
cares strongly about politics would allow to you predict that they would vote in the upcoming
presidential election)

allows us to communicate and solidify our self-identity (e.g. if I identify as a Carolina

Panthers Football Fan, I might wear a hat with a Panthers logo that helps me identify myself
as a fan of that team)
the idea that an individual will be accepted socially if socially acceptable attitudes are
expressed. (e.g. if having a caring attitude is socially acceptable, therefore if I will be socially
accepted if I am a caring person)

allow us to protect our self-esteem or justify our actions that we know are wrong (e.g. people
who are bad at math may develop a negative attitude towards the subject: "math is stupid
and useless")

Attitudes are developed through different forms of learning (observational, classical

conditioning, operant conditioning, etc). E.g. attitude towards candy after tasting it and
learning its sweet.

Separates individuals on a continuum based on their processing of persuasive information

from those that think deeply about a situation (Central Route Processing) to those who
focus on superficial details such as appearance or catchphrases (peripheral route
processing). Where they fall on the continuum dictates how they will approach new
information and the possibility of it to cause an attitude change. Going through Central
Route Processing leads to greater solidification of attitude, if accepted.

People learn how to behave and shape attitudes by observing the behavior of others,
influences of personal factors, and the environment. These three factors are related and
constantly affecting each other. Supported by Albert Bandura

Status that is given involuntarily such as race, ethnicity, gender, background, etc.
Status gained as a result of one's efforts or choices such as being a doctor.

Status by which a person is most identified. Typically the most important status one holds
and affects all aspects of hat person's life. This may lead to pigeonholing, where outsiders
only view person through lens of master status without regard to other characteristics.

Role Conflict is difficulty in satisfying requirements and expectations of multiple roles

(Being a doctor, a father, and a husband)
Role strain is difficulty to satisfy multiple requirements for the same role (Buy diapers,
change diapers, potty train, feed, stop the baby from crying)

Dropping of one role in favor of another, usually due to role conflict.

Primary Groups: Direct interactions with close bonds that tend to last long periods of time,
such as family or close group of friends.

Secondary Groups: Interactions are superficial with few emotional bonds. Form and
dissolve with out any special significance (e.g. classmates working on a group project).
means "Community"
- groups that are unified by feelings of togetherness due to shared beliefs, ancestry, or
geography, like families or neighborhoods.
means "Society"
- groups formed due to mutual self-intersts working together towards the same goal, such as
a company

Developed in the 1970s from the technique "Interaction Process Analysis". It believes that
there are three dimensions of interactions:

1) Dominance vs Submission
2) Friendliness vs Unfriendliness
3) Instrumentally Controlled vs Emotionally Expressive

Individuals are compliant with the group's goals, even when the group's goals may be in
direct contrast to the individual's goal. Conform in an attempt to fit in and be accepted by the

The basic organization of society, today is found in Bureaucracy.

Rational system of political organization, administration, discipline, and control. Usually slow
to change and less efficient than other organizations. Setup is basically like every
corporation in America in that it includes salary, promotions, etc. (such as the FBI)
States that democratic and bureaucratic systems naturally shift to being ruled by an elite
Refers to a shift in focus towards efficiency, predictability, calculability, and control in
Established by Charles Darwin. States that since emotions are expressed universally across
all cultures, it is thus an evolutionary trait.
Says there are biologically predetermined expressions once an emotion is experienced, but
there is a cognitive precursor to emotional expression.

Assumes there is no biological basis for emotions, but emotions are based on experiences
and situational context alone. One must be familiar with social norms for a certain emotion
to perform the corresponding emotional behaviors in a given social situation.

the cultural expectations of a certain emotion (e.g. in some cultures, it is considered taboo
to show sadness at a funeral while in other cultures crying loudly is expected)
Shared set of beliefs, attitudes, norms, values, and behaviors among members of the same
culture that are organized around a central theme. Influece display rules.

Attempt to influence how others perceive us. Also called Self-Presentation.

Who we actually are, both positive and negative.

