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Structural Analysis-II


Assistant Professor
Department of Civil Engineering
SSN College of Engineering

Introduction Discretisation of a structure

Displacement functions Truss element
Beam element Plane stress and plane strain
- Triangular elements
Finite Element Analysis (FEA) or Finite
Element Method (FEM)

The Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is a numerical

method for solving problems of engineering and
mathematical physics.
Useful for problems with complicated
geometries, loadings, and material properties
where analytical solutions can not be obtained.
Common FEA Applications
Structural/Stress Analysis
Fluid Flow
Heat Transfer
Electromagnetic Fields
Soil Mechanics
Advantage of FEA
Disadvantage of FEA
Limitations of FEA

Proper engineering judgement is to be

exercised to interpret results.
It requires large computer memory and
computational time to obtain intend results.

Model body by dividing it into an equivalent

system of many smaller bodies or units (finite
elements) interconnected at points common
to two or more elements (nodes or nodal
points) and/or boundary lines and/or surfaces.
Node - a generalised joint
- connection point at which equations are written
- there are at most 6 unknowns (degrees of freedom) at a
node (3 displacements, 3 rotations)

Element - connection between a group of nodes representing

stiffness or other properties approximately
- interpolation of displacement between the nodal values is
used - this becomes more accurate as element size is

Reference node - an extra point used to orient the cross-

section of a beam
Classification of elements
Based on Dimensions
1-and 2-D Elements with applications
3-D Elements with applications
Classification of Elements
Based on Behaviour
Linear Element

Non- linear Element

Classification of Elements
Based on Degree of Freedom

Translational Element( Horizontal and Vertical

Rotational Element
Aspect Ratio
It is defined as the ratio of largest dimension
the element to its smallest dimension
Coordinates system
Local coordinate system
Global Coordinate system
Guidelines for Discretisation
Have a node at each supports and load points.
Select a Displacement Function
There will be a displacement function for each
Pascals Triangle
General Steps in Finite Element
1. Discretize & Select the Element Types
2. Select a Displacement Function
3. Define the Strain/Displacement & Stress/Strain
4. Derive the Element Stiffness Matrix & Equations
5. Assemble the Element Equations to Obtain the
Global & Introduce Boundary Conditions
6. Solve for the Unknown Degrees of Freedom
7. Solve for the Element Strains & Stresses
8. Interpret the Results
Properties of Shape Function
Each shape function has value of one at its
own node and zero at the other nodes.
Sum of all shape function is equal to one.
Sum of derivatives with respect to X axis will
be equal zero.
Shape functions are polynomial of same type
as original displacement function.