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fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI 10.1109/TSG.2017.2709463, IEEE

Transactions on Smart Grid

1

Networks Considering Branch Ampere

Measurements

Yuntao Ju, Member, IEEE, Wenchuan Wu, Senior Member, Fuchao Ge, Student Member, Kang Ma,

Member, IEEE, Yi Lin and Lin Ye, Senior Member

Abstract Fast decoupled state estimation (FDSE) is proposed Pi Active power injected at bus i

for distribution networks, with fast convergence and high

Qi Reactive power injected at bus i

efficiency. Conventionally, branch current magnitude

measurements cannot be incorporated into FDSE models; avg , avg , Heuristic parameters calculated according to

however, in this paper, branch ampere measurements are network parameters and load condition

reformulated as active and reactive branch loss measurements Phase angle vector with n dimension

and directly formulated in the proposed FDSE model. Using the v Voltage magnitude vector with n dimension

complex per unit normalization technique and special chosen x State variables vector

state variables, the performance of this FDSE can be z Measurements vector

guaranteed when it is applied to distribution networks. Active power measurements vector, include

za

Numerical tests on seven different distribution networks show voltage phase angle measurements

that this method outperforms Newton type solutions and is a Reactive power measurements vector, include

zr

promising method for practical application. voltage magnitude measurements

Calculated values responding to active power

ha

Index TermsDistribution network, Fast decoupled state measurements

estimation, Ampere measurements Calculated values responding to reactive power

hr

measurements

NOMENCLATURE a Active power measurements error

Sbase Complex power base r Reactive power measurements error

Ibase Complex current base H Measurement Jacobian

1 Weight matrix

Sbase Magnitude of complex power base R

Constant measurement Jacobian matrix for

Base angle, rad. Ba

base active power measurements

m Number of branches Br

Constant measurement Jacobian matrix for

Xi Reactance of branch i reactive power measurements

Square of branch current magnitude from bus

Ri Resistance of branch i I ij2

i to bus j

l Number of PQ load G Gain matrix

n Number of state-undetermined buses m Measurements value

r Number of slack buses Average value

U base Complex voltage base Standard deviation

U base Magnitude of complex voltage base

I. INTRODUCTION

estimators (SEs) are significant data processors in

This work was supported partly by the National Science Foundation of

China (Grant.51477083) ,the State Grid Fujian electric power company

Economic institute of technology science and technology project (Grant

S TATE

electric power control centers (EPCCs), providing reliable

information for real time markets [1]. Distribution system state

SGFJJY00GHWT1600081) and the State Key Laboratory foundation project

(Grant SKLD16KZ08). estimation (DSE) is indispensable for active distribution

Yuntao Ju and Lin Ye is with China Agricultural University, Beijing, China network modeling and integrated operation with distributed

(e-mail: juyuntao@cau.edu.cn, yelin@cau.edu.cn). energy resources [2].

Wenchuan Wu is with Tsinghua University, Beijing, China (corresponding Due to budget limitations, on many feeders, only branch

author, email: wuwench@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn).

Yi Lin is with Fu Jian Electric Company (email: jyy.lin_yi@fj.sgcc.com.cn) current magnitude measurements (BCMMs) are deployed to

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monitor operating conditions. Some investigations have shown In summary, to the best of our knowledge, with the complex

that these real-time BCMMs can significantly improve the pu technique, FDSE can be implemented on distribution

accuracy of load estimation in DSE [3]. However, BCMMs are networks with promising convergence; however, incorporation

usually ignored in transmission SE due to their coupled of BCCMs in an FDSE model remains a problem requiring a

property and mathematical problems [4], such as zero elements solution. In a typical distribution network, branch current

in the measurement Jacobian evaluated at flat start and multiple measurements represent the major portion of their limited

solutions [5]. real-time measurements. In this paper, a novel fast decoupled

In DSE, BCMMs are usually handled indirectly. In [3], a distribution state estimator (FD-DSE) is proposed. The branch

strategy with two stages is proposed. In the first stage, the ampere measurements are equivalently reformulated as the

branch current measurements are disregarded. In the second branch active power and reactive power losses, and the power

stage, the BCMMs are approximately formulated as linear loss measurements can be incorporated into the FD-DSE model

complex measurements, with the phase angle estimated in the in a decoupled manner. Numerical tests show that this FD-DSE

first stage, and the updated SE model is iteratively solved. In [6], has a low computational burden with fast convergence.

