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OBJECTIVES

1) To identify the important components of the air pressure control system and to mark
them in the P&I Diagram.
2) To carry out the start-up procedures systematically.
3) To control the pressure in single capacity and two capacity processes using PID
Controller.

SUMMARY

This experiment is to control the pressure in single capacity and two capacity
processes using PID Controller, to carry out the start-up procedures systematically, and
identify the important components of the air pressure control system and to mark them in the
P&I Diagram. As for the experimental procedure, related valves were opened and closed
beforehand. Then, the experiment was first started by switching on the main switch on the
control panel. After that, the identification of major components in the plant was made as the
PID control of pressure in both single capacity and two capacity processes were conducted in
a proceeding manner. Procedures including settings related to the experiment were followed
accordingly as shown in the laboratory manual. The fluctuation/oscillation for the two
capacity process moves further compared to that of the single capacity process as it was
observed from the process response chart. This is due to the intricacy of the two-capacity
process itself. Also, PID controller has the steepest tangents compared to the ones of PI
controller and it can be observed in both processes (single/two-capacity processes).This
shows that when PID controller is applied, the response time of the variable improved to a
much faster pace. Not just that, the settling time of the PID controller is quicker when
compared to that of PI controller. In conjunction to that, PID controller has more stability
compared to PI controller as it reduces fluctuations. Hence, having a process which moves
much further (steeper tangent) as well as having the better controller (PID controller) makes
the two-capacity process the better choice as it covers in depth of the complex process.
Hence, it can be deduced that the objectives of this experiment were achieved.
INTRODUCTION

A proportional-integral-derivative controller (PID controller) is a control


loop feedback mechanism (controller) widely used in industrial control systems. The
controller attempts to minimize the error by adjusting the process control outputs. The
Proportional Term (As shown in Figure 1-Appendices) functions as to reduce errors. The
Integral Term (As shown in Figure 2-Appendices) functions as to accelerate the movement of
the process towards set point and eliminates the residual steady-state error that occurs with a
pure proportional controller. And for the Derivative Term (As shown in Figure 3-
Appendices), it functions to predict system behavior and thus improves settling time and
stability of the system. This experiment is to identify the important components of the air
pressure control system and to mark them in the P&I Diagram, carry out the start-up
procedures systematically, and to control the pressure in single capacity and two capacity
processes using PID Controller. As for the experimental procedure, the related valves were
opened and closed beforehand. Then, the experiment was first started by switching on the
main switch on the control panel. After that, the identification of major components in the
plant was made. In addition to that, the PID control of pressure in both single capacity and
two capacity processes were conducted in a proceeding manner. Procedures including
settings related to the experiment were followed accordingly as shown in the laboratory
manual.
THEORY

Pressure vessels are chambers that can tolerate pressures above 15 psi. These
chambers can hold liquids, gasses or even solids. Tankers with hazardous materials and
airplanes are two types of pressure vessels. While pressure vessels are useful in many
situations, they present a number of dangers if not handled and maintained properly.

There are several types of pressure vessel but the main is closed-end vessels and
open-ended vessels. Most pressure vessels are cylindrical, but they do not have to be. Closed-
end vessels usually are tankers carrying liquid nitrogen, nitrous oxide or other gasses. Open-
ended pressure vessels are essentially pipes that connect one high-pressure area to another,
such as in industrial kitchens or factories. These pressure vessels can hold up to significant
pressure moving through them, and they typically have re-enforced sides for additional
protection.

Pressure vessels are the way producers move potentially harmful gasses, such as
oxygen. Safety devices also can be pressure vessels; fire extinguishers are one example.
These vessels also carry flammable liquids, such as gasoline, and can be used in
manufacturing plants. A leak or crack in a pressure vessel presents dangerous possibilities.
The vessel can explode if the crack gets large enough for the pressure of the air to weaken the
sides of the container. Accidents or other large bumps can cause hazardous contents to
explode or start a fire. If a leak allows a poisonous gas to escape, people may suffocate
without knowing that the vessel has a problem.
A proportional-integral-derivative controller (PID controller) is a control loop
feedback mechanism (controller) widely used in industrial control systems. A PID controller
calculates an "error" value as the difference between a measured process variable and a
desired set point. The controller attempts to minimize the error.

PID diagram

The proportional component depends only on the difference between the set point and
the process variable. This difference is referred to as the Error term. The proportional
gain (Kc) determines the ratio of output response to the error signal. Theoretically, when
increasing the proportional gain will increase the speed of the control system response.
However, if the proportional gain is too large, the process variable will begin to oscillate. If
Kc is increased further, the oscillations will become larger and the system will become
unstable and may even oscillate out of control.

The integral component sums the error term over time. The result is that even a small
error term will cause the integral component to increase slowly. The integral response will
continually increase over time unless the error is zero, so the effect is to drive the Steady-
State error to zero. The derivative component causes the output to decrease if the process
variable is increasing rapidly. The derivative response is proportional to the rate of change of
the process variable.

