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Part A-3 Hear transfer.pdf

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This lecture is intended to refresh the post graduate students memory about the basics of heat

transfer regarding the various modes of heat transfer, analogy between heat transfer and

electric circuits, combined modes of heat transfer and the overall heat transfer coefficient.

As a start, we will begin by the modes of heat transfer mechanism in a brief review then we

will elaborate on the analogy between heat transfer and electric circuits. This will enable us to

study the combined modes of heat transfer then we will end this lecture with the concept of

overall heat transfer coefficient.

Heat, by definition, is the energy in transit due to temperature difference. Whenever exists a

temperature difference in a medium or between media, heat flow must. Different types of

heat transfer processes are called modes. These modes are shown in Figure 3.1. When a

temperature gradient exists in a stationary medium, which may be a solid or a fluid, heat

flows under the law of conduction heat transfer. On the other hand if the temperature gradient

exists between a surface and a moving fluid we use the term Convection. The third mode of

heat transfer is termed Radiation and it needs no medium to transfer through since it is driven

by electromagnetic waves emitted from all surfaces of finite temperature, so there is a net

heat transfer by radiation between two surfaces at different temperatures.

3.1.1 Conduction

Conduction is the mechanism of heat transfer whereby energy is transported between parts of

a continuum by the transfer of kinetic energy between particles or groups of particles at the

atomic level. We should conjure up the concept of atomic and molecular activity In gases,

Course Part A: Introduction to Electronics Cooling

conduction is caused by elastic collision of molecules; consider a gas in which there exist a

temperature gradient and assume there is no bulk motion . The gas may occupy the space

between two surfaces which are maintained at different temperatures as shown in Figure 3.2.

We associate the temperature at any point with the energy of gas molecules in proximity to

the point. This energy is related to the random translational motion as well as to the internal

rotational and vibrational motions of the molecules. As shown in Figure 3.3. The hypothetical

plane at xo is constantly being crossed by molecules from above and below due to their

random motion. However, molecules from above are associated with a larger temperature

than those from below, causing net transfer of energy in the positive x direction. We may

speak of the net transfer of energy by the random molecular motion as a diffusion of energy.

Figure 3.2 Conduction heat transfer as diffusion of energy due to molecular activity.

oscillations of the lattice structure; it is called also lattice waves. Thermal conduction in

metals occurs, like electrical conduction, through the motion of free electrons. Thermal

energy transfer occurs in the direction of decreasing temperature, a consequence of the

second law of thermodynamics.

In solid opaque bodies, thermal conduction is the significant heat transfer mechanism because

no net material flows in the process. With flowing fluids, thermal conduction dominates in

the region very close to a solid boundary, where the flow is laminar and parallel to the surface

and where there is no eddy motion.

Examples of conduction heat transfer are tremendous. On a summer day there is a significant

energy gain from outside air to a room. This gain is principally due to conduction heat

transfer through the wall that separates room air from outside air. Also in electronics cooling

process conduction is a heat transfer mechanism used in every electronics design. Even if a

system is designed for convection cooling of the circuit boards, conduction is still the

dominant heat transfer mechanism within the component devices and on the circuit board.

This is especially true for power electronics, where concentrations of heat are developed in

Course Part A: Introduction to Electronics Cooling

components such as power silicon and magnetic. This heat must be transferred via conduction

to the component case, the circuit board or a heat sink before it can be handled by the system-

level cooling mechanism(s). Consequently, all electronics designers must be aware with the

techniques of thermal conduction and its analysis.

Figure 3.3 Conduction in liquids and solids ascribed to molecules vibration (solids),

translational and rotational (liquids)

It is possible to quantify heat transfer processes in terms of appropriate rate equations. These

equations may be used to compute the amount of energy being transferred per unit time. For

heat conduction, the rate equation is known as Fouriers law.

