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Averroes
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IbnRushd(Arabic:April14,1126December10,
1198),fullname(Arabic:, IbnRud
translit.AblWaldMuammadIbnAmadIbnRushd),
oftenLatinizedasAverroes(/vroiz/),wasamedieval Averroes
Andalusianpolymath.Hewroteonlogic,Aristotelianand
Islamicphilosophy,theology,theMalikischoolofIslamic
jurisprudence,psychology,politicalandAndalusianclassical
musictheory,geography,mathematics,andthemedival
sciencesofmedicine,astronomy,physics,andcelestial
mechanics.IbnRushdwasborninCrdoba,AlAndalus
(presentdaySpain),anddiedatMarrakeshinpresentday
Morocco.Hisbodywasinterredinhisfamilytombat
Crdoba.[7]The13thcenturyphilosophicalmovementin
LatinChristianandJewishtraditionbasedonIbnRushd's
workiscalledAverroism.

IbnRushdwasadefenderofAristotelianphilosophyagainst
Ash'aritheologiansledbyAlGhazali.Althoughhighly
regardedasalegalscholaroftheMalikischoolofIslamic
law,IbnRushd'sphilosophicalideaswereconsidered
controversialinAsh'ariteMuslimcircles.[8]Whereasal
StatueofIbnRushdinCrdoba,Spain
Ghazalibelievedthatanyindividualactofanatural
phenomenonoccurredonlybecauseGodwilledittohappen, Born 14April1126
IbnRushdinsistedphenomenafollowednaturallawsthat Crdoba,AlAndalus,Almoravidemirate
Godcreated.[9][10][11] (inpresentdaySpain)[1][2][3]

IbnRushdhadagreaterimpactonChristianEurope:hehas Died 10December1198(aged72)


beendescribedasthe"foundingfatherofsecularthoughtin Marrakesh,Maghreb,AlmohadCaliphate
WesternEurope"[8][12][13]andwasknownbythesobriquet (inpresentdayMorocco)
theCommentatorforhisdetailedemendationstoAristotle. Religion Islam
LatintranslationsofIbnRushd'sworkledthewaytothe
Era Medievalphilosophy(IslamicGolden
popularizationofAristotle.[14]
Age)
Region Islamicphilosophy

Contents School Averroism


Metaphysicalintellectualism
1 Name Main Islamictheology,Philosophy,
2 Biography interests Mathematics,Medicine,Physics,
3 Works
Astronomy
4 Science
4.1 Medicine Notable ReconciliationofAristotelianismwith
4.2 Physics ideas Islam
4.3 Astronomy
4.4 Psychology Influences
5 Philosophy Influenced
5.1 ThetraditionofIslamicphilosophy
5.2 CommentariesonAristotleandPlato
5.3 Independentphilosophicalworks
6 Significance

7 Jurisprudenceandlaw
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7 Jurisprudenceandlaw
8 Legacy
9 Seealso
10 References
11 Furtherreading
12 Externallinks

Name
AverroesistheMedievalLatinformoftheHebrewtranslationAbenRoisorRoshoftheArabicIbnRushd.Itis
alsoseenasAverros,Averrhos,orAverrostomarkthattheoandeareseparatevowelsandnotanor
diphthong.[15]OtherformsofthenameincludeIbinRosdin,FiliusRosadis,IbnRusid,BenRaxid,Ibn
Ruschod,DenResched,AbenRassad,AbenRasd,AbenRust,AvenrosdyAvenryz,Adveroys,Benroist,
Avenroyth,andAverroysta.[16]

Biography
IbnRushdwasborninCrdobatoafamilywithalongandwell
respectedtraditionoflegalandpublicservice.HisgrandfatherAbuAl
WalidMuhammad(d.1126)waschiefjudgeofCrdobaunderthe
Almoravids.Hisfather,AbuAlQasimAhmad,heldthesameposition
untiltheAlmoravidswerereplacedbytheAlmohadsin1146.[17]

