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Maximum Power Point Tracking of Photovoltaic Systems

CHAPTER - 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 SOLAR ENERGY.

In Todays world the need of electrical energy increases day by day in a large scale. The
worlds installed power capacity is of 5.4 Tera watts per year and can be increased up to
6.22 Tera watts up to 2020. In India the present generation capacity is of 229 Giga watts
and can be increased up to 285 Giga watts up to 2020. In India out of the total power
generated, 88% share from conventional source and 12-15% of share from non-
conventional source of energy so the there is an immense need of energy to fulfill the
todays demand. There are two ways to do so one in conventional way i.e. conventional
source of energy and non-conventional way i.e. nonconventional source of energy. As the
conventional source energy is drastically reducing and doesnt going to be exists for a
long time hence there is need such a source of energy which really going to be last for a
long time like the energy from SUN i.e. solar energy. Since the SUN is the only source of
solar energy we will first seems to have looked on it. Sun is nothing but a star which is
burning from more than four billions of years and it will going to do so for long time. Sun
is nearly only the cause of all kinds of energy in the world. From the point of view of the
tropical region India is rich country in terms of solar radiation about 250 to 300 days per
year. India near about receives 6000 Trillian Kwh of energy from sun in a year which is
more than enough for the annual requirement of country. This large amount of solar
energy can be extracted from the sun by the use of photo voltaic system.

It is difficult to find the maximum power from photovoltaic system in continuous change
of isolation level at different atmospheric condition. Hence to solve this problem different
dc to dc converters are used with maximum power point algorithm. Buck converter is
operates at a higher efficiency than the other dc to dc converter for low power application.
However it has poor control over the output voltage range. Therefore to resolve this issue
buck-boost converter is used, which can operate at both step down and step up voltage
level which gives good control over wide output voltage ranges. It is suitable for higher
power application. However it operates with comparatively less efficiency.
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1.2 OBJECTIVES AND SCOPE:

1.2.1 OBJECTIVES

The main Objective of the project is to improving the performance of PV module


by using dc to dc buck and buck-boost converter with maximum power point Perturb and
observe (P & O) algorithm

1.2.2 SUB OBJECTIVES


1.2.2.1 PV CELL MODELLING: In this section there will be detail study of
photo voltaic cell and its modelling in MATLAB/SIMULINK.
1.2.2.2 BUCK CONVERTER MODELLING: This section will include
modelling of dc to dc buck converter.
1.2.2.3 BUCK-BOOST CONVERTER MODELLING: This section includes
modelling and implementation of dc to dc buck-boost converter.
1.2.2.4 CONTROL SCHEME: To develop the control scheme by perturb and
observe maximum power point algorithm for the buck and buck-boost converter.
1.2.2.5 SIMULATION RESULTS: This section includes the detail study of
simulation of dc to dc buck and buck-boost converter with control scheme.
1.2.3 SCOPE OF PROJECT: The proposed maximum power point algorithm will be
simulated and the same will be used to increase overall efficiency of the system. From the
detail study and comparison of the results from dc to dc buck and buck-boost converter
topologies by the use of maximum power point algorithm with solar cells.

1.3 LITERATURE REVIEW

Below is a literature review of works carried out in last few years


1.3.1 Environmental problems for solar cell: The output of the PV cell is greatly
affected by various environmental conditions such as partial shading [4]. To
obtain the MPP different techniques has been proposed by Trishan Esram in [5].
1.3.2 Modelling of solar cell: In this a mathematical model of a PV module,
implemented in Matlab-Simulink environment has been proposed. This model has
been validated by comparing the simulation results with the curves given by the

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manufacturers. The solar cell can be modelled in matlab environment in two ways
either by using one diode model or by using two diode models. In this project the
one diode model have been proposed because of its simplicity [14]
1.3.3 Maximum power point techniques: This includes the methods which can be
used for the extraction of maximum power from the solar cell irrespective of the
environmental conditions. However it includes two methods i.e in mechanical
means and by using maximum power point algorithms [8].
1.3.4 Perturb and Observe method: This is the simplest maximum power point
algorithm by which the switching sequence of the dc to dc converter can be
altered based on the environmental condition so that the maximum power can be
extracted from solar cell [5].
1.3.5 Incremental conductance method: With regards of maximum power point
algorithms this is the second most method which has overcome the some
drawbacks of maximum power point perturb and observe algorithm [5].
1.3.6 Different dc to dc Converters: Maximum power at the load can be achieved
with the help of various dc to dc converters i.e buck, boost, buck-boost, cuk and
fly-back converters. The switching sequence of the maximum power point
algorithm drives the converters which improves the overall efficiency of the
system keeping application in point of view [3].

1.4 OUTLINE OF THESIS


The total thesis is divided into 7 chapters. In this chapter 1 discusses the introduction to
sun and its solar irradiation, solar cell, solar energy and its importance. This chapter is
followed by the problems related to the solar energy in present day along with future
scope. It also includes the literature review which is consist of environmental problem,
modelling of solar cell, maximum power point technique, Perturb and Observe method,
Incremental conductance method, different dc to dc converter. This chapter is followed
by the different types of photovoltaic technologies such as crystalline technology, mono
crystalline technology, poly crystalline, ribbon silicon cell, thin film PV cell, cadmium

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telluride, amorphous silicon and copper indium gallium selenite which are meant for their
own benefits along with working principle of solar cell in chapter 2.
Chapter 3 of the thesis summarizes the basic theory of characteristics of solar cell and the
various factors which affect it.
Chapter 4 explains about the maximum power point tracking techniques such as Perturb
and Observe (P & O), Incremental conductance, Parasitic capacitance, Open circuit
voltage and Short circuit current. This chapter also includes the partial shading conditions
in PV cell.
Chapter 5, is a problem statement which is followed by the methods of modelling solar
cell in matlab environment in chapter 6. Chapter 7 explains about different dc to dc
converters. The simulation modelling of these converters along with PV module using
Perturb and Observe and Incremental conductance maximum power point tracking
technique is in chapter 8.

