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Structural Analysis-II

CE2351

By
P.Sangeetha
Assistant Professor
Department of Civil Engineering
SSN College of Engineering
Unit-III
FINITE ELEMENT METHOD

Introduction Discretisation of a structure


Displacement functions Truss element
Beam element Plane stress and plane strain
- Triangular elements
Finite Element Analysis (FEA) or Finite
Element Method (FEM)

The Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is a numerical


method for solving problems of engineering and
mathematical physics.
Useful for problems with complicated
geometries, loadings, and material properties
where analytical solutions can not be obtained.
Common FEA Applications
Mechanical/Aerospace/Civil/Automotive
Engineering
Structural/Stress Analysis
Static/Dynamic
Linear/Nonlinear
Fluid Flow
Heat Transfer
Electromagnetic Fields
Soil Mechanics
Acoustics
Biomechanics
Advantage of FEA
Disadvantage of FEA
Limitations of FEA

Proper engineering judgement is to be


exercised to interpret results.
It requires large computer memory and
computational time to obtain intend results.
Discretizations

Model body by dividing it into an equivalent


system of many smaller bodies or units (finite
elements) interconnected at points common
to two or more elements (nodes or nodal
points) and/or boundary lines and/or surfaces.
Node - a generalised joint
- connection point at which equations are written
- there are at most 6 unknowns (degrees of freedom) at a
node (3 displacements, 3 rotations)

Element - connection between a group of nodes representing


stiffness or other properties approximately
- interpolation of displacement between the nodal values is
used - this becomes more accurate as element size is
reduced

Reference node - an extra point used to orient the cross-


section of a beam
Classification of elements
Based on Dimensions
1-and 2-D Elements with applications
Cont..
3-D Elements with applications
Classification of Elements
Based on Behaviour
Linear Element
Lines

Non- linear Element


Curvatures
Classification of Elements
Based on Degree of Freedom

Translational Element( Horizontal and Vertical


displacement)
Rotational Element
Aspect Ratio
It is defined as the ratio of largest dimension
the element to its smallest dimension
Coordinates system
Local coordinate system
Global Coordinate system
Guidelines for Discretisation
Have a node at each supports and load points.
Select a Displacement Function
There will be a displacement function for each
element
Pascals Triangle
General Steps in Finite Element
Methods
1. Discretize & Select the Element Types
2. Select a Displacement Function
3. Define the Strain/Displacement & Stress/Strain
Relationships
4. Derive the Element Stiffness Matrix & Equations
5. Assemble the Element Equations to Obtain the
Global & Introduce Boundary Conditions
6. Solve for the Unknown Degrees of Freedom
7. Solve for the Element Strains & Stresses
8. Interpret the Results
Properties of Shape Function
Each shape function has value of one at its
own node and zero at the other nodes.
Sum of all shape function is equal to one.
Sum of derivatives with respect to X axis will
be equal zero.
Shape functions are polynomial of same type
as original displacement function.