IbnRushd'seducationfollowedatraditionalpath,beginningwith
studiesinHadith,linguistics,jurisprudenceandscholastictheology.
ThroughouthislifehewroteextensivelyonPhilosophyandReligion,
attributesofGod,originoftheuniverse,MetaphysicsandPsychology.
ItisgenerallybelievedthathewasperhapsoncetutoredbyIbnBajjah Averroeswasthepreeminent
(Avempace).HismedicaleducationwasdirectedunderAbuJafaribn philosopherinthehistoryofAl
HarunofTrujilloinSeville.[18]IbnRushdbeganhiscareerwiththehelp Andalus.14thcenturypaintingby
ofIbnTufail("AbenTofail"totheWest),theauthorofHayyibn AndreadiBonaiuto
YaqdhanandphilosophicvizierofAlmohadkingAbuYaqubYusufwho
wasanamateurofphilosophyandscience.ItwasIbnTufailwhointroducedhimtothecourtandtoIbnZuhr
("Avenzoar"totheWest),thegreatMuslimphysician,whobecameIbnRushd'steacherandfriend.IbnRushd's
aptitudeformedicinewasnotedbyhiscontemporariesandcanbeseeninhismajorenduringworkKitabal
KulyatfialTibb(Generalities),influencedbytheKitabalTaisirfialMudawatwaalTadbir(Particularities)of
IbnZuhr.[19]IbnRushdlaterreportedhowitwasalsoIbnTufailthatinspiredhimtowritehisfamous
commentariesonAristotle:

AbuBakribnTufaylsummonedmeonedayandtoldmethathehadheardtheCommanderofthe
FaithfulcomplainingaboutthedisjointednessofAristotle'smodeofexpressionorthatofthe
translatorsandtheresultantobscurityofhisintentions.Hesaidthatifsomeonetookonthese
bookswhocouldsummarizethemandclarifytheiraimsafterfirstthoroughlyunderstandingthem
himself,peoplewouldhaveaneasiertimecomprehendingthem."Ifyouhavetheenergy,"Ibn
Tufayltoldme,"youdoit.I'mconfidentyoucan,becauseIknowwhatagoodmindanddevoted
characteryouhave,andhowdedicatedyouaretotheart.Youunderstandthatonlymygreatage,
thecaresofmyofficeandmycommitmenttoanothertaskthatIthinkevenmorevitalkeep
mefromdoingitmyself."

[20]

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IbnRushdalsostudiedtheworksandphilosophyofIbnBajjah("Avempace"totheWest),anotherfamous
IslamicphilosopherwhogreatlyinfluencedhisownAverroistthought.

However,whilethethoughtofhismentorsIbnTufailandIbnBajjahweremystictoanextent,thethoughtof
IbnRushdwaspurelyrationalist.Together,thethreemenareconsideredthegreatestAndalusian
philosophers.[17]IbnRushddevotedthenext30yearstohisphilosophicalwritings.

In1160,IbnRushdwasmadeQadi(judge)ofSevilleandheservedinmanycourtappointmentsinSeville,
Cordoba,andMoroccoduringhiscareer.SometimeduringthereignofYaqubalMansur,Averroes'spolitical
careerwasabruptlyendedandhefacedseverecriticismfromtheFuqaha(Islamicjurists)ofthetime.[21]

AcontemporaryofIbnRushd,AbdelwahidalMarrakushiwritingin1224,reportedthatthereweresecretand
publicreasonsforhisfallingoutoffavorwithYaqubalMansour:[21]

Andinhisdays[YaqubalMansur],AbualWalidIbnRushdfacedhissevereordealandthere
weretwocausesforthisoneisknownandtheotherissecret.Thesecretcause,whichwasthe
majorreason,isthatAbualWalidmayGodhavemercyonhissoulwhensummarizing,
commentingandexpendinguponAristotle'sbook"HistoryofAnimals"wrote:"AndIsawthe
GiraffeatthegardenofthekingoftheBerbers".
Andthatisthesamewayhewouldmentionanotherkingofsomeotherpeopleorland,asitis
frequentlydonebywriters,butheomittedthatthoseworkingfortheserviceofthekingshould
glorifyhimandobservetheusualprotocol.Thiswaswhytheyheldagrudgeagainsthimbut
initially,theydidnotshowitandinreality,AbualWalidwrotethatinadvertently...Thenanumber
ofhisenemiesinCordoba,whowerejealousofhimandwerecompetingwithhimbothin
knowledgeandnobility,wenttoYaqubalMansurwithexcerptsofAbuWalid'sworkonsomeold
philosopherswhichwereinhisownhandwriting.Theytookonephraseoutofcontextthatsaid:
"anditwasshownthatVenusisoneoftheGods"andpresentedittothekingwhothensummoned
thechiefsandnoblemenofCrdobaandsaidtoAbualWalidinfrontofthem"Isthisyour
handwriting?".AbualWalidthendeniedandthekingsaid"MayGodcursetheonewhowrote
this"andorderedthatAbualWalidbeexiledandallthephilosophybookstobegatheredand
burned...AndIsaw,whenIwasinFes,thesebooksbeingcarriedonhorsesingreatquantitiesand
burned[21]