Fouriers law is a phenomenological; that is developed from observed phenomena rather than

being derived from first principles. The general rate equation is based on much experimental

evidence. For the one dimensional plane wall shown in Figure 3.4 having a temperature

distribution T(x), the rate equation is expressed as

dT

q x = k

dx

The heat flux q" (W/m2) is the heat transfer rate in the x direction per unit area perpendicular

to the direction of transfer, and it is proportional to the temperature gradient, dT/dx, in this

direction. The proportionality constant k is a transport property known as the thermal

conductivity (W/m. K) and is a characteristic of the wall material. The minus sign is a

consequence of the fact that heat is transferred in the direction of decreasing temperature.

Course Part A: Introduction to Electronics Cooling

Under the steady-state conditions shown in Figure 3.4, where the temperature distribution is

linear then the temperature gradient may be expressed as

dT T2 T1

=

dx L

T2 T1

qx = k

L

Note that this equation provides a heat flux, that is, the rate of heat transfer per unit area. The

heat rate by conduction, qx (W), through a plane wall of area A is then the product of the flux

and the area, q x = q x x A .

//

This mode of heat transfer involves energy transfer by fluid movement and molecular

diffusion. Consider heat transfer to a fluid flowing over flat plate as in Figure 3.5. If the

Reynolds number is large enough, three different flow regions exist.

Immediately adjacent to the wall is a laminar sublayer where heat transfer occurs by thermal

conduction; outside the laminar sublayer is a transition region called the buffer layer, where

both eddy mixing and conduction effects are significant; beyond the buffer layer is the

turbulent region, where the dominant mechanism of transfer is eddy mixing.

Course Part A: Introduction to Electronics Cooling

Turbulent region

Transition

u

buffer layer

Laminar sublayer

Convection heat transfer may be classified according to the nature of the flow for free or

natural convection the flow is induced by buoyancy forces, which arise from density

differences caused by temperature variations in the fluid.

An example is the free convection heat transfer that occurs from hot components on a vertical

array of circuit boards in still air as shown in Figure 3.6(a).Air that makes contact with the

components experiences an increase in temperature so that the density is reduced.

For a forced convection; the flow is caused by external means, such a fan, a pump, or

atmospheric winds. An example of which is the use of a fan to provide forced convection air

cooling of hot electrical components on printed circuit boards as shown in Figure 3.6(b).

Forced fan

Air

Figure3.6 (a) Free convection, (b) Forced convection

Course Part A: Introduction to Electronics Cooling

q = hA(TW T )

Where;

q = Heat transfer rate (W)

h = Heat transfer coefficient (W/m2.K)

Tw= Wall temperature (K)

T= Free stream fluid temperature (K)

The approximate ranges of convection heat transfer coefficients are indicated in Table 3.1 for

both free and forced convection.

Process h(W/m2.K)

Free convection

- gases 2-25

- liquids 50-1000

Forced convection

- gases 25-250

- liquids 50-20,000

Convection with two phase

- boiling or condensation 2500-100,000

Example 3.1: An electric current is passed through a wire 1mm diameter and 10 cm long.

This wire is submerged in liquid water at atmospheric pressure, and the current is increased

until the water boils. For this situation h = 5000 W/m2.oC. And the water will be 100 oC.

How much electric power must be supplied to the wire to maintain the wire surface at 114

o

C?

Schematic:

Electric wire

Solution:

The total convection loss from the wire is given by

q = hA(TW T )

Course Part A: Introduction to Electronics Cooling

A= d L = (1 x 10-3) (10 x 10-2) = 3.142 x10-4 m2

The heat transfer is therefore

q = 5000 3.142 10 4 (114 100) = 21.99 W

And this is equal to the electric power which must be applied.

The mechanism of heat transfer by radiation depends on the transfer of energy between

surfaces by electromagnetic waves in wave length interval between 0.1 to 100 m. Radiation

heat transfer can travel in vacuum such as solar energy.

Radiation heat transfer depends on the surface properties such as colors, surface orientation

and fourth power of the absolute temperature (T4) of the surface. The basic equation for

radiation heat transfer between two gray surfaces is given by:

q = fA(T14 T24 )

Where:

= Stefan-Boltzmann constant = 5.67x10-8 W/m2.K4

= Emissivity of the surface which provide of how efficiently a surface emits energy relative

to a black body(no reflection) and it's ranges 0 1

= Geometrical factor which depends on the orientation between the surfaces

temperature of 60 oC in a large room where the air and wall temperature are at 20 oC with

average heat transfer coefficient 6.5 W/m2.k. The emissivity of the steel is 0.6 calculate the

total heat lost from the pipe per unit length.