Who we would like to be under ideal circumstances.
Who we market ourselves to be when we adhere to others' expectations of us.
similar to the Ought Self.
Impression management strategy.
Giving information about oneself to establish an identity
Impression management strategy.
Using props, appearance, emotional expression, or associations with others to create a
positive image.
Impression management strategy.
Using flattery or conforming to expectations to win someone over.
(e.g. "sweet talking")
Impression management strategy.
Making questionable behavior acceptable through excuses.
providing an excuse for a poor performance or laughing off an inappropriate comment as a
Impression management strategy.
Imposing an identity onto another person.
a friend says to you "a good friend would let me borrow his bike". This imposes the identity
of a "bad friend" upon you if you don't lend him your bike.
Erving Goffman's description of impression management through the use of the metaphor
that individuals are actors in a theatrical performance and creating images for themselves in
various situations.
Actor is in front of the audience, performing according to the setting, role, and script in order
to conform to the image he wants others to see.
Actor is not being observed and he is free to act in ways that may not be congruent with his
desired public image.

theoretical framework that explains how components of society fit together to create a
cohesive whole (e.g. views society as a living organism, and as such, if society is to function
smoothly, its parts and systems must work together in harmony. When all the parts of
society fulfill their functions, society is in a normal state. If they do not fulfill their functions,
society is in an abnormal or pathologic state)

according to Functional theorists, they are the beneficial consequences of people's actions

according to Functional theorists, they are the harmful consequences of people's actions
because they undermine a social system's equilibrium
intended actions that benefits society (e.g. the intended purpose of institutions like schools
is to educate students on subjects such as math, history, and science)
unintended positive conssequences on other parts of society that result from manifest
functions (e.g. an unstated or unrecognized latent function of schools is to create stronger
interpersonal bonds among students and provide a sense of identity for an individual, this is
known as the "hidden curriculum" of education)
theoretical framework that emphasizes the role of power differentials in producing social
order and how these differentials contribute to the maintainence of social order; these power
differentials can lead to the dominance of a particular group if it successfully outcompetes
other groups for economic, political, and social resources (e.g the stronger gorup rules the
weaker group and creates the rules; demonstrated when 10-year olds "rule" the playground
and control the younger and weaker 6-year olds)
theoretial framework that studies social interaction and communication through a shared
understanding of words, gestures, and other symbols (e.g. sign language, "thumbs-up", "the
middle finger", facial expressions, hugs, body language)
theoretical framework that uncovers the ways in which individuals and groups
construct/create their own perceived social norms; can be applied intangible concepts such
as how a society defines honor and justice is dependent on the interactions and decisions of
individuals within that particualr society. Notably, because these concepts depend on society
itself, they are subject to change as social norms and opinions develop over time (e.g. a
$100 bill does not inherently have significant value by itself. It is only because we as a
society attaches it with a value that it can be traded for goods and services; other examples
of social constructs include work ethic, acceptable dress, and gender roles)

focuses on decicion-making in an individual and attempts to reduce this process to a careful

consideration of benefits and harms to the individual; in this theory, an individual carefully
considers all of the possible rewards and punishments of each social action and chooses
the option that has the highest benefit-to-harm ratio (e.g. making a mental pros and cons list
before deciding what to spend your money on).
This theory is contradicted by the concept of altruism.

an extension of the rational choice theory but applied to social interaction.

posits that an individual will carry out certain behaviors because of anticipated rewards and
will avoid certain behaviors because of anticipated punishments (e.g. a behavior that is met
with approval by others will be reinforced and its continuation will be encouraged;
conversely, behaviors that are met with disapproval by others or punishment will be
attempts to explain social inequalities that exist on the basis of gender; focuses on the
subordination of women through social structures and institutional discrimination
the phenomenon that explains how women are less frequently promoted in the workpalce
and may have more difficulty attaining top-level administrative positions within a company
includes the physical items one associaties with a given society, such as artifacts, artwork,
emblems, clothing, jewelry, foods, buildings, and tools; often visibile during ceremonies,
such as birthdays, weddings, and funerals. Examples of American material culture include
barbecue, baseball, rock & roll, and the American flag.