AbdelwahidalMarrakushi,"ThePleasantBookinSummarizingtheHistoryofthe
Maghreb",(1224)

IbnRushd'sstrictlyrationalistviewscollidedwiththemoreorthodoxviewsofAbuYusufYa'qubalMansur,
whothereforeeventuallybanishedIbnRushdin1195andorderedhiswritingsburned,thoughhehad
previouslyappointedhimashispersonalphysician.IbnRushdwasnotallowedtoreturntoMarrakeshuntil
1197,shortlybeforehisdeathintheyear1198AD.HisbodywasreturnedtoCrdobaforburial.[22]

Works
IbnRushd'sfirstwritingsdatefromhisageof31(year1157).[24]Hisworkswerespreadover20,000pages
coveringavarietyofdifferentsubjects,includingearlyIslamicphilosophy,logicinIslamicphilosophy,Islamic
medicine,mathematics,astronomy,Arabicgrammar,Islamictheology,Sharia(Islamiclaw),andFiqh(Islamic
jurisprudence).Inparticular,hismostimportantworksdealtwithIslamicphilosophy,medicineandFiqh.He
wroteatleast80originalworks,whichincluded28worksonphilosophy,20onmedicine,8onlaw,5on
theology,and4ongrammar,inadditiontohiscommentariesonmostofAristotle'sworksandhiscommentary
onPlato'sTheRepublic.[17]

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IbnRushdcommentariesonAristotlewerethefoundationforthe
Aristotelianrevivalinthe12thand13thcenturies.IbnRushdwrote
shortcommentariesonAristotle'sworkinlogic,physics,and
psychology.IbnRushdlongcommentariesprovidedanindepthlineby
lineanalysisofAristotle's"PosteriorAnalytics,""DeAnima,"
"Physics,""DeCaelo,"andthe"Metaphysics."[25]

HismostimportantoriginalphilosophicalworkwasTheIncoherenceof
theIncoherence(Tahafutaltahafut),inwhichhedefendedAristotelian ImaginarydebatebetweenIbnRushd
philosophyagainstalGhazali'sclaimsinTheIncoherenceofthe andPorphyry.MonfredodeMonte
Philosophers(Tahafutalfalasifa). ImperialiLiberdeherbis,14th
century. [23]
InFaslalMaqalfimabaynalHikmawaalShariahminIttisal(
translatedasTheHarmonyof
ReligionandPhilosophy,orTheDecisiveTreatise,DeterminingtheNatureoftheConnectionbetweenReligion
andPhilosophy),IbnRushdprovesthatphilosophyandrevelationdonotcontradicteachother,andare
essentiallydifferentmeansofreachingthesametruth.However,hewarnsagainstteachingphilosophical
methodstothegeneralpopulace.

OtherworksincludeKitabalKashfanManahijalAdilla.

IbnRushdisalsoahighlyregardedlegalscholaroftheMalikischool.Perhapshisbestknownworkinthis
fieldisBidyatalMujtahidwaNihyatalMuqtaid(),atextbookofMalikidoctrinein
acomparativeframework.

JacobAnatolitranslatedseveraloftheworksofIbnRushdfromArabicintoHebrewinthe13thcentury.Many
ofthemwerelatertranslatedfromHebrewintoLatinbyJacobMantinoandAbrahamdeBalmes.Otherworks
weretranslateddirectlyfromArabicintoLatinbyMichaelScot.Manyofhisworksinlogicandmetaphysics
havebeenpermanentlylost,whileothers,includingsomeofthelongerAristoteliancommentaries,haveonly
survivedinLatinorHebrewtranslation,notintheoriginalArabic.ThefullestversionofhisworksisinLatin,
andformspartofthemultivolumeJuntineeditionofAristotlepublishedinVenice15621574.

Science
Medicine

IbnRushdwroteamedicalencyclopediacalledKulliyat(Colliget)("Generalities",i.e.generalmedicine),
knowninitsLatintranslationasColliget.[26]HealsomadeacompilationoftheworksofGalen,andwrotea
commentaryontheTheCanonofMedicine(AlQanunfi'tTibb)ofAvicenna(IbnSina)(9801037).