Increasing the derivative time (Td) parameter will cause the control system to react
more strongly to changes in the error term and will increase the speed of the overall control
system response. Most practical control systems use very small derivative time (Td), because
the Derivative Response is highly sensitive to noise in the process variable signal. If the
sensor feedback signal is noisy or if the control loop rate is too slow, the derivative response
can make the control system unstable.
RESULTS
DISCUSSION

This experiment is all about the operational procedure of the Air Pressure Plant
Control. Experiment to identify the important components of the air pressure control system,
to carry out the start-up procedures systematically, as well as to control the pressure in single
capacity and two capacity processes using PID Controller has been conducted using the
equipment shown in Figure 1 (Refer to Appendices). The variables involved in this
experiment are Proportional Band (PB), Time Integral (TI), and Time Derivative (TD) and
Pressure.

As for the experimental procedure, the related valves were opened and closed
beforehand. Then, the experiment was first started by switching on the main switch on the
control panel. After that, the identification of major components in the plant was made. In
addition to that, the PID control of pressure in both single capacity process and two capacity
process were conducted in a proceeding manner. Procedures including settings related to the
experiment were followed accordingly as shown in the laboratory manual.

It can be observed from the process response chart that the fluctuation/oscillation for
the two capacity process moves further compared to that of the single capacity process. This
is due to the intricacy of the two-capacity process itself. Also, it can be observed in both
processes (single/two-capacity processes) that, PID controller has the steepest tangents
compared to the ones of PI controller. This shows that when PID controller is applied, the
response time of the variable improved to a much faster pace. Not just that, the settling time
of the PID controller is quicker when compared to that of PI controller. In conjunction to that,
PID controller has more stability compared to PI controller as it reduces fluctuations. Hence,
having a process which moves much further (steeper tangent) as well as having the better
controller, PID controller, makes the two-capacity process the better choice as it covers in
depth of the complex process.

Theoretically speaking, when the value of the Proportional Band (PB) increases, the
Controller Gain (Kc) decreases and vice versa. When the PB is low and Kc is high, this will
cause sensitive results which leads to fluctuations in the flow (Refer to Results). When PB is
high and Kc is low, this means it is less sensitive. When it is less sensitive/less aggressive,
hence the flow is stable and not many fluctuations occur. The PID controller attempts to
minimize the error, reduce offset, and stabilize the fluctuation to its minimum.
There are several possibilities that might have contributed to the errors that occurred
during the experiment. One of those errors is physical errors (human error). The instrument
has a leakage at the pipelines and it could affect the results or readings of the air pressure.
While running the experiment, the configuration of the valves has to be followed accordingly.
For example a few valves need to be opened but they are still set as closed. This will lead the
results or readings of the experiment to an abnormal trend. Thus, the ideal expected results
could not be achieved.
CONCLUSION

In conclusion, the Air Pressure control in relation to the PID Controller was explained
in this experiment. Each of the components/devices/tools used in the experiment has its own
details by which has its own function in ways of conducting the experiment and most
definitely has aided the process throughout the experiment. It can be observed from the
process response chart that the fluctuation/oscillation for the two capacity process moves
further compared to that of the single capacity process. This is due to the intricacy of the two-
capacity process itself. Also, it can be observed in both processes (single/two-capacity
processes) that, PID controller has the steepest tangents compared to the ones of PI controller.
This shows that when PID controller is applied, the response time of the variable improved to
a much faster pace. Not just that, the settling time of the PID controller is quicker when
compared to that of PI controller. In conjunction to that, PID controller has more stability
compared to PI controller as it reduces fluctuations. Hence, having a process which moves
much further (steeper tangent) as well as having the better controller, PID controller, makes
the two-capacity process the better choice as it covers in depth of the complex process. From
that, the objectives of this experiment were achieved based on the values obtained.

RECOMMENDATIONS

To avoid physical errors (human error) from occurring during experimentation, any
leakages or faults that might contribute to any errors in the experiment has to be inspected
prior to experimenting. This will aid in preventing abnormal trends of results of the air
pressure. Also, make sure all the preceding steps were followed accordingly in order to
acquire results as predicted/expected by the end of the experiment. This is also to prevent any
abnormalities in the results. Not just that, request help from the technician or person in charge
to guide through the experiment, to avoid damage to the instrument as well as to learn the
proper ways of handling the instrument. With these recommendation steps taking into
consideration, the ideal expected results could be achieved.
REFERENCES

[1] Berry, C. (2014). Pressure Vessel, [Online]. Available from:


http://www.nclabor.com/boiler/boiler_faq2.htm [15th April 2014]

[2] Brown B., (2014). Pressure Vessels, [Online]. Available from:


http://www.ehow.com/info_7795034_pressure-vessels.html [15th April 2014]

[3] Corriou J.P., (2004). Process Control, [Online]. Available from:


http://books.google.com.my/books?id=U6yFHjiqdVIC&dq=theory+of+flow+ratio+co
ntrol&source=gbs_navlinks_s [15th April 2014]

[4] Anonymous A, (2011). PID Theory Explained, [Online]. Available from:


http://www.ni.com/white-paper/3782/en/ [15th April 2014]

[5] Anonymous B, (2011). Understand Air Pressure, [Online]. Available from:


http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/weather/wbarocx.htm [15th April 2014]
APPENDICES

Figure 1 Proportional Term

Figure 2 Integral Term

Figure 3 - Derivative Term


Figure 4 Process Response for PID Controller