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CHAPTER-2

PHOTOVOLTAIC CELL

2.1 INTRODUCTION

The light from the Sun is a non-vanishing renewable source of energy which is free
from environmental pollution and noise. It can easily compensate the energy drawn from
the non-renewable sources of energy such as fossil fuels and petroleum deposits inside
the earth. The fabrication of solar cells has passed through a large number of
improvement steps from one generation to another. Silicon based solar cells were the first
generation solar cells grown on Si wafers, mainly single crystals. Further development to
thin films, dye sensitized solar cells and organic solar cells enhanced the cell efficiency.
The development is basically hindered by the cost and efficiency. In order to choose the
right solar cell for a specific geographic location, we are required to understand
fundamental mechanisms and functions of several solar technologies that are widely
studied. In this article, we have reviewed a progressive development in the solar cell
research from one generation to other, and discussed about their future trends and aspects.
The article also tries to emphasize the various practices and methods to promote the
benefits of solar energy

2.2 PHOTOVOLTAIC TECHNOLOGY:

Photo voltaic, also called solar cells, are electronic devices that convert sunlight directly
into electricity. The modern form of the solar cell was invented in 1954 at Bell Telephone
Laboratories. Today, PV is one of the fastest growing renewable energy technologies and
it is expected that it will play a major role in the future global electricity generation mix.
Solar PV systems are also one of the most democratic renewable technologies, in that
their modular size means that they are within the reach of individuals, co-operatives and
small-businesses who want to access their own generation and lock-in electricity prices.

PV technology offers a number of significant benefits, including:

1. Solar power is a renewable resource that is available everywhere in the world.

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2. Solar PV technologies are small and highly modular and can be used virtually
anywhere, unlike many other electricity generation technologies.
3. Unlike conventional power plants using coal, nuclear, oil and gas; solar PV has
no fuel costs and relatively low operation and maintenance (O&M) costs. PV can
therefore offer a price hedge against volatile fossil fuel prices.
4. PV, although variable, has a high coincidence with peak electricity demand
driven by cooling in summer and year round in hot countries.

A PV system consists of PV cells that are grouped together to form a PV module, and the
auxiliary components (i.e. balance of system - BOS), including the inverter, controls, etc.
There are a wide range of PV cell technologies on the market today, using different types
of materials, and an even larger number will be available in the future. PV cell
technologies are usually classified into three generations, depending on the basic material
used and the level of commercial maturity: The photovoltaic effect first observed by the
French scientist in the year 1839. In 1870 the first photovoltaic effect was observed on
solid such as solenoid which was providing 1-2% then research have done and the silicon
material has been introduced which is providing near about 25%. Since the photo voltaic
system is an immense way to extract the electricity from the energy almighty SUN along
with that it is advantageous in so many aspects like.

1. It is a clean way to extract the energy.


2. There are less losses in the process since there is no any moving part in it.
3. Doesnt require any kind of fuel consumption.
4. Comparatively long life near about 20-25 years.
5. No noise.
6. Doesnt call for the frequent maintenance.
Silicon material is extensively used for the photovoltaic cells because it is comparatively
cheap and available in the ample amount. To understand the basic working of the PV cell
we shall first discuss the atomic structure of the silicon material. In silicon material there
are 4 valence electrons are present which is balance once and ready to combine with
another material to form the co-Valente bond. If the same type of semiconductor material

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is attached to each other then there will be stability form between them and hence this
stability doesnt allow the flow of current. Hence there is need to make it imbalance with
the different impurities. Therefore two kind of impurity allowed in the silicon material i.e
trivalent (Boron) and pentavalent impurity (Phosphorus). Since in the last shell of boron
contain 3 electrons and in phosphorus contain 5 electrons in its outer most shell. Because
of which there is perfectly acceptor and donor relation can form between these materials.
The silicon material with trivalent i PV array consist of PV module and PV module made
of several PV cells. Lets have light on each of these elements one by one. In the PV
technology there are two kind of ways one is crystalline silicon pv cell and another is thin
film pv cell.

2.3 CRYSTALLINE SILICON PV CELL:


These crystalline silicon cells are manufactured by slicing the high purity silicon into pure
silicon into pure wafers having thickness near about equivalent to human hair. There are
three kinds of methods for the production of crystalline silicon cells

2.3.1 MONO CRYSTALLINE SILICON:


This kind of silicon cell uses single wafer of crystal cell cut from cylindrical. ingot. But
the problem with these cells is that they are highly costly because of its manufacturing
cost.
2.3.2 POLY CRYSTALLINE SILICON:-
The square cast ingots are used for the manufacturing of poly crystalline silicon cell.
These cells are comparatively less costly than the mono crystalline silicon cell but at the
same time they are less efficient compared to mono crystalline silicon cell.
2.3.3 RIBBON SILICON CELL:
In the manufacturing process of ribbon silicon cell a thin flat film from molten silicon
creating multi crystalline structure is used. In this case the efficiency is less but is
cheaper.

2.4 THIN FILM PVCELL:

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Thin film PV cell is a giant in the solar cell manufacturing industries. In the process of
thin film making a very thin layer of semiconductor material is used to the inexpensive
material such as plastic, glass or metal. These thin film layer of silicon material are very
good absorbent of solar light than the crystalline silicon cell. There are three most popular
manufacturing of thin silicon PV modules presently such as cadmium telluride (Cd Te),
amorphous silicon (a-silicon) and copper indium gallium selenite (CIGS).