Physics

IbnRushalsoauthoredthreebooksonphysicsnamely:ShortCommentaryonthePhysics,Middle
CommentaryonthePhysicsandLongCommentaryonthePhysics.IbnRushddefinedandmeasuredforceas
"therateatwhichworkisdoneinchangingthekineticconditionofamaterialbody"andcorrectlyargued"that
theeffectandmeasureofforceischangeinthekineticconditionofamateriallyresistantmass".Hetooka
particularandkeeninterestintheunderstandingof"motorforce".[27][28]

IbnRushdalsodevelopedthenotionthatbodieshavea(nongravitational)inherentresistancetomotioninto
physics.ThisideainparticularwasadoptedbyThomasAquinasandsubsequentlybyJohannesKepler,who
referredtothisfactas"Inertia".[29][30]

Inoptics,IbnRushdfollowedAlhazen'sincorrectexplanationthatarainbowisduetoreflection,not
refraction.[31]
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Astronomy

Regardinghisstudiesinastronomy,IbnRushdarguedforastrictly
concentricmodeloftheuniverse,andexplainedsunspotsandscientific
reasoningregardingtheoccasionalopaquecolorsofthemoon.Healso
workedonthedescriptionofthespheres,andmovementofthe
spheres.[32]

Psychology

IbnRushdalsomadesomestudiesregardingActiveintellectand
Passiveintellect,bothofthefollowingwereformerlyregardedsubjects
ofPsychology.[8][33][34]

Philosophy
ThetraditionofIslamicphilosophy Colliget

IbnRushdfurtheredthetraditionofGreekphilosophyintheIslamic
world(falsafa).HiscommentariesremovedtheneoPlatonicbiasofhispredecessors.[2]CriticizingalFarabi's
attempttomergePlatoandAristotle'sideas,IbnRushdarguedthatAristotle'sphilosophydivergedin
significantwaysfromPlato's.[35]AverroesrejectedAvicenna'sNeoplatonism[36]whichwaspartlybasedonthe
worksofneoPlatonicphilosophers,PlotinusandProclus,whichweremistakenlyattributedtoAristotle.[37]

Inmetaphysics,ormoreexactlyontology,IbnRushdrejectstheviewadvancedbyAvicennathatexistenceis
merelyaccidental.Avicennaholdsthat"essenceisontologicallypriortoexistence".Theaccidentalare
attributeswhicharenotessential,butratherareadditionalcontingentcharacteristics.IbnRushd,following
Aristotle,holdsthatindividualexistingsubstancesareprimary.Onemayseparatethemmentallyhowever,
ontologicallyspeaking,existenceandessenceareone.[38][39][40]AccordingtoFakhry,[41]thisrepresentsa
changefromPlato'stheoryofIdeas,whereideasprecedeparticulars,toAristotle'stheorywhereparticulars
comefirstandtheessenceis"arrivedatbyaprocessofabstraction."

CommentariesonAristotleandPlato

IbnRushdwrotecommentariesonmostofthesurvivingworksofAristotleworkingfromArabictranslations.
Hewrotethreetypesofcommentaries.Theshortcommentary(jami)isgenerallyanepitomethemiddle
commentary(talkhis)isaparaphrasethelongcommentary(tafsir)includesthewholetextwithadetailed
analysisofeachline.[42]

NothavingaccesstoAristotle'sPolitics,IbnRushdsubstitutedPlato'sRepublic.IbnRushd,followingPlato's
paternalisticmodel,advancesanauthoritarianideal.Absolutemonarchy,ledbyaphilosopherking,createsa
justlyorderedsociety.Thisrequiresextensiveuseofcoercion,[43]althoughpersuasionispreferredandis
possibleiftheyoungareproperlyraised.[44]Rhetoric,notlogic,istheappropriateroadtotruthforthecommon
man.Demonstrativeknowledgeviaphilosophyandlogicrequiresspecialstudy.Rhetoricaidsreligionin
reachingthemasses.[45]

FollowingPlato,IbnRushdacceptstheprincipleofwomen'sequality.Theyshouldbeeducatedandallowedto
serveinthemilitarythebestamongthemmightbetomorrow'sphilosophersorrulers.[46][47]Healsoaccepts
Plato'silliberalmeasuressuchasthecensorshipofliterature.HeusesexamplesfromArabhistorytoillustrate
justanddegeneratepoliticalorders.[48]

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Independentphilosophicalworks

HismostimportantoriginalphilosophicalworkwasTheIncoherenceof
theIncoherence(Tahafutaltahafut),inwhichhedefendedAristotelian
philosophyagainstalGhazali'sclaimsinTheIncoherenceofthe
Philosophers(Tahafutalfalasifa).AlGhazaliarguedthat
Aristotelianism,especiallyaspresentedinthewritingsofAvicenna,was
selfcontradictoryandanaffronttotheteachingsofIslam.IbnRushd's
rebuttalwastwopronged:hecontendedboththatalGhazali's
argumentsweremistakenandthat,inanycase,thesystemofAvicenna
wasadistortionofgenuineAristotelianismsothatalGhazaliwas
aimingatthewrongtarget.