BCCMs, and active and reactive power measurements, are all

transformed to linear complex current measurements based on II. BRIEF REVIEW OF FAST DECOUPLED STATE ESTIMATION

estimated phase angle and voltage. Clearly, these solutions will By introducing the complex per unit normalization [21],

introduce additional errors due to measurement transformation. normalized r/x ratio of distribution network becomes smaller, a

BCCMs can be directly formulated in DSE with special fast decoupled algorithm can be realized with robust

selection of state variables. A branch current-based DSE is performance. The main concept underlying complex per unit

proposed to accommodate large-scale BCCMs, where the normalization is explained briefly here.

magnitude and phase angle of the branch current were selected

as the state variables in [7]. Another formulation of DSE adopts A. Complex per unit Normalization

branch current magnitude and power as state variables [8]. First, a complex volt-ampere base is given by:

However, these methods suffer from a heavy computational Sbase Sbase e j , base

(1)

burden for large-scale networks, because repeated factorization

of the gain matrix is involved. where Sbase denotes complex power base, Sbase denotes

Fast decoupled state estimation (FDSE) algorithms are used magnitude of complex power base, base denotes angle base.

widely for transmission networks [9], [10] [11] due to their high

The voltage base is given by:

efficiency. FDSE has become a standard method for SE in

U base U base j 0 (2)

energy management systems (EMSs) [12].

Numerical tests on variable transmission networks indicate where U base denotes complex voltage base, U base denotes

that the gain matrix of SE changes slightly during the iteration magnitude of complex voltage base.

procedure [9]. Under certain assumptions, a constant gain According to (1) and (2), the current and impedance base will

matrix in a decoupled pattern can be obtained. The right hand be:

side (RHS) of normal equations can also be decoupled [10]. 2

U base U2

Ill-conditioned problems of SE occur when there are small Z base *

base e jbase (3)

Sbase Sbase

impedance branches [13], weights that are too large for virtual

*

zero injection measurements, etc. These problems can be Sbase S

I base base e jbase (4)

addressed by normal equations with constraints [14] [15] or U base U base

Hachtels augmented matrix method [16]. A fast decoupled

where I base denotes complex current base, Z base denotes

formulation for SE based on Hachtels sparse tableaux

approach is proposed in [12]. To improve the numerical complex impedance base.

stability of FDSE, an orthogonal row processing algorithm can The determination of the base angle is achieved by:

be used with Givens transformations. [17]. Because the avg avg

base 1 (5)

orthogonal transformation needs to store a dense and high 2 2

dimension transformation matrix, it is computationally where

complex and not highly practical. Decoupled SE can also be m

Xi

carried out in rectangular form via transformation of active and tan 1

reactive measurement pairs to linear complex current avg

i 1 Ri ,

measurements [18]. FDSE shows bad convergence m

performance for networks with high r/x ratios. Therefore, a new X X

tan 1 i tan 1 i

FDSE is required, maintaining nonzero coupling in the i max

R Ri min

Jacobian off-diagonal matrix block in an iterative procedure to avg ,

2

improve performance under high r/x ratios [19]. l Qi

Several practical solutions have been developed to resolve cos tan 1

the problem in FDSE of high r/x ratios in a distribution network. i 1 Pi

1 ,

A rotation-based method has been presented to handle this l

difficulty [20]. O. L. Tortelli et al. propose a fast decoupled where m denotes the number of branches, X i and Ri are the

algorithm via complex pu normalization [21] for distribution reactance and resistance of branch i , l is the number of PQ

networks.

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load, Pi and Qi are active and reactive power injected at bus i, BrT Rr 1 Br v BrT Rr 1

zr hr v, (14)

avg , avg , are heuristic parameters calculated according to Because of its high efficiency and low memory cost, FDSE

network parameters and load conditions. with (13) and (14) has become a standard algorithm in EMSs.

With the above-mentioned complex per unit normalization, C. Difficulties in Accounting for Branch Current Magnitude

the normalized r/x ratio of a distribution becomes smaller; a Measurements in FDSE

fast-decoupled algorithm can be used for distribution networks.