2.4.1 CADMIUM TELLURIDE:-


Cadmium Telluride is a thin film of layer which is having lower production cost with
higher amount of efficiency presently up to 6-11% and maximum up to 31%.
2.4.2 AMORPHOUS SILICON(A-SI):-
The manufacturing process of amorphous silicon is highly proven but slower deposition
because of which there is lower efficacy about 6-8% and at the max 12% in lab.
2.4.3 COPPER INDIUM GALLIUM SELENITE(CIGS):
This type of silicon solar cell has reached up to 12-13% of efficacy.

2.5 PV CELLS:

PV cells are important element is the solar power extraction. Which are made of silicon
semiconductor material having tri and pentavalent impurities? The trivalent impurities are
known as p layer and pentavalent impurities are N layer. These two layers that is P layer
and N layer forms a PN junction diode as shown below. As soon as the photon strikes the
silicon an unbalance state forms in the material and hence the magic of current flow starts
as we connect the N layer to the P layer with a metallic conductor.

2.6 PV MODULES:

The PV module consists of number of PV cells which are generally connected in series.
Sometimes it might be connected in parallel to improve the power capacity of the module
along with some disadvantages.

2.7 PV STRING:

Such number of series connected solar module makes a PV string.


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2.8 PV ARRAY:

These number of PV string connected in parallel forms a PV array

Fig: 2.8 Solar cell, module, array

2.9 WORKING PRINCIPLE OF SOLAR CELL

Solar PV cells work on the photo voltaic (PV) principle i.e. when photons (from direct
Sun light) strike the photovoltaic cell (solid state semiconductor device), electrons are
released within the PV cell to generate electrical power for various applications as shown
in Fig. 2.9.

Fig: 2.9 Illuminated p-n junction.


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The photovoltaic effect was discovered by a French scientist in 1939. In 1954, first
silicon-based PV cells were made with an efficiency of 6% [4]. The first major use of PV
cells was for space applications. Most of the PV cells currently in use are Silicon based.
Various solar PV technologies are being developed which can be broadly classified into
crystalline and non-crystalline. Although c-Si (crystalline silicon) has the highest
efficiency, their manufacturing cost and weight per unit power makes them unsuitable for
many applications. Non crystalline technologies such as hybrid a-Si (amorphous silicon)
solar cells are gaining popularity because of their low cost, light weight and flexibility to
fit into any shape.
In recent years, the production and use of solar PV has followed an exponential growth
[5]. The research efforts on improving the efficiency and reducing the cost of solar PV
cell have been on since late 80s. Along with this, the research on BOS components e.g.
MPPT controllers, converters and PV inverters has also picked up pace in recent times.
The solar PV systems offer many advantages and their inherent qualities of simplicity are
given below:
1. Solar PV systems, in general, are location free (unlike for example a wind energy
source) and hence can be used across the regions. However, the output may vary
depending upon the location.
2. They are maintenance free because they do not involve any moving parts.
3. The solar energy is converted directly into electrical energy. No intermediate
conversion stage is involved as in some other sources (e.g. wind, hydro).
4. The investment on the PV modules is usually recovered within 3-4 years of
installation. The full life span of the PV modules is _ 20-25 years.
5. These systems are highly scalable and modular in nature. These can have installations
varying from a few hundred watts to megawatt levels.
6. Various schemes supported by the central and state governments offer excellent
subsidies and incentives for generating power using PV technology.
7. Solar PV systems do not need water for operation. Therefore, they can be installed for
utility scale projects in isolated desert lands. This is a distinct advantage of solar PV over
solar thermal power plants.

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CHAPTER-3
CHARACTERISTICS OF SOLAR CELLS

3.1 INTRODUCTION

Increasingly, using lower energy cost system to overcome the need of human beings is of
interest in today's energy conservation environment. To address the solution, several
approaches have been undertaken in past. Where, renewable energy sources such as
photovoltaic systems are one of the suitable options that will study in this paper.
Furthermore, significant work has been carried out in the area of photovoltaic system as
one of the main types of renewable energy sources whose utilization becomes more
common due to its nature. On the other hand, modeling and simulation of a photovoltaic
system could be used to predict system electrical behavior in various environmental and
load conditions. In this modeling, solar panels are one of the essential parts of a
photovoltaic system which convert solar energy to electrical energy and have nonlinear I-
V characteristic curves.
3.2 CHARACTERISTICS
Figure.3.1 shows the I-V and P-V characteristics of the PV cells. If there is no load is
connected across the solar cells then the output of the solar cell voltage is known as the
open circuit voltage (Voc) without any flow of current. If the terminal of the solar panel is
short circuited then the short circuit current (Isc) flows but at the same time there will not
be any output voltage. In this two cases there wont be any power delivered to the load.
The maximum power point (MPP) is always near to the knee of the I-V curve along with
its the voltage and current for the maximum power point is designated as Vm and Im.
Since the I-V characteristic of the PV cells are changing with change in temperature and
isolation and shedding. Though it is oblivious to operate the solar panel at its maximum
output but it should not be considered as the same because since the solar panel are
costly. To do this a DC to DC converter is used which is going to transfer the maximum
power from the solar panel to the grid through the inverter. The equation below shows
that as the value of voltage increases the current flowing through the diode i.e Isc is going
to be same as shown in the waveforms. When the voltage is near equal to the open circuit
voltage then the nonlinear resistance is going to increase hence the current starts

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decreasing. And the consequently the product of these open circuit voltage and short
circuit current in P-V curve is observed as shown.

