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Aug 25, 2017

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Literature reviews for biogas separator

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Fyp table

Literature reviews for biogas separator

© All Rights Reserved

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natural

2009 Karimi & Abdi gas using supersonic nozzles

2015 Yang et al. Supersonic Natural Gas Processing

Computational Fluid Dynamics Study for

Flow of Natural Gas through High-

pressure Supersonic Nozzles: Part 1. Real

2008 Jassim (part1) Gas Effects and Shockwave

CFD modeling of condensation process

of water vapor in supersonic

2017 Yang et al. flows

supersonic flows with strong swirls

2017 Yang and Chuen for gas separation

CFD Modeling of Supersonic Airflow

Generated by 2D Nozzle With and

2014 Olivera et al. Without an Obstacle at the Exit Section

flowing in a Supersonic separator used in

2016 Mylapili et al. Subsea Gas Pipeline systems

Compressible Flow with Non Equilibrium

2015 Liu et al. Condensation in a Supersonic Separator

Conditions on Natural Gas

Parameters in Supersonic Separation

2014 Yang et al. Process

Investigation on Separation Efficiency in

Supersonic Separator with Gas-Droplet

2014 Liu et al. Flow Based on DPM Approach

supersonic swirling separators applying

2012 Wen et al. the Discrete Particle Method

Remarks

MATLAB to solve the governing equations of the system such

as the continuity and momentum equations as well as the first

and second laws of thermodynamics, and HYSYS, as a process modeling and

simulation software. Input parameters to HYSYS are gas composition, inlet

temperature, pressure and the flow rate.

model the capability of working with different EOSs.

steady state, one-dimensional, isentropic, and compressible with

no heat exchange.

The proposed model was validated with CFD software, ANSYS Fluent where

water content of the natural gas is a function of temperature, pressure and gas

composition. K- turbulent model and Peng-Robinson equation of state was

used.

trajectories and separation efficiency in a supersonic separator for natural gas

dehydration

Redlich-Kwong equation of state used to calculate physical property of fluids

in supersonic flow and predict gas dynamic parameters.

Newton's second law of motion. A governing equation which consist of

mass,velocity,volume, gravity and gas-particle interaction force terms was

introduced.

Gravity force neglected because the density of the liquid particle is usually

much larger than the gas density, the buoyancy force acting on a particle also

has been ignored

The SIMPLE algorithm was employed to couple the velocity field and pressure.

The Reynolds stress model (RSM) was employed to predict the strong swirling

flow.

The pressure boundary conditions were assigned for the inlet and outlet of the

supersonic separator. Non-slip and adiabatic boundary conditions are specified

for the walls. In addition, for the discrete phase, the escape boundary

conditions are assigned for the inlet and dry gas outlet. The trap boundary

conditions are used for the walls of the cyclone separation section and the

liquid-collection space. We appoint the reflect boundary conditions for all

other walls.

accuracy in modelling simple flows however it could be inaccurate for complex

flow. However, accuracy of the model calculations can be improved by

adjusting the constants

Cubic EOS such as Peng-Robinson equation is extremely useful vapor and liquid

PvT data, vapor-pressure data, and vapor-liquid equilibrium data however

their accuracy is limited by the use of only two or three adjustable parameters

therefore a more complex Modified Benedict-Webb-Rubin (MBWR) equation

was used.

Real gas model predicts shockwave position earlier.

Boundary conditions are chosen in such a way that the inlet pressure is

predicted. Hence mass flow rate and temperature as the inlet boundary

conditions while pressure and temperature are chosen for outlet boundary

conditions.

Working fluid is pure methane, mass flow rate is 430 kg/min

density, inlet pressure and temperature and it was found that perfect gas

model yields less accurate results as compared to real gas model.

Predict the spontaneous condensing phenomenon in the supersonic flows

using the nucleation and droplet growth theories

condensing phenomenon in the Laval nozzle. The modified internally

consistent classic nucleation theory and Gyarmathys droplet growth model

are employed to perform the simulation cases

solved in FLUENT and another two transport equation was used to describe

the phase change process during the condensation of the water vapor.

k- turbulence model is used to predict the supersonic flows

The SIMPLE algorithm is used to couple the velocity field and pressure. The

second-order upwind scheme is adopted for an accurate prediction.

Discrete Particle Method was used to study the particle motion in supersonic

flows with a strong swirl.

Mass, momentum and energy equation was used for gas flow and another

governing equation was used for discrete liquid particles.

Saffmans lift force was involved to accomodate strong shear and swirling flow

exist in a supersonic separator .

The governing equations are discretized with the finite volume

method, and the velocity and pressure fields are coupled by the

SIMPLE algorithm.

Reynolds Stress Model was used to predict supersonic flow with strong swirl.

For the gas phase, the pressure inlet and pressure outlet conditions

are assigned to the entrance and exits of the supersonic separator.

The no-slip and adiabatic conditions are utilized for all of

the solid walls. For the particle flow, the escape boundary conditions

are employed to the entrance and dry gas exit of the supersonic

separator

Calculation characteristics inside the adopted control volume were performed

using RANS (Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes) equations with k-omega SST

(Shear-Stress Transport) turbulent model. The

most important settings that have been applied are:

Solver: 2D density-based.