(also called nonmaterial culture) focuses on the ideas that represent a group of people;
these may be encoded in mottos, songs, or catch-phrases. Examples of American symbolic
culture include phrases like free enterprise and life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.

the interplay between multiple demographic factors, especially when it leads to

discrimination or oppression

scores sexuality from a scale of 0-6, with 0 being completely heterosexual and 6 being
completely homosexual
Note: a Kinsey Scale score of 3 would equate to bisexuality.
(a young man claims to have had sexual relationships with mostly other men, although he
occasionally has been attracted to women at times. Thus this man would likely score a 4 or
5 on the KInsey Scale)

the fair treatment and meaningful involvement of all people regardless of race, color,
nationality, or income with respect to environmental laws and policies; an example of a clear
violation of this would be moving an urban factory's toxic waste to a less affluent area of the
city, placing the people living in these low-income areas at greater risk
a ratio of the number of economically dependent members of the population to the number
of economically productive members. The economically dependent are those considered
either too young or too old to work, whereas the economically productive are the age-
working population (approximately between the ages of 18-65). The dependency ratio can
be increased by factors such as an increasing aging population.

the phenomena where persuasive propaganda that you originally disagree with becomes
more agreeable over time because over time you forget the context of the propaganda
given and accept it because it's in your memory (aka you sleep on it)

- emotionally intelligent people are self-aware and can delay gratification in the pursuit of
long-term rewards, rather than being overtaken by immediate impulses.

is measured as the number of children per woman during her lifetime

the inability of a person to repeat what they hear

the inability of a person to produce correct words for a topic in which they'd like to speak
(e.g. a girl looking at an orange in front of her can describe that the shape is round and the
color is around, but they still have trouble identifying that the object is indeed an orange)

the phenomenon by which one concept within a semantic network becoming active
subconsciously activates related and semantically-linked concepts (e.g. a 3-year-old girl
trying to remember the name of a fruit, such as apple, is better at recalling it when she is
first presented with other red objects, such as a stop sign or a fire truck)
a form of visual sensory memory that fades very quickly and is almost always lost, unless
the info is quickly attended to; a partial report of iconic memory is more acurate than the
whole-report (e.g. your memory of the layout of a word search puzzle; it would be easier to
recall a row of the puzzle rather than the whole puzzle)
the tendency for you to best recall info that you can personally relate to your own
experiences (e.g. demonstrated by the "The Real World" Kaplan MCAT paragraphs in the
review books)

the attribution of your successes to internal factors... and your failures to external factors.
(e.g. "I made a 528 on my MCAT because I'm smart and I studied my ass off." and "I made
a 490 on the MCAT because the AAMC is stupid and gives an impossible exam)"

the error of seeing past events as more predictable than they actually are; also known as
the "I-knew-it-all-along Effect" (e.g. when Mr. Know It All is wrong: "well in hindsight I knew
this was gonna happen....")
a bias that refers to the inability to reject your particular belief, despite evidence to the
contrary (e.g. believing that your girlfriend is trustworthy even when consistent evidence has
shown that she has cheated on you multiple times)
refers to an experimental precaution where you present stimuli in a random order in order to
eliminate the possibility to time effects
follows a similar group of people over a period of time and can observe the development of
a particiular disease
in studies, it is the application of the results to either a significantly wider population or
across different settings; it basically assess how well the results of a particular study applies
to the general population

explains reasons for actions in an environment of pure competition between individuals

centered upon the struggle for a limited food resource; it includes:
- altruism
- spite
- cooperation
- selfishness
a symptom of narcolepsy that invovles a loss of muscle control and a sudden intrusion of
REM sleep during waking hours, usually caused by an emotional trigger
a symptom that occurs as a result of sleep deprivation that results in an earlier onset and
greater duration of REM sleep compared to normal
nervous system arousal ---> emotional response
"I see a ghost. My heart has started to beat fast. So that means I must be scared right now,
because if my heart wasn't beating fast then I wouldn't be scared then."
nervous system arousal + emotional response ---> action
"I see a ghost. My heart is beating fast AND I'm scared AT THE SAME DAMN TIME"
(e.g. a person with a severed parasympathetic nerve fiber can still feel scared)
nervous system arousal + cognitive appraisal ---> emotional response
"I see a ghost. My heart is beating fast. I think to myself, is this situation a scary situation? If
yes, then I must be scared"