Fig: 3.1 PV characteristics of solar cell.

3.3 PV CELL CHARACTERISTICS DEPENDS ON VARIOUS FACTORS:

The final aim of installing a PV system is to get the maximum power out of it. That is
possible if all the PV cells/modules generate similar current. However, there are several
factors which affect the output of a PV system and create electrical mismatches. These
factors are described as follows:
3.3.1 SOLAR MODULE MANUFACTURING:
The performance of a PV source is affected if there are mismatches between the PV
cells/modules in a PV array because of manufacturing inequalities, manufacturing
defects, difference in the cell processing etc. When non identical PV modules are
connected in series, the output power of the system reduces and also they can physically
damage the source.
3.3.2 PV MODULE TEMPERATURE:
The impact of temperature on the I-V and P-V Characteristics of a PV module are shown
in Fig 3.3. The module temperature affects the open circuit voltage of the module
significantly. There is an inverse proportionality between the module temperature and the

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open circuit voltage of the module. On the other hand, the variation of short circuit
current with temperature is very small. The power output from a-Si solar cells drops by ~
0.25% and from c-Si solar cells by 0.5% for each degree Celsius rise in temperature. For
example, the module temperature in summers, at some places, is as high as 55oC
resulting in significant reduction in power output from c-Si modules (~ 12%).
3.3.3 SOLAR IRRADIATION:
The impact of solar radiation on the I-V and P-V characteristics of the PV module is
given in Fig 3.3. It is clear from the figure that an increase in the solar irradiation results
in an increase in the short circuit current of the PV module. On the other hand VOC
remains more or less unchanged.

Fig: 3.3 Variation of I-V characteristics of PV module with variation in temperature


and irradiation

3.3.4 SOLAR SPECTRUM:


The output current of a PV module is sensitive to the incident solar spectrum distribution.
The spectrum distribution in terms of wavelength varies throughout the day between
400nm (high energy) to 750nm (low energy). The energy stored in a photon is inversely
proportional to its wavelength. The band gap energy of Silicon varies from 1.1 to 3eV.
The silicon solar cells generate electron-hole pairs for the incident photos having energy

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in this range. The rest of the spectrum is wasted as heat or not absorbed. That is why
these cells are less efficient (12-15%). The maximum possible efficiency as a function of
band gap energy is given in Fig. 3.4

Fig: 3.4 Structure of PV cell with energy band gap

To improve the energy conversion efficiency, multi-junction cells have been


manufactured with various technologies. There are two or three stacks of semiconductor
layer as shown in Fig. 3.4. Each layer is sensitive to a specific wavelength of the
spectrum.
3.3.5 AIR DENSITY:
PV module generates more energy when light is not scattered. Light scatters in dense air.
Therefore, the PV systems performance is better in the areas where air density is low such
as high altitude locations (e.g. mountains) as compared to the areas where air density is
more e.g. near sea level.
3.3.6 DUST AND DURT:
Although the PV cells are protected by a tempered glass case, the deposition of dust and
dirt on PV module surface reduces the amount of solar radiation reaching PV module.
This may impact the performance of PV modules.
3.3.7 PV MODULE INCLINATION ANGLE:

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The energy output of the PV module is also affected by the inclination angle (_i) with
respect to the Sun's trajectory as shown in Fig.3.3. The PV module generates maximum
power when it receives solar irradiation at an angle of 90o [Fig. 3.3]. Therefore, to
achieve the maximum possible power from the PV module, the PV modules are inclined
towards the sun to maximize the amount and intensity of the solar radiation. This is called
mechanical tracking of maximum power from the array where, _i is modified (mechanical
tracking) to maximize the power output. The inclination angle depends upon the latitude
of the location.
3.1.8 INSTALLATION OF THE PV MODULE ON AN ARBITRARY SURFACE:
Flexible PV modules have the advantage that they can be installed on any arbitrary
surface as shown in Fig 3.3. These PV modules are mostly used in applications where
weight is a constraint and the surface is curved. Mounting the flexible PV modules on a
curved surface creates electrical mismatches in terms of current between the cells of the
PV module. This reduces the power output of the module as the lowest current tries to
flow through the series connected cells.

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CHAPTER-4

MAXIMUM POWER POINT TRACKING

4.1 INTRODUCTION

The photovoltaic source is a prominent and popular source among the available
renewable energy sources. However, because of various factors such as high fabrication
cost, low energy conversion efficiency etc., its usage is in question. Further, the critical
age of the PV source is about ~ 20-25 years. These drawbacks can be further reduced by
maximizing the power outputs from these sources. It is desirable to maximize the power
output that the manufacturing process should be improved, soling effects should be
removed. However, once the PV module has been manufactured and installed the power
optimization can be performed in two ways: (i) Mechanical tracking to track most of the
available solar radiation (ii) Using electrical maximum power point tracking (MPPT).
The electrical maximum power point tracking is the focus of the thesis. Therefore, basic
background related to the electrical tracking of maximum power is presented in the
following paragraphs. The I-V and P-V characteristics of a PV module depend upon
many factors as discussed earlier. The I-V characteristics have a unique point near the
knee which is called the maximum power point (MPP) at which PV module operates with
maximum efficiency and produces maximum power for a given set of environmental
conditions, as shown in Fig. It is important to operate the PV module at maximum power
point to extract the maximum power. The maximum power extraction from a PV source
is difficult because of its non-linear characteristics which change with environmental
conditions. The MPPT process is based on the principle of impedance matching between
load and PV source to transfer maximum power. This is realized by using a dc-dc
converter, where the duty cycle of the switch is changed such that the reflected load
across the PV source corresponds to maximum power operating point of the PV source as
shown in Fig. There are two major MPPT philosophies: (a) Modeling based or indirect
techniques and (b) Voltage and current measurement based direct techniques. The
indirect techniques involve the measurement of external factors like irradiation and
module temperature or electrical performance parameters such as short circuit current

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and/or open circuit voltage of the PV module. These parameters are used in the
models/equations (developed with regression analysis) for maximum power prediction.
Direct techniques are based on sensing PV current and/or voltage and using that
information in an appropriate algorithm.