Model: viscous, SST k-omega with compressibility effects.

Fluid: air, ideal gas, viscosity by Sutherland law, three coefficient method.

Boundary conditions: control volume inlet and outlet parameters as defined in

[1], for given test case.

Calculation: flow type supersonic, FMG - the Full Multi-Grid solution

initialization at 4 levels, initial optimum reordering of the mesh domain using

Reverse Cuthill-McKee method , active solution steering, applying automatic

optimization of Courant number for the achieved solution convergence stage,

etc.

Used three different fluids, air, methane and natural gas given the same

boundary conditions and initial physical parameters in ANSYS Fluent. The

Redlich Kwong real gas equation and standard k- turbulence model was

employed.

density of the fluids, the lighter the fluid the closer the shock position to inlet.

The Pressure and temperature variation is also high in low density fluids.

Explore the separation mechanism and heat transfer inside the separator by

using a fully three-dimensional numerical dynamic model with consideration of

effects such as strong swirling turbulent and non-equilibrium condensation

process. In addition to continuity, momentum and energy equation used for

the gas, droplet species and droplet mass equation was implemented using

User Defined Function in Fluent to consider the effect of non-equilibrium

condensation process. For EOS and turbulence model, VIrial equation and k-

equation was used respectively.

supersonic separation process, including the back pressure, inlet

mass flow rates, inlet pressures and inlet temperatures. the shock wave was

sensitive to the inlet or back pressure compared to the inlet temperature.

Redlich-Kwong real gas model and Shear Stress Transport equation was used

as equation of state and turbulence model respectively.

Study the effect of droplet diameter and swirl intensity on flow behaviour and

separation efficiency in a supersonic separator. Mixture of air and water

droplets used as working medium using Discrete Particle Method. Gas phase

modelled by compressible Navier-Stokes equation with Reynolds Stress Model

as turbulence model while liquid particles was modelled as discrete phase with

its diameter distributed using Rosin-rammler distribution. ;

droplets are assumed to have the same sphere shape and ignore

the phase transition and nucleation process.

Studied separation efficiency tracking the liquid particle trajectory using DPM

method. Continuous gas phase is simulated using averaged Navier Stokes

equation with RNG k- as turbulence model while discrete particle was

described using Newton's 2nd law of motion. Gas-particle interaction force

was based on the Newtons third law of motion.

Effect of pressure ratio and inlet temperature to the

mass flow rate was studied. The particle trajectories and

separation efficiency in a supersonic separator for

natural gas dehydration was predicted using Discrete

Particle Method with various EOS and Reynolds Stress

model to predict the swirling flow.

Studied real gas effect to flow of natural gas in

supersonic nozzle. Modified Benedict-Webb-Rubin The influence of the geometry and

(MBWR) equation was used instead of cubic equation of vorticity were investigated

state such as Peng-Robinson due to its complexity and k- in this article. But in their work, the

turbulence model used to predict turbulence multi-component

parameters. fluid systems were not induced.

Euler-euler two-phase flow model with additional two

transport equations which implements the modified

internally consistent classic nucleation

theory and Gyarmathys droplet growth model are

employed through User Defined Function in Fluent to

describe the phase change process during the

condensation of the water vapor including analysis

nucleation rate, droplet numbers, droplet radius and

droplet fraction.

motion in supersonic flows with a strong swirl with RSM

model for turbulence prediction. Effect of cyclonic

separation length on liquid particle collection efficiency

was studied.

Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes equations with k-

omega SST turbulent

model applied to numerically analyse supersonic airflow

focusing on free exit flow, and flow with one selected

obstacle type. Density type solver was used with air

defined as ideal gas.

given the same boundary conditions and initial physical

parameters in ANSYS Fluent to investigate the effect of

different fluid density to shockwave position. Density

based solver, Redlich Kwong real gas equation and

standard k- turbulence model was employed. Shock

formed in the nozzle of the supersonic separator is

depending on the density of the fluids, the lighter the

fluid the closer the shock position to inlet.

pressure loss ratio which is

another significant factor

on the separation performance, is

defined as the ratio of the

pressure loss p of the supersonic

separator to its inlet pressure ; It

can be found that by increasing the

droplet diameter

markedly, the separation efficiency

can be effectively improved.

However, this rising trend will

change when the droplet diameter

exceeds the critical diameter (for

different pressure loss ratio

37.5%, 50%, 60%, 70%, the critical

diameter is 40 m, 41.2

m, 42.2 m, and 43.6 m,

respectively). When the droplet

diameter is larger than the critical

diameter the separation efficiency

of the supersonic separator will be

crippled. From the results, one can

know that by increasing the

swirl intensity, the separation

efficiency increases markedly.

The results of numerical calculation

have shown that the maximum

separation efficiency can reach

governing equations of

continuous phase are generally

written in Eulerian form,

whereas,the governing equations of

the discrete phase can be described

in

either Eulerian or Lagrangian form.