Solution:

The total heat lost from the pipe due to convection and radiation

qtotal = q convection + q radiation

= h A(TS T ) + fA(TS4 T4 )

Because the pipe in a large enclosure then the geometrical factor = 1

= 134.33 W / m

There exists an analogy between the diffusion of heat and electrical charge. Just as an

electrical resistance is associated with the conduction of electricity, a thermal resistance may

be associated with the conduction of heat. Defining resistance as the ratio of a driving

potential to the corresponding transfer rate, it follows from Figure 3.4 that the thermal

resistance for conduction is:

Course Part A: Introduction to Electronics Cooling

T s ,1 T s , 2 L

R t , cond =

qx kA

E s ,1 E s , 2 L

Re = =

I A

As there is a conduction resistance also there is a convection resistance.

q = h A (Ts- T)

Ts T 1

Rt ,conv =

q hA

In the series circuits of heat transfer, heat is transferred in a series of stages that aren't

necessary of the same heat transfer mode. Figure 3.7 shows a plane wall subjected at its end

to convective heat transfer. So in this case the heat is first transferred from the hot fluid to the

wall surface by convection, then through the wall by conduction, and finally by convection

from the second wall surface to the cold fluid. Here the heat quantity in each phase is the

same so as current flowing in a series of electric resistances. Then from this analogy we may

conclude that:

Toverall T 1 T 2 T 1 T 2

q= = =

Rt (R t ,conv ) + (R t ,cond ) + (R t ,conv ) 1 + L + 1

h A kA h A

1 2

As

E E1 E 2

i= =

Re (R e ,1 ) + (R e , 2 ) + (R e ,3 )

This thermal resistance analysis is very useful for more complex systems as composite walls

and combined heat transfer modes. As examples examine Figure 3.8, if we use the analogy,

the problem formulation will be much easier and less time consuming.

Course Part A: Introduction to Electronics Cooling

T 1 T 2

q=

1 L A L B LC 1

+ + + +

h1 A k A A k B A k C A h 2 A

Course Part A: Introduction to Electronics Cooling

In parallel thermal circuits, heat is transferred in parallel through several heat transfer

conduits. These conduits may be of various heat transfer mod or from the same mod as is the

case shown in Figure 3.9a and b.

q1

q2 q2

R2

q3 R3 q3

qtot q4 R4 q4 qtot

q5 R5 q5

q6 R6 q6

q7 R7 q7

Figure 3.9 a

qconv

qtot qtot

qrad

Rrad

Figure 3.9 b

Course Part A: Introduction to Electronics Cooling

T T

qi = k i Ai =

Li Rt ,i

And;

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 T

qtot = qi = T + + + + + + = R

R t ,1 Rt , 2 R t , 3 Rt , 4 Rt , 5 Rt , 6 Rt , 7 t ,tot

This means that like electric circuits in parallel, the equivalent total thermal resistance would

be:

1 1

=

Rt ,tot Rt ,i

A thermal network can be extremely complicated so that normal analysis would be

exhaustive. In this case, the use of the analogy between thermal and electric network would

simplify the analysis. In order to simplify the thermal networks, the series and parallel

thermal resistance are combined in order to reach simplified analysis. The following figure

shows a circuit with the method of simplification.

1

Let, R6 = and R7 = R4 + R5

1 1

+

R2 R3

1

Let, R8 =

1 1

+

R6 R7

R8

T1 R1

T2

Let, R9 = R1 + R8

Course Part A: Introduction to Electronics Cooling

Most of the practical cases under investigations, heat is transferred by more than one mode;

as for examples heat may be transferred by combined convection and radiation, combined

convection and conduction, etc.