learning by observation
in language, refers to the dependence of language on the context of a situation and pre-
existing knowledge; the manner in which we speak may differ depending on the audience
and our relationship to that audience (e.g. "pardon me, do you mind if I share this seat with
you?" vs. that
suggests "Yo scoot over bud")
our perception of reality is determined by the content of our language;
basically, it is LANGUAGE that affects the way we think, rather than the other way around.
(e.g. the Inuit tribe's language has many different words for the different types of snow, while
English language has very few. Thus, the Inuit culture has a greater understanding of the
concept of snow)

emphasizes the innate capacity to learn a language; language is ingrained in us (e.g. deaf
children form different cultures can still spontaneously create a system of signs for
communication when brought together, indicating that their culture and environment did not
play a role)
emphasizes operant conditioning in that all children have the capacity to learn any
language, BUT they only acquire the language that their parents or environment reinforce
(e.g. although all children could learn proper english, children in less afluent areas speak
with slang and improper grammer because they adopt it from their surroundings)

acknowledges both the social and biological processes of language acquisition (e.g.
language is learned by both biological and social factors)

concept coined by Vygotzky that refers to the skills and abilities that have not yet fully
developed but are in the process of development. Gaining these skills requires the help of a
more-knowledgable other, typically a parent or adult (e.g. a child may struggle to ride a
bicycle on her own, but with the help and guidance of a parent she may be successful. Thus
according to Vygotzky, this skill is currently within the child's zone of proximal development)

states that people perform certain behaviors because of instincts that are evolutionary
programmed (e.g. ducks migrating for the winter; bears hibernating)
states that people perform actions in order to maintain arousal at an optimal (medium) level,
summarized by the Yerkes-Dodson Law
states that motivation arises from the desire to eliminate uncomfortable internal states of
a state of normlessness; anomic conditions erode social solidarity by means of excessive
individualsm, social inequality, and isolation
a brain disorder that results from long-term alcohol abuse that leads to a deficiency in
vitamin B1 and is characterized by severe memory impairment with changes in mental
status and loss of motor skills
the inability to think logically about consequences and possible outcomes of one's actions
due to alcohol intoxication (e.g. "drunk texting" your ex; jumping down a staircase when
causes hyperpolarization
a theory of perception in which internal (psychological) and external (environmental) context
BOTH play a role in how you perceive something
personality traits describe overall personality and describe it as a pattern of behavior
getting turned on by weird shit (fetishes)
explains that you are more likely to be persuaded to perform a big task for someone when
asked to perform a small task first

ex: if getting a random girl's phone number is considered a large task then:
without foot-in-door technique: "hey can I get your phone number?" "no thanks"
with foot-in-door technique: "would you like to go out for coffee?" "okay" "sounds like a
plan, can I get your number first?" "sure"

opposite of Foot-In-The-Door Phenomenon; large favor is asked first, and then smaller favor

mom, can I have a new car?

well then can I have 5 bucks?
"okay fine.."

there is one general intelligence

7 factor theory of intelligence; factors all depend on each other

7-9 INDEPENDENT intelligences (they do not depend on each other)

3 independent intelligences that lead to real world success;

Also Related To Understanding Theory?
Weak Yes

Spreading Activation Weak

echoic memory Unsure


Heuristics Strong

Heuristics Strong

Representative Heuristic Unsure YES

Strong YES

Weak YES

operant conditioning Strong

Weak YES

Weak YES

Identity Strong

Reference Group Strong


Unsure YES

B.F. Skinner
operant conditioning Unsure YES

Behaviorist Theory Strong

Albert Bandura
reciprocal determinism Unsure YES
locus of control

Social Cognitive Theory Strong

Attribution Theory Strong

Attribution Theory Strong

excess dopamine Strong


delusions Strong

delusions Strong

disorganized thought Weak

disorganized thought Weak

disorganized behavior Weak

disorganized behavior Weak

Major Depressive Episode Weak

Major Depressive Disorder Strong

Major Depressive Disorder

Melatonin Strong
Bright Light Therapy

Major Depressive Episode Unsure

Dysthymia, Major Depressive

Episodes Strong
Major Depressive Episode Strong

hypomania, disthymia Strong


depression Weak YES

panic disorder Unsure



Acute Stress Disorder Strong






Conversion Disorder Weak




Cluster A Personality Disorder Strong



Cluster B Personality Disorder Strong

Cluster B Personality Disorder Strong

Borderline Personality Disorder Unsure

Cluster B Personality Disorder Unsure

Cluster B Personality Disorder Strong

Cluster A Personality Disorder Unsure

Cluster A Personality Disorder Unsure

Cluster C personality Disorder Strong

Cluster C personality Disorder Strong

Cluster C personality Disorder Strong

low dopamine Strong

low acetylcholine Unsure



Max Weber Strong

Yerkes-Dodson Law of Social

Facilitation Strong
Social Facilitation
Arousal Theory Strong YES




Identify Shift Effect

Adolescence Strong

Peer Pressure
Cognitive Dissonance
Solomon Asch Experiment Unsure
Drive Reduction Theory