4.2 MPP TECHNIQUES:

4.2.1 P & O METHOD:

Because of the simple structure and reliability of the Perturb and observation method is
widely used in the MPPT algorithm. They use to perturbing, increment and decrement the
array terminal voltage and current periodically and it gets compared with previous
perturbation cycle. In this if the power increases then perturbation will follow the same
direction in the next cycle, if not then the direction will be reversed.

Fig: 4.2 P-V characteristics of PV cell

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Fig: 4.2.1 Flow chart of P & O algorithm

4.2.2 INCREMENTAL CONDUCTANCE METHODS:

Since we know that perturb and observation methods have some limitations like it does
not work properly under the continuous change in the environmental condition. Hence
with the use of incremental conductance methods is used. This method consists of slope
of derivative of the current with respect to the voltage to reach the MPP. To obtain this
maximum point di/dt should be equal to the i/v. By applying the variation in voltage
towards the biggest value or smallest value it affect the power value. If power increasing.

Fig: 4.2.2 Flow chart of INC algorithm

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4.2.3 PARASITIC CAPACITANCE METHOD:

It is the most novel technique in the MPPT. It is somewhat similar to the Incremental
conductance technique. The only change in the parasitic capacitance method is that the
charge is stored in pn junction of the solar cells. And if capacitor is added to the lighted
diode the equation we obtain is given as
exp( + )
= [ ] + ( ) = () = ( )
1

The above equation shows the two components of I and the function of Fvp and the
current. In this method the maximum power can be obtained by multiplying the above
equation by array voltage Vp to obtain the power of array and differentiating the result.

4.2.4 OPEN CIRCUIT VOLTAGE METHODS:

In this method the Voc is used to calculate the maximum point voltage. As the Voc is
obtained the maximum point voltage is calculated by the following equation.
=
Where,
K= 0.70 to 0.80
In this method it is require to update the Voc occasionally for the compensation of the any
changed in the temperature. Actually it uses some fraction of the Voc to determine the
maximum power point module voltage. In this method fraction is always less than 1, for
the measurement of Voc solar array is temporarily isolated from the MPPT.

4.2.5 SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT METHOD:

As in the case of open circuit method, in the short circuit method the Isc is used for the
calculation of the Imp.

=
Where,
K= 0.9 to 0.98.
A short load pulse is used in this method to generate the short circuit condition. But at the
time of short circuit pulse the input voltage will go to zero and hence the power

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conversion circuit must be supplied from the other source. One of the main advantages of
this system is that it has good tolerance for input capacitance than the Voc method.

4.2.6 PARTIAL SHADING CONDITION

In any outdoor environment, the whole or some parts of the PV system might be shaded
by trees, passing clouds, high building, etc., which result in non-uniform insolation
conditions. During partial shading, a fraction of the PV cells which receive uniform
irradiance still operate at the optimum efficiency. Since current flow through every cell in
a series configuration is naturally constant, the shaded cells need to operate with a reverse
bias voltage to provide the same current as the illumined cells. However; the resulting
reverse power polarity leads to power consumption and a reduction in the maximum
output power of the partially-shaded PV module. Exposing the shaded cells to an
excessive reverse bias voltage could also cause hotspots to appear in them, and creating
an open circuit in the entire PV module.

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CHAPTER-5
MODELLING OF SOLAR CELL
5.1 INRODUCTION
There are two ways to model the solar cell in the matlab Simulink environment i.e either
by using one diode model or by using two diode models as shown below. From these two
methods of modelling solar cell one diode modelling seems to be simple and effective.

5.1.1 ONE DIODE MODEL:


Figure 5 below shows the schematic diagram of one diode model representation in which
as ideal current source has been used (representing current generation by photon falling
on p-n junction) along with parallel diode. In which current and voltage become constant
for the particular temperature and isolation. The two main parameters of a PV cell are the
short circuit current (ISC) and open circuit voltage (VOC). Under short circuit conditions
(RL = 0), the photon generated current (Iph) is equal to the short circuit current [4, 6].

Fig: 5 Equivalent circuit diagram of PV cell representing one diode model


Under open circuit conditions, Iph is shunted by the intrinsic p-n junction diode (Di). The
current generated by the PV cell (Iph) flows through the intrinsic diode (as RL = 0). To
account for the losses in a PV cell, series resistance (RS) and shunt resistance (RSH) are
included in its equivalent circuit, which makes the model more accurate although with
increased complexity [6] as shown in Fig 5.1

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Fig: 5.1Equivalent circuit diagram with losses.

Series resistance loss is associated with the resistance offered to the current path through
the semiconductor material, the metal grid, contacts, and current collecting bus. Shunt
resistance loss is associated with a small leakage current through a resistive path in
parallel with the intrinsic diode [4]. The I-V characteristics of a PV cell are affected by RS
and RSH as shown in Fig. 1.8. The effect of series resistance variation is more prominent
in the open circuit region while variation in shunt resistance value reflects in the short
circuit region, as highlighted in Fig. 5.1.1.

Fig: 5.1.1 Effect of change in RS and RSH on I-V characteristics.