WhereasalGhazalibelievedthatphenomenonsuchascottonburning
whencomingintocontactwithfirehappenedeachandeverytimeonly CommentariummagnumAverroisin
becauseGodwilledittohappen"allearthlyoccurrencesdependon AristotelisDeAnimalibros.French
heavenlyoccurrences"[49]IbnRushd,bycontrastinsistedwhileGod Manuscript,thirdquarterofthe13th
createdthenaturallaw,humans"couldmoreusefullysaythatfirecause century.
cottontoburnbecausecreationhadapatternthattheycoulddiscern."
[9][10][11]

InFaslalMaqal(DecisiveTreatise),IbnRushdarguesforthelegalityofphilosophicalinvestigationunder
Islamiclaw,andthatthereisnoinherentcontradictionbetweenphilosophyandreligion[50]

InKitabalKashf,whicharguedagainsttheproofsofIslamadvancedbytheAsh'ariteschoolanddiscussed
whatproofs,onthepopularlevel,shouldbeusedinstead.

Significance
IbnRushdismostfamousforhiscommentariesofAristotle'sworks,
whichhadbeenmostlyforgottenintheWest.Before1150,onlyafew
ofAristotle'sworksexistedintranslationinLatinEurope,althoughthe
traditionofgreatphilosophersandpoetsofantiquitycontinuedtobe
studiedandcopiedintheGreekByzantium.Itwastosomedegree
throughtheLatintranslationsofIbnRushd'sworkbeginninginthe
thirteenthcentury,thatthelegacyofAristotlewasrecoveredintheLatin
West.

IbnRushd'sworkonAristotlespansalmostthreedecades,andhewrote
commentariesonalmostallofAristotle'sworkexceptforAristotle's
Politics,towhichhedidnothaveaccess.Hebrewtranslationsofhis
workalsohadalastingimpactonJewishphilosophy.Moses
Maimonides,SamuelBenTibbon,JudaBenSolomonChoen,andShem
Averroes,detailofthefrescoThe TobBenJosephFalaquerawereJewishphilosophersinfluencedbyIbn
SchoolofAthensbyRaphael. Rushd.[51]HisideaswereassimilatedbySigerofBrabantandThomas
Aquinasandothers(especiallyintheUniversityofParis)withinthe
ChristianscholastictraditionwhichvaluedAristotelianlogic.FamousscholasticssuchasAquinasdidnotrefer
tohimbyname,simplycallinghim"TheCommentator"andcallingAristotle"ThePhilosopher."IbnRushd
hadnodiscernibleinfluenceonIslamicphilosophicthoughtuntilmoderntimes.[52]Hisdeathcoincideswitha
changeinthecultureofAlAndalus.InhisworkFaslalMaql(translateda.o.asTheDecisiveTreatise),he
stressestheimportanceofanalyticalthinkingasaprerequisitetointerprettheQur'an.

Jurisprudenceandlaw
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IbnRushdisalsoahighlyregardedlegalscholaroftheMalikischool.Perhapshisbestknownworkinthis
fieldis"BidyatalMujtahidwaNihyatalMuqtaid,"atextbookofMalikidoctrineinacomparative
framework,whichisrenderedinEnglishasTheDistinguishedJurist'sPrimer[53].Heisalsotheauthorof
"alBaynwa'lTal,wa'lSharwa'lTawjhwa'lTa`llfiMas'ilalMustakhraja,"alonganddetailed
commentarybasedonthe"Mustakhraja"ofMuammadal`UtbalQurtub.