The branch current can be expressed as [23]:

B. Fast Decoupled State Estimation I ij2 gij2 bij2 vi2 v 2j 2vi v j cosij (15)

For an electrical power network, the state variables are

The measurement Jacobian for the square of BCCM is given

composed of phase angle and voltage magnitude v .

by:

The objective of the weighted least squares SE model is:

I ij2

min Ri1 ( zi hi (x)) 2 (6) 2 g ij2 bij2 vi v j cos ij (16)

i m vi

where x {vi ,i } . I ij2

2 g ij2 bij2 vi v j sin ij (17)

This SE problem can be solved using the Newton method, i

and the iterative equation is [1]: For flat start, assume that vi v j 1 , i j , (16) and (17)

x = G 1 H T R 1 z h x (7) are both equal to zero and are useless at flat start. Reference [23]

h x concludes that BCMM cannot be decoupled or used in FDSE.

where G H RH , H = T

.

x Since BCMMs occupy a large portion of real-time

The measurement vector can be divided into active and measurements in distribution networks, they should be

reactive power parts: exploited thoroughly in DSE.

za ha , v a

z (8) III. PROPOSED DISTRIBUTION STATE ESTIMATION MODEL

zr hr , v r

The voltage vector ( vi i ), and real and reactive branch

The measurement Jacobian matrix can be divided into two power flow ( Pij , Qij , Pji , Q ji ) are selected as state variables.

parts and is written as:

Therefore, there are 4m additional state variables compared

ha ha

Haa Har with the conventional SE model. Let z represent the

H = v = (9) measurement vector, and Ri1 the weight of the ith measurement

hr hr Hra Hrr

The measurement equation h( y) relating the measurement

v

vector and the state vector includes:

1

The weight matrix R can also be divided into two parts: 1) Real and reactive power measurements of the branch:

Ra 1 P Pij Pij , Qij Qij Pij

m m

1 ij (18)

R 1

(10)

Rr where represents the measurement error, and the

superscript m denotes measurement quantities.

hr ha

Considering that 0, 0 after complex per 2) Injection power measurements:

v

Pi Pij P , Qi Qij Qi ,cap Q

m m

(19)

0, vi 1 , the

i i

unit normalization, and assuming that ij ji ji

gain matrix is expressed by:

ha reactive power injected by capacitors.

Ba (11) 3) Branch current measurements:

I ijm 2 rij Pijm,loss Pij Pji Pij ,loss (20)

hr

Br (12) I m2

ij x Q

ij

m

ij , loss Qij Q ji v b 2

i sh , ij v b

2

j sh , ij Qij ,loss (21)

v m

According to the proposition of fast decoupled power flow where bsh,ij is the 1/2 branch charging susceptance. I denotes ij

[22], Ba is formulated with , where xb is the branch branch loss. Since the branch charging current for a distribution

xb

network is very small, these two approximate equations have

reactance and Br is formulated with the imaginary part of the only trivial errors.

branch admittance. When BCCMs are the only ones to make the branch

Finally, the FDSE is formulated with two incremental observable, the SE solution is not unique [23]( chapter 9). It

equations. First, the phase angles are corrected using: means BCCMs cannot be critical measurements to make the

branch observable, i.e. BCCMs are redundant measurements to

BaT Ra 1 Ba BaT Ra 1 za ha v, (13)

make SE more accurate.

Then, the voltage magnitudes are corrected using: 4) Bus voltage measurements:

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m

(22)

additional state variables. Vmag represents voltage magnitude

5) Virtual measurements:

Because 4m additional state variables have been introduced measurements.

into state estimation, 4m extra constraints should be The corresponding elements of matrix H are described as:

supplemented, as virtual measurements, to insure the Pi Qi Pij Qij Pij ,loss Pij ,loss

1 , 1 , 1 , 1 , 1 , 1 ,

observability of the system. Pij Qij Pij Qij Pij Pji

For a branch, the branch active and reactive power

constraints can be formulated as virtual measurements and Qloss Q fij , p ,v

1 , loss 1 1,

expressed as: Q ji Qij Pij

rij vi v j cos i j +xij v j sin i j fij , p ,v

f p , v =Pij -vi 2

r 2

xij

=0 (23) 2vi g v j g cos ij v j b sin ij ,

ij vi

xij vi v j cos i j +rij v j sin i j fij , p ,v

f q , v Qij -vi =0 (24) vi v j g sin ij b cos ij ,

rij2 xij2 i

Similar constraints can be derived for Pji and Q ji flow from fij , p ,v

vi g cos ij b sin ij ,

the other side of the branch. Effects of charging susceptance are v j

neglected in (23) and (24).