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5.1.2 TWO DIODE MODEL:

One diode model (including losses) is sufficient to represent the characteristics of a PV


cell. However, it doesnt take into account recombination in the depletion region of PV
cells. Therefore, a second diode is added to further enhance accuracy of the
characteristics representation at the expense of increased complexity. The second diode
provides non-ohmic current path in parallel with the intrinsic PV cell as shown in Fig
5.1.2

Fig: 5.1.2 Two diode equivalent circuit model of PV cell.

The effect of shunt resistance dominates under low irradiance and temperature conditions
as the value of RSH becomes comparable to RS. Under normal or high irradiance
conditions, the RSH value is very large as compared to the RS value and therefore can be
neglected. In most cases, the two-diode model does not give high accuracy. Therefore,
one-diode model is accurate enough [7] in those cases. A PV module can also be modeled
in the same way as PV cell by scaling up the voltage values if cells are connected in
series and scaling up the current values if cells are connected in parallel.
Where, Ns is the number of PV cells connected in series and Np is the number of PV cells
Connected in parallel.

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5.2 PARTIAL SHADING CONDITION:

In a series connected solar photovoltaic module, performance is adversely affected if all


its cells are not equally illuminated. All the cells in a series array are forced to carry the
same current even though a few cells under shade produce less photon current. The
shaded cells may get reverse biased, acting as loads, draining power from fully
illuminated cells. If the system is not appropriately protected, hot-spot problem [1]-[2]
can arise and in several cases, the system can be irreversibly damaged. In the new trend
of integrated PV arrays, it is difficult to avoid partial shading of array due to neighboring
buildings throughout the day in all the seasons. This makes the study of partial shading of
modules a key issue. With a physical Solar PV module it is difficult to study the effects of
partial shading. The model is used to study the effect of shade on varying number of cells
on the power output of the module and stresses on the shaded illuminated cells under
various illumination levels.

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CHAPTER-6
CONVERTERS
6.1 INTRODUCTION
A MPPT is used for extracting the maximum power from the solar PV module and
transferring that power to the load. A dc/dc converter (step up/ step down) serves the
purpose of transferring maximum power from the solar PV module to the load. A dc/dc
converter acts as an interface between the load and the module. By changing the duty
cycle the load impedance as seen by the source is varied and matched at the point of the
peak power with the source so as to transfer the maximum power.

6.2 POWER ELECTRONICS CONVERTER:

In the field of solar, power electronic converter plays a very important role. If there is an
partial condition on the PV array then the overall maximum power point will get disturb
because of which there is difficulty in finding out the maximum power point which could
be resembles to the point at the time of complete isolation. In this the role of power
electronic dc to dc converter like buck converter, boost converter, buck-boost converter
etc. For the low output application buck converter is a suitable one which shows a high
efficiency compared to boost and buck-boost converter with P & O methods [7]. While if
the isolation level of the PV cell is less comparatively then there is no any use of the buck
converter hence in this situation boost converter is suitable [8]. The use of buck-boost
converter can also be suggested for the both buck and boost operation, giving less
efficiency compared to buck but the advantage of having greater control can also be
achieved [9]. In this way a suitable converter can be suggested depending upon the
industrial application. A simple dc to dc regulator can also be used in the place of these
converters though they are simple and easy to implement but from the efficiency point of
view it is not suitable to use these simple regulator [10]. To avoid the problem in the
boost converter in the sense of efficiency, soft switching boost converter this is nothing
but the resonant switching converter where with the use of the inductor and capacitor the
switching is controlled at the zero current/voltage condition [3]. A large number of dc-dc
converter circuits are known that can increase or decrease the magnitude of the dc voltage
and/or invert its polarity. The first converter is the buck converter, which reduces the dc

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voltage and has conversion ratio M(D) = D. In a similar topology known as the boost
converter, the positions of the switch and inductor are interchanged. This converter
produces an output voltage V that is greater in magnitude than the input voltage Vg. Its
conversion ratio is M(D) = 1/(1 D).
In the buck-boost converter, the switch alternately connects the inductor across the power
input and output voltages. This converter inverts the polarity of the voltage, and can
either increase or decrease the voltage magnitude. The conversion ratio is M(D) = - D/(1
D). The Cuk converter contains inductors in series with the converter input and output
ports. The switch network alternately connects a capacitor to the input and output
inductors. The conversion ratio M(D) is identical to that of the buck-boost converter.
Hence, this converter also inverts the voltage polarity, while either increasing or
decreasing the voltage magnitude [10]. The use of suitable converter at the appropriate
application will increase the overall efficiency of the system.
6.2.1 BUCK CONVERTER:

Fig: 6.2.1 Basic buck converter.

A basic dc to dc converter is known as buck converter whose circuit diagram is shown in


fig 6.2.1 which employs of a dc input voltage (Vg), switch network which is a single pole
double through (SPDT) switch, low pass filter and a load resistor (R). When the switch is
connected to position1 then the switch voltage (Vs) is equal to the DC input voltage (Vg)

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and when the switch is connected to position 2 then switch voltage (Vs) is zero. Here the
SPDT switch can be realized by using power semiconductor devices such as MOSFET,
IGBT, and BJT etc.

6.2.2 BOOST CONVERTER.

Fig: 6.2.2 Basic boost converter.

Above boost converter is an alternative way for the buck converter. Boost converter is
required to step up the input voltage to the desired output voltage with the help of a
transformer action. It is consist of an inductor L, diode D, capacitor C, resistor R, switch
S and input voltage V. All these components in the co-ordinated manner supply power to
the load in a greater magnitude than in input. The control action of the boost converter is
depending upon the switching frequency of the switch (S). The operation of boost
converter is depends upon charging and discharging of the capacitor C shown in the
above fig. When switch S is open then inductor L starts charging the capacitor through
diode D, as soon as switch S is closed charged capacitor starts discharging through load
resistor R.