Legacy
ReflectingthedeferencethatsomemedievalEuropeanscholarspaidtohim,IbnRushdisnamedby
DanteinTheDivineComedyalongwiththethinkersandcreativemindsofancientGreeceandRome
whosespiritsdwellin"theplacethatfavorowestofame"inLimbo.
IbnRushdappearsinashortstorybyJorgeLuisBorges,entitled"Averroes'sSearch",inwhichheis
portrayedtryingtofindthemeaningsofthewordstragedyandcomedy.Heisbrieflymentionedinthe
novelUlyssesbyJamesJoycealongsideMaimonides.Heappearstobewaitingoutsidethewallsofthe
ancientcityofCordobainAlamgirHashmi'spoem"InCordoba".
TheclaimthatIbnRushddeservesequalrespectwithMaimonidesgotthefictionalBalthazarAbrabanel
banishedfromAmsterdambytheAmsterdamrabbinateinEricFlint'snovel1634.
IbnRushdisalsothetitleofaplaycalled"TheGladiusandTheRose",writtenbyTunisianwriter
MohamedGhozzi,andwhichtookfirstprizeinthetheaterfestivalinCharjahin1999.
Inhismemoir,persecutedBritishIndiannovelistSalmanRushdierecallsthathisfatheradoptedthe
familyname"Rushdie"inhonourofAverroes(IbnRushd).IbnRushdalsoappearsasacharacterin
Rushdie'snovel,"TwoYearsEightMonthsandTwentyEightNights".
Theasteroid8318Averroeswasnamedinhishonor.[54]
PlantgenusAverrhoawasnamedafterhim.
Alunarcrater,ibnRushd,wasalsonamedinhishonor
TheMuslimpopmusicianKareemSalamacomposedandperformedasongin2007titled"Aristotleand
Averroes".
IbnRushdisthesubjectofthefilmAlMassir(Destiny)byYoussefChahine.
TheIbnRushdPrizeforFreedomofThought,awardedsince1999,isnamedafterhim.

Seealso
ListofArabscientistsandscholars
ListofIslamicstudiesscholars
Kalamcosmologicalargument

References
1.LizSonneborn:Averroes(IbnRushd)):Muslimscholar,philosopher,andphysicianofthetwelfthcentury,TheRosen
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=iIjayOIulPcC&pg=PA31)
2.(Leaman2002,p.27)
3.(Fakhry2001,p.1)
4.A.C.Brown,Jonathan(2014).MisquotingMuhammad:TheChallengeandChoicesofInterpretingtheProphet's
Legacy.OneworldPublications.p.12.ISBN9781780744209."ThomasAquinasadmittedrelyingheavilyon
AverroestounderstandAristotle."
5."HNetReviews".Hnet.org.Retrieved20121013.
6."SpinozaonPhilosophyandReligion:TheAverroisticSources"(PDF).
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8."Averros(IbnRushd)>ByIndividualPhilosopher>Philosophy".Philosophybasics.com.Retrieved20121013.
9.Kadri,Sadakat(2012).HeavenonEarth:AJourneyThroughShari'aLawfromtheDesertsofAncientArabia...
macmillan.pp.1189.ISBN9780099523277.
10.ForalGhazali'sargumentseeTheIncoherenceofthePhilosophers.TranslatedbyMichaelE.Marmura.2nded,
ProvoUtah,2000,pp.1167.