fij , p ,v

For shunt capacitors, the branch power flow constraints are vi v j g sin ij b cos ij ,

formulated as: j

Qi ,cap -vi2bi ,cap =0 (25) fij , q ,v fij , q ,v

where bi , cap is the susceptance of capacitors. 1, 2vi b yc v j g sin ij b cos ij ,

Qij vi

The whole measurement Jacobian is expressed as H , where

fij , q ,v

v Pij Pji Qij Q ji vi v j g cos ij b sin ij ,

i

Pinj Pinj

fij , q ,v

0 vi g sin ij b cos ij ,

0 0 0

Pij Pji v j

Qinj Qinj

0 fij , q ,v Vi

vi v j g cos ij b cos ij ,

0 0 0

Qij Q ji 1 . Here g and b

j vi

Pflow Pflow denote branch admittance, yc denotes shunt susceptance.

0 0

Pij Pji

0 0

It shows that no elements are faced with zero problem under

Q flow Q fllow the assumption ij 0 . So, the proposed measurement model

0 0 0 0

Qij Q ji can cope with branch currents model in a decoupled manner.

Ploss Ploss FDSE depends on the PQ decoupled properties of the

0 0 0 0 measurement equations. Branch power measurements (18),

H Pij Pji injection power measurements (19) and branch loss

0 Qloss Qloss measurements (20)(21)(25) all have PQ decoupled properties;

0 0 0

Qij Q ji

however, the virtual branch constraints (23)(24) are involved in

both v and . It has been observed that v has little impact on

f p ,v f p ,v f p ,v f p ,v active power and that has little impact on reactive power for

0 0

v Pij Pji a distribution network with high R / X in a complex per unit

f f q ,v f q ,v f q ,v system [21], and that sin i j i j , cos i j 1 ,

q ,v 0 0

v Qij Q ji and v j 1 . Therefore, according to the proposition from fast

decoupled power flow, the elements of the measurement

Vmag ,

0 0 0 0 0 Jacobian for the virtual branch constraints of (23)(24) can be

v

formulated as:

Pij i j

where Pflow , Q flow represent active and reactive power flow (26)

vi xij

measurements vectors, Ploss , Qloss represent active and reactive Qij xij vi v j

(27)

branch power loss measurements vectors, Pinj , Qinj represent vi r 2

ij xij2

active and reactive power injection measurements vectors,

f p,v , f q,v represent virtual measurements provided by branch

constraints in equation (23) and equation (24), Pij , Pji , Qij , Q ji

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For FD-DSE, the measurement jacobian matrix is expressed The usage of complex pu normalization in a state estimation

in equation (9), where Har =0, H ra =0, and the other two problem includes three steps:

(1)The key for complex pu normalization method is to

matrixes are estimate the base angle base , according to equation (5), this

Pij Pji value is mainly determined by network parameters and load

factor. In distribution network, load factor can be estimated

Pinj Pinj

0 according to load type.

Pij Pji (2)Calculate complex volt-ampere base, impedance base and

Pflow Pflow current base according to the estimated base angle base .

0

Pij Pji (3)All measurements and network parameters are

H aa normalized according to the base values using complex pu

0 Ploss Ploss normalization.

Pij Pji

Initialized with

f p , v f p , v f p , v vi i 10

Pij 0

Pij Pji

Qij 0

v Qij Q ji

Qinj Qinj P BaT Ra 1 Ba

BaT Ra 1 za ha v, , Pij , Qij

0 Iteration Pij

Qij Q ji

Qv

Q flow Q flow v

BrT Rr 1 Br BrT Rr 1

0 Iteration Qij

zr hr v, , Pij ,Qij

Qij Q ji

.