Since these two modes of heat transfer are completely independent, there would be no mutual

effect between them. Thus net heat exchange of the surface is the sum of the two

This hypothetical approach seems to be similar to the parallel electrical resistances as shown

previously, but the problem here is that no radiation resistance has been defined yet. So let us

use a radiant heat transfer in order to express the radiation heat transfer, q rad, as a linear

function in the temperature difference between the surface temperature and the fluid

temperature.

q rad = hr A (Ts T f )

Where;

hr = radiation heat transfer coefficient, W/m2.K

A = heat transfer surface area, m2

Ts = surface absolute temperature, K

Tf = enclosure absolute temperature, K

Now it is time to define how the radiation heat transfer coefficient can be obtained

q rad (T 4 Te4 )

hr = = Fse s

A (Ts T f ) (Ts T f )

In the above equation, Te is used to express the enclosure temperature as this is the more

general case. But for most of the cases, the fluid adjacent to the surface has the same

temperature as that of the enclosure. So for this most likely circumstance the following agree:

hr = Fse = Fse

(Ts T f ) (Ts T f )

Ts + T f

Tm =

2

Tm = Ts T f

Course Part A: Introduction to Electronics Cooling

hr = 4 Fse Tm3

And finally;

q net = htot A (Ts T f ) .

Where htot = hconv + hrad

This combination is likely to occur with the use of extended surfaces where the primary

surface exchanges heat by convection to the adjacent fluid flow and by conduction through

the extended surfaces. This case may be considered in a similar manner as the above, but here

the problem doesn't need extra work as the conduction thermal resistance is pre-defined.

(T Text )

q net = hconv (Ts T f ) + k s A

L

The concept of overall heat transfer coefficient laid its importance in the heat exchanger

design and industry as it combines the various modes of heat transfer in the heat exchange

between two fluids.

The concept of overall heat transfer has been extensively studied in the undergraduate

courses of heat transfer and heat transfer equipments, but again for reasons of memory

refresh. Let's examine the defining equation and it parameters.

1

U h Ah = U c Ac = "

1 Rf ,c x R "f ,h 1

+ + + +

hc ( Ac , p + f ,c Ac , s ) ( Ac , p + f ,c Ac , s ) kAm ( Ah , p + f ,h Ah , s ) hh ( Ah , p + f ,h Ah , s )

Where;

Uc is the overall heat transfer coefficient based on the cold side area, W/m2.K.

Ac is the total heat transfer surface area adjacent to the cold fluid side, m2.

Uh is the overall heat transfer coefficient based on the hot side area, W/m2.K.

Ah is the total heat transfer surface area adjacent to the hot fluid side, m2.

hc is the convection heat transfer coefficient based on the cold side area, W/m2.K.

Ac,p is the primary heat transfer surface area adjacent to the cold fluid side, m2.

Ac,s is the secondary heat transfer surface area adjacent to the cold fluid side, m2.

f,c is the cold side fin efficiency.

Rf,c" is the fouling factor for the cold side, m2.K/W.

x is the wall thickness, m.

k is the thermal conductivity of the interface wall material, W/m2.K.

Am mean heat transfer area for conduction, m2.

hh is the convection heat transfer coefficient based on the hot side area, W/m2.K.

Ah,p is the primary heat transfer surface area adjacent to the hot fluid side, m2.

Ah,s is the secondary heat transfer surface area adjacent to the hot fluid side, m2.

Course Part A: Introduction to Electronics Cooling

Rf,h" is the fouling factor for the hot side, m2.K/W.

The following table gives values for representative fouling factor for several applications:

The heat transfer between to fluids separated by heat transfer area can then be easily

calculated as:

Qnet = U h Ah Toverall

The following table shows some values for the overall heat transfer coefficient:

50 C)

Seawater and treated boiler feedwater 0.0002

(above50 C)

River water below 50 C 0.0002-0.001

Fuel oil 0.0009

Refrigerating liquids 0.0002

Steam (nonoil bearing) 0.0001

Water to oil 110-350

Steam condenser, water in tube 1000-6000

Ammonia condenser, water in tube 800-1400

Finned tube heat exchanger, water in tubes air 25-50

in cross flow

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