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6.2.3 BUCK-BOOST CONVERTER.

Fig: 6.2.3 Basic buck-boost converter.

A Buck-Boost converter is a dc to dc converter which can step up and step down the
output voltage with respect to its input voltage. The buck-boost converter is a
combination of buck converter and boost converter in the cascaded form. The output of
this converter is also depend upon the switching frequency along with the product of both
buck and boost converter duty cycles. The main advantage of buck-boost converter is that
it has wide range of output voltage from maximum to almost zero. In the inverting
topology the output of this converter is exactly opposite to the input one. Along with all
the advantages of the buck-boost converter it has a major drawback that there is no
neutral connection in the circuit because of which there is no isolation between input and
output supply.

The operation of the buck-boost converter is very simple. First we will assume that
initially capacitor is charged.

1. When switch is on (closed) inductor L directly connected to the supply and


hence energy stats accumulating in the inductor. At the same time charged capacitor starts
supplying to the load.

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2. When switch is off (open) then charged inductor L gets connected to the
capacitor C and starts supplying to the load.

6.2.4 CUK CONVERTER

Fig: 6.2.4 Basic cuk converter.

Many years ago Dr. Cuk has invented the integrated magnetic circuit called DC
transformer, where the fluxes created by inductor L1 winding which is connected to the
input side is equal and opposite to the fluxes created by the inductor L2 winding as shown
in fig 6. Hence DC fluxes are opposite to each other and thus results in mutual
cancellation of the DC fluxes. Cuk converter is having more advantages over the buck-
boot converter. The main advantages of cuk converter are that it provides the capacitive
isolation between the input and output in the circuit which was not there in the case of
buck-boost converter.

The operation of the cuk converter is dividing into two modes.

Mode1. When switch is off (open) the stored energy in the inductor L1 is connected to the
load through the capacitor C1. Capacitor C1 plays a very important role in transferring
the energy from inductor L1 to load.

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Mode2. When switch S is turned ON (closed) then current through inductor L1 is rises at
the same time capacitor C1 reverse biased diode D hence make it off therefore now
capacitor C1 discharges through capacitor C2, inductor L2, and through load resistor R.

6.2.5 FLY-BACK CONVERTER.

Fig: 6.2.5 Basic fly-back converter.

Fig 6.2.5 shows the basic circuit of fly-back converter which is derived from boost
convertesr. The basic operation of fly-back converter is dividing into two modes.

Mode1: when switch S is closed (ON) the primary winding (dot) get connected across
the input supply due to which current in the primary winding starts increasing linearly.
Due to which primary fluxes starts developing. On the other hand diode is connected to
the secondary winding (un-dotted) of the transformer hence it gets reverse biased which
tends to block the current flowing in the secondary winding.

Mode2: when switch S is open (off) after being closed for some time then due to the
nature of the inductor it reverses its polarity at the same time primary current which were
flowing through the primary winding interrupted because of which the diode D which
was in the reverse biased earlier becomes forward biased and starts conducting.

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CHAPTER-8

SIMULATIONS AND RESULTS

7.1 INTRODUCTION

The below simulations show the different dc to dc converter i.e. buck, boost, buck-boost,
cuk converters along with the Perturb and Observe maximum power point algorithm. The
tables are showing the comparison between the various parameters of converter such as
input output voltage, input output current and input output power for Perturb and Observe
maximum power point algorithm and at different irradiation levels.

7.2 SOLAR CELL CHARACTERISTICS:

Fig: 7.2 Solar cell modelling.

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Fig: 7.2.1 I-V characteristics.

Fig: 7.2.2 P-V characteristics.

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7.3 BUCK CONVERTER:

Fig: 7.3 Buck converter with P & O MPP technique.


7.3.1 BUCK WITH P & O
G(w/m2) Vin(V) Iin(A) Pin(W) Vout(V) Iout(A) Pout(W) (%)
1005 98.52 7.433 732.29 60.78 12.16 739.08 100
800 92.13 6.254 576.2 53.56 10.71 573.7 99.56
600 93.7 4.596 430.6 44.43 8.887 394.9 91.70
Table: 7.3.1 Buck converter with P & O algorithm

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Fig: 7.3.1 Buck converter with INC MPP technique.

7.3.2 BUCK WITH INC

G(w/m2) Vin(V) Iin(A) Pin(W) Vout(V) Iout(A) Pout(W) (%)


1005 99.82 7.29 727.68 53.55 13.39 717.03 98.53
800 99.31 5.086 576.6 48.3 12.08 583.3 101.16
600 97.53 4.401 429.2 40.9 10.22 418.2 97.43
Table: 7.3.2 Buck converter with INC algorithm

The buck converter shows the result of having input voltage as 98.52 V and output
voltage as 60.78 V and input voltage as 99.82 and output voltage as 53.55 for P & O

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method and INC method respectively. However from this result we can conclude that
buck converter is best suited for P & O algorithm than that of INC algorithm.

7.4 BOOST CONVERTER:

Fig: 7.4 Boost converter with P & O MPP technique.


7.4.1 BOOST WITH P & O
G(w/m2) Vin(V) Iin(A) Pin(W) Vout(V) Iout(A) Pout(W) (%)
1005 96.12 7.643 734.64 266.1 2.661 708.0921 96.38
800 93.34 6.203 578.9 237.6 2.376 564.6 97.52
600 92.32 4.647 429 204.9 2.049 420 97.90

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Table: 7.4.1 Boost converter with P & O algorithm

Fig: 7.4.2 Boost converter with INC MPP technique.