Qloss Qloss

H rr 0 No

Qij Q ji v, , Pij , Qij

f q , v f q , v f q , v

Yes

v Qij Q ji

V Stop

mag 0 0

v

Figure 1 Flowchart of the whole fast decoupled distribution state estimator

(FD-DSE)

The corresponding elements of matrix H aa and H rr are Discussion on its observability: For a distribution network

described as: with m branches, 4m additional state variables are involved in

Qi Qij Q ji ,loss f V this SE model, and branch constraints (23)(24) can provide a

1 1 1 ij , q ,v 1 i 1

Qij Qij Q ji Qij vi total of 4m extra equations in the same time. Therefore, the

proposed SE model has the same observability as a

Pi P P P

1 , ij 1 , ij ,loss 1 , ij ,loss 1 . conventional SE. Because the dimensions of Ba and Br being

Pij Pij Pij Pji

larger than those of the conventional SE is not very important

The Jacobian matrix entries keep constant during the iteration. for sparse matrices [14], the proposed FDSE has promising

fij , p ,v 1 computational performance for practical applications.

Every nonlinear entries are approximated with ,

i xij

IV. BAD DATA ANALYSIS

fij , q ,v xij

, according to fast decoupled power flow Chi-squares test is used for detecting bad data [23].

vi rij2 xij2 Normalized residuals are usually used for bad data

solution proposed in[22]. Other elements are either 1 or 0. identification [32]. Hypothesis testing identification (HTI) can

be used for identifying multiple errors [33]. In proposed

The element of the measurement Jacobian for the shunt FD-DSE, HTI is used to identify bad data and the analysis

capacitor is: procedure is described as followings:

Qi ,cap (1)suspect measurement set s is selected according to

bi ,cap (28)

vi normalized residuals r N and calculate es S ss1 z z ,where

By adopting the above measurement Jacobian formulation

Sss represents residual sensitivity matrix corresponding to

scheme, a fast decoupled distribution SE (FD-DSE) can be

formulated, in which the two Jacobian matrixes for the P- and suspect measurement set. z denotes estimated measurements

Q-V iterations are both constant. The calculation procedure for value and z denotes measurements value.

the FD-DSE is similar to the FDSE introduced in (13) and (14)

[23]. The whole FD-DSE flow chart is depicted in Fig. 1.

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(2)Calculate N , where

1 i i Tii Q Q21 r ,1

m

2 (30)

2

The equations for the virtual measurements are expressed as:

T Sss1 , i2 variance, denotes the probability of making an

v1r v1 v1 cos 1 2 +v1xv2 sin 1 2

error in rejection of valid measurements, N b ,(for example, 0 P12 (31)

b 2.32 for 0.01 ).

2

r2

x

v2r v2 v2 cos 2 1 +v2 xv1 sin 2 1

(3)If 0 N N , i i Tii N , where 0 P21 (32)

1 i

2

1 max

2

1 i

2

r 2

x2

0 Q12 (33)

1 max

2

r 2

x2

N 0 , i i Tii N

.If N N , v2 x v1 v1 cos 2 1 +v2rv1 sin 2 1

1 i 1 i max 1 i 1 max 0 Q21 (34)

r x2

2 2 2 2 2

i i Tii N

.

1 i max The power loss measurements are given by:

2 m

Ploss P12 P21 (35)

(4)Taken as suspect measurements if esi i .

Q m

loss Q12 Q21 (36)

(5)Repeat steps 1-4 until all measurements that are suspected

Since all the measurements satisfy PQ decoupled

in the previous iteration are all selected again at step 4. Bad data

characteristics, matrix Ba is given by:

identification algorithm can be accelerated using algorithm in

[35]. 2 P12 P21

The detail of HTI based bad data identification can refer to P2m 0 0 1

0m 1 x 1 0

[23] and [32].

(37)

Ba m

V. SIMPLE ILLUSTRATIVE SAMPLE 0 1 x 0 1

m

To explain the procedure of the proposed method more Ploss 0 1 1

clearly, the FD-DSE is implemented on a simple two-bus Similar to the active power part, Br is formulated as:

sample network. v2 Q12 Q21

U1 1 0 r jx U 2 U 2 2

Q2m 0 0 1

P12 jQ12 P21 jQ21 0m

x r x 1 0

2 2

(38)

Br m

0 x r x 0 1

2 2

m

Qloss 0 1 1

P2 jQ2

Then, according to (13) and (14), this SE model can be

Figure 2 Two-bus illustrative sample system

solved in a decoupled manner. The FD-DSE for this simple

The original impedance, and active and reactive power under

illustrative sample network converged after three iterations.

a conventional per unit system, are r +jx = 0.0967 + 0.0397j p.u.