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11.ForIbnRushd'sresponse,seeKhalid,MuhammadA.ed.MedievalIslamicPhilosophicalWritings,CambridgeUK,
2005,p.162
12."JohnCarterBrownLibraryExhibitionsIslamicencounters".Retrieved30October2012.
13."Ahmed,K.S."ArabicMedicine:ContributionsandInfluence".TheProceedingsofthe17thAnnualHistoryof
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14.Sonneborn,Liz(2006).Averroes(IbnRushd):MuslimScholar,Philosopher,andPhysicianoftheTwelfthCentury.
TheRosenPublishingGroup.p.89.ISBN1404205144.RetrievedNovember3,2012.
15.RobertIrwin(2006).DangerousKnowledge:OrientalismanditsDiscontents.TheOverlookPress.ISBN9781
585678358.
16.ErnestRenan,Averrosetl'Averrosme:essaihistorique(https://archive.org/details/averrosetlaver00rena),1882.
17.Ahmad,Jamil(September1994),"Averroes",MonthlyRenaissance,4(9),retrieved20081014
18.H.ChadHillier(2006).Averroes(Averroes)(11261198CE)(http://www.iep.utm.edu/i/ibnrushd.htm),Internet
EncyclopediaofPhilosophy.
19.Bynum,WF&Bynum,Helen(2006),DictionaryofMedicalBiography,GreenwoodPress,ISBN0313328773
20.SeyyedHosseinNasrandOliverLeaman(1996),HistoryofIslamicPhilosophy,p.314,Routledge,ISBN0415
131596.
21.AbdelwahidalMarrakushi,alMojibfiTalkhisAkhbaralMaghrib[ThePleasantBookinSummarizingtheHistory
oftheMaghreb],pp.150151(1224),KingSaudUniversity
22.Menocal,MariaRosa(29November2009).TheOrnamentoftheWorld:HowMuslims,Jews,andChristians
CreatedaCultureofToleranceinMedievalSpain.Little,Brown.p.156.ISBN9780316092791.
23."InventionsetdecouvertesauMoyenAge",SamuelSadaune,p.112
24.Kenny,Joseph."ChronologyoftheworksofIbnRushd".ArchivedfromtheoriginalonAugust3,2002.Retrieved
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25.RichardC.Taylor(2005).RichardC.TaylorPeterAdamson,eds.TheCambridgeCompaniontoArabicPhilosophy.
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29.RushdRshidRgisMorelon.EncyclopediaoftheHistoryofArabicScience.Retrieved20121013.
30.AbdusSalamH.R.DalafiMohamedHassan.RenaissanceofSciencesinIslamicCountries.Retrieved20121013.
31.HseyinGaziTopdemir(2007)."KamalAlDinAlFarisi'sExplanationoftheRainbow"(PDF).Humanity&Social
SciencesJournal.2(1):7585[p.77].
32."IbnRushd[InternetEncyclopediaofPhilosophy]".Iep.utm.edu.20100105.Retrieved20121013.
33.TheLegacyofMuslimSpain.Retrieved20121013.
34.IbnRushd'sMetaphysics:ATranslationwithIntroductionofIbnRushd's...Averros.19861231.Retrieved
20121013.
35.(Fakhry2001,p.6)
36.(Fakhry2001,p.7)
37.Popkin,RichardH.,ed.(1999).TheColumbiaHistoryofWesternPhilosophy.MJFBooks.pp.184185..Theworks
inquestionweretheLiberdeCausisandTheTheologyofAristotle.
38.Hyman,Arthur,ed.(2010).PhilosophyintheMiddleAges:TheChristian,Islamic,andJewishTraditions(3rded.).
HackettPublishingCo.p.285.ISBN9781603842082.
39.(Fakhry2001,pp.89)
40.(Leaman2002,p.35)
41.(Fakhry2001,pp.8)
42.McGinnis,Jon,ed.(2007).ClassicalArabicPhilosophy:AnAnthologyofSources.HackettPubCoInc.p.295.
ISBN9780872208711.
43.Black,Antony(2011).TheHistoryofIslamicPoliticalThought(2nded.).EdinburghUniversityPress.p.122.
ISBN9780748639878.
44.(Fakhry2001,p.106)
45.RobertPasnau(NovDec2011)."TheIslamicScholarWhoGaveUsModernPhilosophy".Humanities.32(6).
46.(Averroes2005,p.xix)
47.(Fakhry2001,p.110)
48.(Fakhry2001,p.114)
49.IBNRUSHDVANDENBERGH(translator),SIMON.IBNRUSHDALQURTUBIAVERROESTAHAFUTAL
TAHAFUTEtextEdition(TheIncoherenceoftheIncoherence)VOLUMEI.THETRUSTEESOFTHEE.J.W.
GIBBMEMORIAL.Retrieved15September2015.
50.Sarri,DiegoR.(2015)."ThePhilosopherastheHeiroftheProphets:Averroes'sIslamicRationalism".AlQanara.
36(1):4568.doi:10.3989/alqantara.2015.002.ISSN19882955.p.48
51.(Fakhry2001,p.132)
52.(Leaman2002,p.28)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Averroes 8/10
16/10/2016 AverroesWikipedia

53.Nyazee,TheDistinguishedJurist'sPrimer,2vols.(Reading:GarnetPublishing1994&1996)
54.AnaRuiz,VibrantAndalusia:TheSpiceofLifeinSouthernSpain,p.42.