Peer Pressure
Identify Shift Effect Strong
Solomon Asch Experiment

Peer Pressure Strong



Irving Janis Strong

Famous psych experiments








Weak YES

Weak YES

Famous psych experiments Weak

Famous psych experiments Weak





Weak YES

Functional Attitudes Theory Strong

Functional Attitudes Theory Strong

Functional Attitudes Theory Strong

Functional Attitudes Theory Strong



Bandura's Bobo doll

Nature + Nurture Unsure YES



Fernidad Tonnies Unsure

Fernidad Tonnies Unsure


Groupthink Strong



Conflict Theory Strong


Evolution Weak YES

Unsure YES

Weak YES


Dramaturgical Approach Strong

Impression Management Unsure

Impression Management Unsure
Impression Management Unsure

Impression Management Unsure

Impression Management Unsure

Impression Management Strong

Impression Management Unsure

Impression Management Unsure

Impression Management Strong

Dramaturgical Approach Strong

Dramaturgical Approach Strong

Weak YES

Functionalism Strong

Functionalism Strong

Functionalism Strong

Hidden Curriculum Strong

Karl Marx Weak YES

Social Interaction Weak YES

Social Norms Weak YES

Operant Conditioning
Exchange Theory Weak YES

Operant Conditioning
Rational Choice Theory Weak YES
Social Interaction

Gender Roles
Social Inequality Strong YES

Feminist Theory Unsure



Ethnicity Weak
Social class

Sexuality Strong





nominal aphasia
amnesic aphasia









Unsure YES



Unsure YES

Unsure YES

Unsure YES

observational learning
modeling Strong
mirror neurons

Whorfian Hypothesis Strong YES

nature Unsure YES

operant conditioning Unsure YES

nature + nurture Unsure YES

Lev Vygotsky
"More-Knowledgable Other" Unsure

Strong YES

Yerkes-Dodson Law
social faciliation Strong YES
Strong YES


Memory loss / dementia

Alcoholism Unsure


Weak YES
Weak YES



Charles Spearman YES

L.L. Thurnstone YES

Howard Gardner YES

Robert Sternberg YES

Birth 2 Months 3 Months 4 Months 5 Months 6 Months 7 Months 8 Months
Head Up, Chest Up Sit Up
Roll Over Stand with Support
Motor Pull up to standing position
Walk while holding o

Kohlberg's Moral

Piaget's S
Freud's Oral stage
Psychosexual Children learn to use senses and move around. DOES NOT yet under
(4) Performs Circular Reactions.
Development Focused around rooting/sucking reflex. PleasurePrimary
from oralCircular: Soothing--enjoy
stimulation. howwith
If fixation, issue something feels or
dependency o
(5) (signs of oral neurosis: smoking, biting fingers/nails, sucking thumb, over-eating)

Erik Erikson's
Psychosocial Trust vs. Mistrust
Stages of
Personality If trust wins, the child will be able to trust himself and his environment.
Development If mistrust wins, child will be suspicious of the world.
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
9 Months
Months Months Months Months Months Months Months Months Months
"Exposion of
One word per month Language" and
Stand on their own combining words
upport Walk alone
to standing position
Walk while holding onto furniture

Pre-conventional (selfis
Stage 1, Obedience: concerned with avoid
Stage 2, Self-interest: concerned with rewards. Also called "instrumental relativist stage"

Sensorimotor Stage - Stage 1

Anal Stage
und. DOES NOT yet understand object permanence. Have Stranger Anxiety. Ends once Object Permanence is fully developed.
njoy howwith
, issue something feels or
dependency sounds or looks.Toilet
or aggression. training.Circular:
Secondary Learns control and independence.
Get response Servessuch
from environment as basis for competent,
as parent picking up productive, cr
toy after bein
orderiness and messiness.
g thumb, over-eating)
(remember: someone who is "anal" is someone who is orderly and cont

Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt

s environment. Feeling able to exert control over your world and have freedom of choice vs. sense
world. (internal locus of control) vs. (external locus of contr
19 20 21 22 23
2 Years 3 Years 4 Years
Months Months Months Months Months
"Exposion of Longer
Language" and Sentences of
combining words 3+ words

Pre-conventional (selfish)
Obedience: concerned with avoiding punishment
Phallic Stage (Oedipal)
alled "instrumental relativist stage" based on concepts of "i'll scratch your back, you scratch mine"

a difference between Stage
males and
females. Oedipus or Electra Complex. Child
Anal Stage Begins when children understand Objectparent
Permanence. They start to de
identifies with same-sex and develops
ence is fully developed. pretend-play, imagination, symbolic thinking (symbols to represent
similar characteristics. Morality. If fixation things s
basis for competent,
as parent picking up productive, creative
toy after being adults. If fixation occurs, problems
thrown. with Very Egocentric. Centration (tendency to focus on one, n
the alphabet). occurs, homosexuality or exhibitionism, aka
eriness and messiness. aspect of a phenomenon). DOES
showing off toNOT yet understand conservation
get attention.
someone who is orderly and controling, and not messy)
("phallic" literally means erect. You can
remember phallic stage is associated with
my vs. Shame and Doubt developing a Initiative
sexual identity Guilt
vs. by remembering an
erect penis")
Sense of purpose, ability to initiate activities,
have freedom of choice vs. sense of doubt a feeling of lacking control
enjoy accomplishments vs. fear of punishment,
control) vs. (external locus of control)
overcompensate by showing off
5 Years 6 Years 7 Years 8 Years 9 Years 10 Years 11 Years

Language Rules are largely mastered after ~5 years old

Stage (Oedipal)
ence betweenStagemales and Concrete Operational Stage
or Electra Complex. Child Latency Period
e-sex Permanence. They start to develop
and develops Understands Conservation and begins to learn empathy and begin reasoning
hinking (symbolsIf to
stics. Morality. represent things
fixation such
Children as
release libido in skills.
hobbies or interests. Playevents.
is between same-gender children. Develop
math Can grasp logical DOES NOT yet have hypothetical
tration (tendency to
ality or exhibitionism, akafocus on one, narrow social skills. Fixation at this stage doesn't develop thought.
into adult psychosis
reasoning or abstract
ff toNOT yet understand conservation.
get attention. (remember: to be "latent" means to be hidden; therefore the symtoms of fixation at this stage are
y means erect. You can "hidden" and are unseen)
stage is associated with
ive Guilt
vs. by
identity remembering an Industry vs. Inferiority
ect penis")
ability to initiate activities, Competent feeling; able to affect the world as the child desires vs. inadequacy, inability to act
ents vs. fear of punishment, competently, low self-esteem
sate by showing off (high self-efficacy) vs. (low self-efficacy)
Puberty/Adolescence Adulthood
(12 -- 20 years old) (20 -- 40 years old)

Conventional (social norms) Post-conventional

Stage 3, Conformity: seeks approval of (not everyone achieves this; involves more higher-level think
others; social norms Stage 5, Social Contract: views moral rules as conventions designed to ensu
Stage 4, Law and Order: social order is rights.
important Stage 6, Universial Human Ethics: reasons that decisions should be

Genital Stage Formal Operational Stage

Focus on developingThink
strong sexual interests.
abstractly, Focus on needs
moral reasoning, of others.
the reason Fixation leads to
for consequences. Can perform experiments with cont
homosexuality, asexuality, or fetishes.
(you can remember this stage because focusing on the "genitals" is considered a sexual
interest, Role
vs.and thatConfusion
fixation on the wrong gentialsIntimacy
leads to homesexuality)
vs. Isolation
Erikson called this stage the "Physiological
Love and ability to have intimate relationships
and ability to commit onsels to other's goals
Unique and integrated person with sustained
vs. avoidance, alienation, distanceing,
loyalties vs. confused identity, amorphous
superficial relationships
(sustaining relationships vs. distancing
(a stable identity) vs. (not really sure who
"you" are)
Middle Aged Old Age
(40 -- 65 years old) (65+ years old)

one achieves this; involves more higher-level thinking than the average population)
moral rules as conventions designed to ensure greater good with reasoning focused on individual
man Ethics: reasons that decisions should be made in consideration of abstract principles

al Operational Stage
uences. Can perform experiments with controls to solve a problem logically.