It can be seen that Ba and Br have zero pivot in

and P2 + jQ2 = 0.0042 + 0.0026j. According to (5), the base

angle for complex per unit normalization can be obtained as lower-upper triangular (LU) decomposition, which can be

base 1.3581 rad. Then, by implementing complex unit accounted for easily with an MC64 pivoting algorithm [24] to

ensure the numerical stability of the FD-DSE.

normalization on this simple two-bus system, measurements

can be generated with original power flow adding errors, which

satisfy a Gaussian distribution. The measurement parameters

VI. TEST CASES

for the Gaussian distribution are given in Table I.

The FD-DSE was programmed in C++ and tested on several

TABLE I practical or hypothetical radial and meshed distribution

PARAMETERS FOR DISTRIBUTIONS OF MEASUREMENTS networks [25]. Six cases on radial or meshed networks, with all

Measurement

branches deployed with BCCMs and all loads equipped with

P2 -1.6548e-3 1.656e-9

active and reactive power measurements, were designed for

Q2 4.6542e-3 4.655e-9 testing. The average values for all measurements were the

Square BCCM of 0.17997 1.7997e-7 original power flow values. The measurement errors satisfy a

branch 1-2 Gaussian distribution, with standard deviations given by

Active power loss -0.003310 3.31e-9 106 z pf 1012 (39)

of branch 1-2

Reactive power 0.009311 9.31e-9 where z pf denotes the power flow result for this measurement.

loss of branch 1-2

(1) Case 1: 29-bus test feeder, with 1 reference bus and 1 tie

branch [26];

Then, the active power injection measurements are given by:

(2) Case 2: 32-bus test feeder, with 1 reference bus and 5 tie

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RADIAL NETWORK

(3) Case 3: 83-bus test feeder, with 11 reference buses and 13

Maximum

tie branches [28]; FD-DSE Newton DSE

voltage deviation

(4) Case 4: 135-bus test feeder, with 8 reference buses and 21 Case

CPU CPU between FD-DSE

Iter. Iter.

tie branches [25]; time(s) time(s) and Newton DSE

(5) Case 5: 201-bus test feeder, with 3 reference buses and 15 1 7 0.0088 5 0.0338 6.25 106

tie branches [25]; 2 6 0.0093 5 0.0319 3.24 106

(6) Case 6: 873-bus test feeder, with 7 reference buses and 27 3 7 0.0279 5 0.1123 3.79 106

tie branches [25];

(7) Case 7: 10476-bus test feeder, with 84 reference buses

4 8 0.0481 5 0.2182 5.71106

and 260 tie branches [25]; 5 8 0.0774 5 0.3535 5.66 106

The programs were compiled using g++ -o0 g3 Wall c 6 6 0.2680 5 0.9618 6.62 106

MMD MP -MF on a Fedora 25 Linux operating system and 7 7 3.3766 5 13.7085 9.49 106

executed on a notebook PC (ThinkPad X1Carbon; 2.3-GHz

CPU). The functions and operations on dense and sparse

matrices were developed based on the Armadillo [29], Eigen

TABLE III

[30] and SuperLab [31] open source codes. PERFORMANCE OF THE TWO DIFFERENT SE METHODS

IMPLEMENTED ON A MESHED NETWORK

A. Performance Comparison with Newton Base SE Maximum

FD-DSE Newton DSE

From numerical test cases 1-7, with only deploying critical Case

voltage deviation

measurements, the results show that proposed method and CPU CPU between FD-DSE

Iter. Iter.

time(s) time(s) and Newton DSE

traditional SE can both obtain SE results. These tests verify that

the proposed SE model has the same observability as a 1 7 0.0151 5 0.0654 3.76 106

conventional SE.

2 5 0.0180 4 0.0617 5.89 106

The test results of the FD-DSE and Newton-DSE are listed in

Table II and Table III, with an average value of 100 Monte 3 6 0.0355 5 0.1358 7.99 106

Carlo simulations and where Iter. denotes the number of

iterations. Table II lists the results for radial networks, while 4 7 0.0648 5 0.2843 4.11106

Table III lists the results for meshed networks. The FD-DSE

5 8 0.0924 5 0.4470 5.22 106

and Newton DSE produce very similar SE results, since exact

measurement constraints are used to calculate the power 6 7 0.3422 5 1.4683 4.19 106

deviation over iterations. The FD-DSE gain matrix was

enlarged by introducing additional variables ( Pij , Qij , Pji , Q ji ). 7 8 4.2965 5 20.4278 1.19 106