Furtherreading
Averroes,TranslatedbyRalphLerner(2005),AverroesOnPlato'sRepublic,CornellUniversityPress,
ISBN080148975X
Fakhry,Majid(2001),Averroes(IbnRushd)HisLife,WorksandInfluence,OneworldPublications,
ISBN1851682694
Campanini,Massimo.Averro[IlMulino,Bologna,2007].
Glasner,Ruth.Averroes'Physics:ATurningPointinMedievalNaturalPhilosophy(Oxford,Oxford
UniversityPress,2009).
Kogan,BarryS.(1985),AverroesandtheMetaphysicsofCausation,SUNYPress,ISBN0887060633
Kupka,Thomas,"AverroesalsRechtsgelehrter(AverroesasaLegalScholar),"in:Rechtsgeschichte18
(2011),214216(inGermanpdfatssrn)(http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2346808)
Leaman,Olivier(1998),Averroesandhisphilosophy,Routledge,ISBN0700706755
Leaman,Olivier(2002),AnIntroductiontoClassicalIslamicPhilosophy(2nded.),Cambridge
UniversityPress,ISBN9780521797573
Baffioni,Carmela(2004),AverroesandtheAristotelianHeritage,GuidaEditori,ISBN8871888626
Sorabji,RichardMatter,SpaceandMotionDuckworth1988
WilhelmSchmidtBiggemann,SketchofaCosmicTheoryoftheSoulfromAristotletoAverroes(http://w
ww.buchhandlungwaltherkoenig.de/cat/kwb_45_variantology_4/pid_170000000000790428.aspx),in:
Variantology4.OnDeepTimeRelationsofArts,SciencesandTechnologiesIntheArabicIslamicWorld
andBeyond,ed.bySiegfriedZielinskiandEckhardFrlusincooperationwithDanielIrrgangand
FranziskaLatell(Cologne:VerlagderBuchhandlungWaltherKnig,2010),pp.1942.

Externallinks
WorksofAverroes
WikimediaCommonshas
DARE(http://dare.unikoeln.de),theDigitalAverroesResearch mediarelatedtoAverroes.
Environment,anongoingefforttocollectdigitalimagesofall
Averroesmanuscriptsandfulltextsofallthreelanguage Wikisourcehasoriginal
traditions. workswrittenbyorabout:
Averroes(http://www.muslimphilosophy.com/ir/index.html), IbnRushd
IslamicPhilosophyOnline(linkstoworksbyandaboutAverroes
inseverallanguages) Wikiquotehasquotations
ThePhilosophyandTheologyofAverroes:Tractatatranslated relatedto:Averroes
fromtheArabic(http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/rushdthephiloso
phyandtheologyofaverroes),trans.MohammadJamilurRehman,1921
TheIncoherenceoftheIncoherence(http://www.muslimphilosophy.com/ir/tt/index.html)translationby
SimonvandenBergh.[N.B.:Thisalsocontainsatranslationofmostofthetahafutastherefutationsare
mostlycommentaryofalGhazalistatementsthatwerequotedverbatim.]ThereisalsoanItalian
translationbyMassimoCampanini,Averro,L'incoerenzadell'incoerenzadeifilosofi,Turin,Utet,1997.
SIEPMVirtualLibrary(http://capricorn.bc.edu/siepm/books.html#12),includingscannedcopies(PDF)
oftheEditioJuntinaofAverroes'worksinLatin(Venice15501562)

InformationaboutAverroes

Forcada,Miquel(2007)."IbnRushd:AbalWaldMuammadibnAmadibnMuammadibnRushd
alafd".InThomasHockeyetal.TheBiographicalEncyclopediaofAstronomers.NewYork:
Springer.pp.5645.ISBN9780387310220.(PDFversion(http://islamsci.mcgill.ca/RASI/BEA/Ibn_
Rushd_BEA.pdf))
Iskandar,AlbertZ.(2008)[197080]."IbnRushd,Ab'LWaldMuammadIbnAhmadIbn
Muammad".CompleteDictionaryofScientificBiography.Encyclopedia.com.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Averroes 9/10
16/10/2016 AverroesWikipedia

FouadBenAhmed."IbnRud:Knowledge,pleasuresandanalogy"(http://philosophye.com/ibnrusdkn
owledgepleasuresandanalogy/),in:Philosophia:EJournalofPhilosophyandCulture,4/2013.
ISSN13145606(https://www.worldcat.org/search?fq=x0:jrnl&q=n2:13145606)

Averroes(http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p0038x79)onInOurTimeattheBBC.(listennow(http://
www.bbc.co.uk/iplayer/console/p0038x79/In_Our_Time_Averroes))
Chisholm,Hugh,ed.(1911)."Averroes".EncyclopdiaBritannica(11thed.).CambridgeUniversity
Press.
Herbermann,Charles,ed.(1913)."Averroes".CatholicEncyclopedia.NewYork:RobertAppleton
Company.
DAREBibliography(http://dare.unikoeln.de/?q=node/129),acomprehensiveoverviewoftheextant
bibliography
AverroesDatabase(http://www.thomasinst.unikoeln.de/averroes/),includingafullbibliographyofhis
works
"Averroes"(http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/history/inourtime/inourtime_20061005.shtml),BBCRadio4
discussion,5October2006,"InOurTime"programme.

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