Comparing with Euler

Euler model, the EulerLagrange

model, in which the motion of

each particle can be individually

tracked, provides the most

detailed insight into single particle

dynamics.

Year Author

2016 Mylapili et al.

The flow in the

supersonic

separator is

multi-

component,

non-

equilibrium,

and also with

phase

transition. In

order to

further

improve the the thermodynamic

separation phenomenon include

performance, it pressure expansion,

is necessary to cryogenic process,

understand the supersonic region,

flow shock wave location

mechanism and spontaneous

inside a condensation have

supersonic been reproduced.

separator. These

Pressure boundary

conditions are imposed

for the inlet and outlet

of the supersonic

swirling separator. Total

pressure (absolute

pressure) and total

temperature at the

nozzle inlet are set to

be

The combined 4 MPa and 303 K,

gas flow with respectively. The static

discrete pressure and stagnation

particle temperature are

method (20, chosen for outlet

21) considered boundary conditions,

to be a cost- which

effective are 2.68 MPa and 290

approach to K, respectively.

reproduce the Turbulence intensity

general and viscosity

phenomenon ratio are assigned as

of the gas- turbulence parameters.

liquid flow, was No-slip and adiabatic

proposed in boundary conditions

separation are specified for the

field. Wen walls.

40

Title

Natural Gas through High-pressure Supersonic

Nozzles: Part 1. Real Gas Effects and Shockwave

Gas Using Supersonic Nozzles

supersonic swirling separators applying the

Discrete Particle Method

Supersonic Separator with Gas-Droplet Flow Based

on DPM Approach

Natural Gas

Parameters in Supersonic Separation Process

Generated by 2D Nozzle With and

Without an Obstacle at the Exit Section

Flow with Non Equilibrium Condensation in a

Supersonic Separator

Natural Gas Processing

Comparative Study of Different Fluids Flowing in a

Supersonic Separator Used in Subsea Gas Pipeline

systems

Flows with Strong Swirls

for Gas Separation

Vapor in Supersonic

Flows

effect inlet, numerical -- The gas and liquid phase

conservation

equations are discretized using finite-volume

method. Quick

scheme is used to discretize convective terms, and

coupled

procedure is used to solve the momentum and

energy

equations simultaneously. First-order upwind

schemes are

set for density term. Second-order upwind

schemes are

selected for the necessary terms, such as

turbulent kinetic

energy, and turbulent dissipation rate. ; the

pressure boundary conditions

were assigned for the inlet and outlet of the

supersonic

separator, respectively, according to the flow

characteristics of the

supersonic compressible fluid,. No-slip and

adiabatic boundary

conditions were specified for the walls. The

turbulent kinetic

energy and turbulent dissipation rate were

employed as the

turbulence parameters. ; The SIMPLE algorithm

[23] was applied to couple

Methodology

configurations in terms of density, inlet pressure and

temperature. A more complex Modified Benedict-Webb-Rubin

(MBWR) equation was used instead of Peng-Robinson equation. K-

turbulence model due to it's common industrial application.

nozzle. Link between MATLAB and HYSYS gives the simulation

model capability of working with different EOS. The proposed

model was validated with ANSYS Fluent where K- turbulent

model and Peng-Robinson equation of state.

Studied separation efficiency tracking the liquid particle trajectory

using DPM method. Continuous gas phase is simulated using

averaged Navier Stokes equation with RNG k- as turbulence

model.

Discrete Particle Method. Gas phase modelled by compressible

Navier-Stokes equation with Reynolds Stress Model as turbulence

model while liquid particles was modelled as discrete phase.

inlet pressures and inlet temperatures on natural gas supersonic

separation process, using the Redlich-Kwong real gas model and

Shear Stress Transport equation as equation of state and

turbulence model respectively.

turbulent model applied to numerically analyse supersonic airflow

focusing on free exit flow, and flow with one selected obstacle

type. Density type solver was used with air defined as ideal gas.

gas, droplet species and droplet mass equation was implemented

using User Defined Function in Fluent to consider the effect of

non-equilibrium condensation process. For EOS and turbulence

model, VIrial equation and k- equation was used respectively.

rate was studied. The particle trajectories and separation

efficiency in a supersonic separator for natural gas dehydration

was predicted using Discrete Particle Method with various EOS

and Reynolds Stress model to predict the swirling flow.

Used three different fluids, air, methane and natural gas given the

same boundary conditions and initial physical parameters in

ANSYS Fluent to investigate the effect of different fluid density to

shockwave position. Density based solver, Redlich Kwong real

gas equation and standard k- turbulence model was employed.

supersonic flows with a strong swirl with RSM model for

turbulence prediction. Effect of cyclonic separation length on

liquid particle collection efficiency was studied.

modified internally consistent classic nucleation

theory and Gyarmathys droplet growth model are used through

User Defined Function in Fluent to describe the phase change

process during the condensation of the water vapor.

At the separator entrance, compressed air with known

pressure and total temperature are specified,

2) At the dry and wet outlet, pressure is assumed,

3) The wall of the supersonic separator is assumed

adiabatic and no slip conditions are used for flow

velocity components.

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