However, this matrix is very sparse, thus maintaining the

efficiency of the FD-DSE. From Tables II and III, although the B. Impact from Complex per unit Normalization

Newton-DSE uses fewer iterations, it requires more CPU time. Complex per unit normalization is critical for implementing

This is because the gain matrix has to be reformulated and FD-DSE on a distribution network. From the results in Tables

factorized at every iteration in the Newton-DSE, but is only IV and V, complex per unit normalization improves the

needed during initialization for the FD-DSE. Since the branch convergence of FD-DSE. Without complex per unit

current measurements are formulated as linear loss normalization, FD-DSE cannot converge within a limited

measurement functions, the results also show that FD-DSE number of iterations. From the results for Case 5 given in

does not need more iterations when these measurements are Tables IV and V under conventional p.u., after closing the tie

involved. From the results of Case 7, the proposed FD-DSE is lines in the 201-bus test feeder, the FD-DSE failed to converge

more efficient than the Newton DSE for a large-scale system. in more than 20 iterations. The impedance parameters for tie

Since the efficiency of a program also depends heavily on its lines are all identical, at 2.98257 10-9 + 2.98257 10-9j p.u.

coding techniques, the CPU times for these two methods listed These are small impedance branches compared to other

in Table II are only for comparison under the same branches with about 0.0010.01 p.u. For FD-DSE under

implementation conditions. From the results in Tables II and III, conventional p.u., small impedance branches have a greater

it can also be seen that the meshed network has little impact on impact on convergence, while for FD-DSE under complex p.u.,

the convergence of the proposed method. From the results for small impedance branches have a smaller impact on

Cases 2 and 3 in Table III, the number of iterations for meshed convergence. It can be concluded that complex p.u. improves

networks is less than that for radial networks. the numerical stability of FD-DSE.

TABLE II

TABLE IV

PERFORMANCE OF THE TWO DIFFERENT SE METHODS

IMPLEMENTED ON A RADIAL NETWORK

FD-DSE with FD-DSE with

case complex p.u. conventional p.u.

base Iter. Iter.

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1 1.524369 7 19 FD-DSE.

The branch current measurement coverage rate is defined

2 0.930988 6 11 as

nm branch

3 0.455284 7 7 (40)

nbranch

4 0.814445 8 7 where nm branch is the number of BCCMs and nbranch is the total

5 0.965050 8 8 number of branches.

To characterize the estimation accuracy, the root mean

6 0.915803 6 10 square (RMS) of the estimation error for load power is defined

as:

7 0.917346 7 10

P Qload Qload

2 2

Pload

se se

RMSload

load

(41)

TABLE V 2nload

PERFORMANCE OF THE TWO DIFFERENT SE METHODS

IMPLEMENTED ON A MESHED NETWORK where nLoad is the number of loads, Pload and Qload are the

FD-DSE with FD-DSE with se

original power flow results and Pload se

and Qload are the state

case complex p.u. conventional p.u.

base estimation results.

Iter. Iter.

As shown in Table VI, when the BCCM coverage rate

1 1.525099 7 18 increases, the estimation accuracy is significantly improved.

Hence, it is necessary to incorporate BCCMs into FD-DSE to

2 0.922711 5 9

obtain better estimation results.

3 0.458971 6 9

TABLE VII

4 0.811444 7 7 RESULTS OF FD-DSE WITH DIFFERENT NUMBERS OF BCCMS

RMSload

5 0.966187 8 > 20 0.1 2.19 102

6 0.860685 7 9 0.3 5.2 103

0.6 2.8 103

7 0.861821 8 13

1 5.1104

C. Comparison with the Newton SE method using constant E. Bad Data Analysis

Jacobian matrix

Additional numerical tests are conducted on a 30-bus

Fast decoupled method is more robust than Newton Jacobian distribution network [26] as illustrated in Figure. 3. The test

method with constant Jacobian under heavy load. Hence, to results are listed in Table VIII. The results show that FD-DSE

verify the performace of the proposed FD-DSE, the active and incorporated with HTI can successfully identify multiple

reactive power of load are increased to 1.3 times. branch current magnitude measurements errors and other types

Table VI shows that Newton DSE with constant Jacobian is of measurements.