Integrity vs. Despair

Generativity vs. Stagnation Wisdom and assurance in meaning of life,
dignity, life has been worthwhile, ready to face
productive, caring member of society
death vs. life sucks, its bitter, wasted one's life,
vs. selfish, bored, and self-centered
fears impending death.
(I'm an important member of society
(I lived a meaningful life so I'm ok if I die vs. My
vs. I'm bored with my life)
life was isn't accomplished yet and I'm not
ready to go)
Chapter Page Importance Topic Term

**** Thermodynamics First Law of Thermodynamics

**** Thermodynamics Second Law of Thermodynamics

**** Thermodynamics Zeroeth Law of Thermodynamics

Gibbs Free Energy Equation

logarithms Log ( # )

antilogs - Log ( # )

antilogs scientific notation trick with logs


Change in internal energy of a system = Heat added - work done by system

Entropy always increases

Two bodies in thermal equilibrium with a third body are in equilibrium with
each other
G = H - TS

is the same thing as "10 to the what power equals #"

is the same thing as "10^x = #"

is the same thing as "10 to the negative what power equals #"

is the same thing as 10^(-x) = #

--log ( 1e - #) = #
--log ( 1 x 10^ - #) = #
Also Related

Log 100 = "10 to the what power equals 100?" = 2

Log 1000 = "10 to the what power equals 1000?" = 3
Log (1/10) = 10 to the what power equals 0.10 = -1

-- log (0.10) = 10 to the minus what equals 0.10 = 1
Names to know:
Theory: applied to Language

Functional Theory

AKA "Learning Theory". Children

aren't born with anything, they only
B.F. Skinner acquire language through Operant
Ivan Pavlov Behavioral Theory Conditioning. Reinforcement
Albert Bandura comes from parent's smiling and
excitement when baby says

Language is innate. Born with

Language Acquisition Device
(LAD) that is active during the
"critical period" from birth to age 8-
9 years old. LAD specializes for
Noam Chomsky Biological Theory
your language once you start
using it. States that all languages
share a universal grammar with
basic elements like nouns, verbs,

BOTH biological AND social

Social Cognitive
factors have to interact. Children's
Vygotsky desire to communicate with others,
such as adults in their life,
motivates them to learn language.

Sigmund Freud
Carl Jung Psychoanalytic
Karen Horney Theory
Humanistic Theory
George Kelly
Carl Rogers
applied to Behavior: applied to Personality: applied to Attitudes:

Attitudes serve four functions:

Knowledge, ego expression,
adaptation, and ego defense.

Personality is learned through

Operant Conditioning. The
environment influences behavior.
Token economies act as a good
therapy to change personality.

Personality traits are related to

genes and genetics.

People learn how to behave and

shape attitudes by observing the
behaviors of others. Three factors:
Behavioral, environmental, and
personal. All reciprocate and affect
Interactions with environment
one another to develop attitude.
dictate personality. Locus of
For example: Work ethic
control is considered very
(behavior) is affected by collegues
influential: does a person feel in
work ethic and their previous
control of his or her environment or
attitudes towards work (personal)
not? Past behavior in similar
as well as the systems and
situations is a strong predictor of
infrastructure of the company
future behavior.
(environmental). Reciprically, this
behavior may change the
employee's attitude towards work
(personal) and the systems within
the company (environment)

Subconscious dominates
personality with the id, ego, and
superego (according to Freud).
Holistic View of personality. A
person is not broken down into
traits or specific parts, but should
be approached from a holisting
perspective. Look at past
experiences of person, the sum of
multiple influences such as
applied to Society: Theme:

Deviance from norms is necessary

to establish firm boundaries within
a society, promote unity, or even
social change.

- Operant Conditioning
- Classical
- Observational
(anything associated
with nurture)

(associated with

nature + nurture