less efficient than proposed FD-DSE for a network with heavy

load in all cases. 13 14 15 16 28 29 30

TABLE VI 13 14 15 28 29

27

JACOBIAN FOR A DISTRIBUTION NETWORK WITH HEAVY LOAD 1 2 12 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

FD-DSE

Constant Jacobian 16

Case

CPU CPU 17 18 19 20 21

Iter. Iter.

time(s) time(s) 17 18 19 20 21

measurements measurements 22

2 7 0.0104 11 0.0173 23

Injection 23

3 7 0.0295 12 0.0978 measurements

Voltage magnitude

measurements

24

27 26

24

4 8 0.0493 14 0.1163 26

25 25

5 8 0.0797 14 0.1539

6 7 0.2798 16 0.6756 Figure 3 30-bus distribution network with various measurements

7 7 3.4986 13 6.7732

TABLE VIII

D. Impact for SE with different BCCM configurations BAD DATA ANALYSIS

Error measurements Identification results

In this section, test cases with a 69-bus distribution network Branch current magnitude measurements Errors are all

with different BCCM configurations are conducted to at branch 1-2 identified

demonstrate how BCCMs improve the estimation accuracy of Branch current magnitude measurements Errors are all

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Transactions on Smart Grid

9

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1949-3053 (c) 2016 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. See http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information.

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Transactions on Smart Grid

10

VIII. BIOGRAPHIES limiter prototype for electrical marine propulsion which was

funded by Rolls-Royce Plc and the Department of Trade &

Yuntao Ju (M13) received his B.Sc in mechanical Industry (DTI) of the United Kingdom.

engineering in 2008 and his Ph.D. degree in electrical He is currently a full professor in electrical power

engineering in 2013, all from Tsinghua University. He engineering at the Department of Electric Power Systems,

was an awardee of excellent graduates from Tsinghua China Agricultural University (CAU), Beijing, P R China.

University in 2008. In November 2013, He has been a His research interests are in the areas of electrical power

visiting scholar to University of Toronto for a year. In system analysis & control, power grid modeling &

simulation, renewable energy generation & system

2015, Dr. Yuntao Ju joined china electric power integration and dispatching as well as wind/solar power

research institute as a research fellow. He is now an forecasting.

associate professor in College of Information and

Electrical Engineering, China Agricultural University

(CAU), Beijing, P R China. His research interests

include hybrid energy system modeling, high speed

dynamic simulation, large scale system parameter

identification, state estimation and uncertainty

optimization..

degrees from the Electrical Engineering Department,

Tsinghua University, Beijing, China. He is currently a

Professor in the Department of Electrical Engineering of

Tsinghua University. His research interests include Energy

Management System, active distribution system operation

and control, and EMTP-TSA hybrid real-time simulation.

Prof. Wu is an IET Fellow, associate editor of IET

Generation, Transmission & Distribution, Electric Power

Components and Systems.

in electrical engineering from Linyi University, Linyi, China,

in 2014. Now he is pursuring master degree of China

Agricultural University, his research interests include Power

system state estimation, parameter identification and

electricity market.

research focuses on three-phase unbalanced low voltage

networks. He worked as an R&D engineer at China Electric

Power Research Institute (Beijing) from 2011 to 2014,

during which time he developed the first version of the

reliability assessment module for a distribution network

planning platform. This platform has been widely applied to

over 20 provincial grid companies in China. He received his

PhD degree in Electrical Engineering from the University of

Manchester (U.K.) and his B.Eng. degree from Tsinghua

University (China).

of Fujian Electric Power Limited Company. His research

interests include distribution network planning and

operation.

University, P R China in 1992 and his Ph.D. degree in 2000

from the Institute of Electrical Engineering (IEE), Chinese

Academy of Sciences (CAS), all in electrical engineering. He

has been pursuing research at ForschungsZentrum

Karlsruhe(FZK) (*now merged with University of

Karlsruhe(TH) to form Karlsruhe Institute for Technology,

KIT) as a research fellow of Alexander von Humboldt

Stiftung/Foundation (AvH) of Germany from 2000 to 2002.

In 2004, Dr. Lin Ye joined the Interdisciplinary Research

Center (IRC), Department of Engineering/Cavendish

Laboratory, the University of Cambridge, United Kingdom,

as a research fellow. At Cambridge Laboratory, he had been

involved in developing a novel resistive type of fault current

1949-3053 (c) 2016 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. See http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information.

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