7.4.2 BOOST WITH INC
G(w/m2) Vin(V) Iin(A) Pin(W) Vout(V) Iout(A) Pout(W) (%)
1005 99.27 7.359 730.30 170.5 4.236 722.23 98.89
800 98.5 5.877 578.9 151.6 3.79 574.5 99.23
600 96.59 4.457 430.5 130.5 3.262 425.5 98.83
Table: 7.4.2 Boost converter with INC algorithm

The boost converter shows the result of having input voltage as 96.12 V and output
voltage as 266.1 V and input voltage as 99.27 and output voltage as 170.5 for P & O

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method and INC method respectively. However from this result we can conclude that
boost converter is best suited for INC algorithm than that of P & O algorithm.

7.5 BUCK-BOOST CONVERTER.

Fig: 7.5 Buck-boost Converter with P & O MPP technique.

7.5.1 BUCK-BOOST WITH P & O


G(w/m2) Vin(V) Iin(A) Pin(W) Vout(V) Iout(A) Pout(W) (%)
1005 88.9 8.011 712.1 -188.9 -3.778 713.8 100
800 94.48 6.147 580.8 -166.9 -3.338 557 99.34
600 85.59 4.801 410.9 -144.9 -2.889 420.1 102.23

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Table: 7.5.1 Buck-Boost converter with P & O algorithm

Fig: 7.5.2 Buck-boost Converter with INC MPP technique.


7.5.2 BUCK-BOOST WITH INC
G(w/m2) Vin(V) Iin(A) Pin(W) Vout(V) Iout(A) Pout(W) (%)
1005 97.48 7.53 734.1 -82.17 -8.217 675.2 91.97
800 97.47 5.959 580.8 -72.97 -7.297 532.5 91.68
600 98.54 4.334 427 -60.81 -6.081 369.8 86.60
Table: 7.5.2 Buck-Boost converter with INC algorithm

The buck-boost converter shows the result of having input power 712.1 Watts and output
power 713.8 Watts and input power 734.1 Watts and output power 675.2 Watts for P & O

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and INC algorithm respectively. However from this result we can conclude that buck-
boost converter is most suitable for P & O algorithm.

7.6 CUK CONVERTER.

Fig: 7.6 Cuk converter with P & O MPP technique.


7.6.1 CUK WITH P & O
G(w/m2) Vin(V) Iin(A) Pin(W) Vout(V) Iout(A) Pout(W) (%)
1005 92.09 7.886 726.22 -192.6 -3.852 741.89 102.15
800 89.54 6.341 576.8 -173.8 -3.476 604.2 104.75
600 87.84 4.762 418.4 -150.9 -3.018 455.3 108.81

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Table: 7.6.1 Cuk converter with P & O algorithm

Fig: 7.6.2 Cuk converter with INC MPP technique.


7.6.2 CUK WITH INC
G(w/m2) Vin(V) Iin(A) Pin(W) Vout(V) Iout(A) Pout(W) (%)
1005 82.89 8.145 675.13 0.4395 0.04392 0.0193 0.002
800 68.53 6.556 449.3 0.5108 0.05108 0.02609 0.005
600 52.99 4.925 261 0.5809 0.05809 0.03375 0.012
Table: 7.6.2 Cuk converter with INC algorithm

The cuk converter shows the results of having input power 726.22 Watts and output
power 741.89 Watts and input power 675.13 Watts and output power 0.0193 Watts for P

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& O algorithm and INC algorithm respectively. However from this result we can
conclude that cuk converter is best suitable for P & O algorithm.

All simulation and result for every converter have been recorded to make sure the
comparison of the circuit can be determined accurately. The input, output, voltage,
current and power is the main comparison to take into consideration.

S. Fly- Forwar
Buck Boost Buck-Boost Cuk
N back d
Source Source
Source Source Source Source
current current
current is current current current
1. waveform is waveform
approximat is is is
same as is same as
ely smooth smooth smooth smooth
buck-boost buck
Because of More
more stresses No such stresses on No such No such No such
2.
on the input case the source case case case
side side
Less
compare
to buck
Less
but
Less compare to
Efficiency is more
3. compare to buck but - -
more than
buck more than
boost
boost
and
buck-
boost
Less voltage
4. ripple at More More Less Less Less
output
Same
reference
Differen Differen
5. between Same Same Same
t t
input and
output
6. Single output Single Single Single Multiple Multiple
Table: 7.6.3 Comparison of dc to dc converters

Table show the overall comparison for converters. Once the converter injected the power
from the solar panel and the controller start function, the value for of Vin to controller do
not same value from output of the solar panel. This is because the controller function that
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varies the value of duty cycle will change the input value that sense by the controller. The
input voltages of this controller show a different each other. Buck the connected with
P&O give a value of 44.43 V therefore buck that connected with incremental conductance
give value of 40.9 V. In Incremental Conductance controller the output voltage and
current is not change between input and output value. In this system show that
incremental conductance controller will work better with buck controller than perturb and
observe controller. The incremental conductance controller will have the stable value
from start to end of the simulation.

From the simulation show that voltage input for both controller is almost the same.
Perturb and Observe Controller shows a not stable condition. During the simulation the
current and voltage decrease rapidly and lastly came to same value at the initial stage.
From the simulation result is shows that controller that connected with Boost converter
which will give a stable output is the incremental conductance controller. Perturb and
Observe controller can achieve maximum output value than incremental conductance
controller.

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CHAPTER-8

CONCLUSION AND FUTURE SCOPE

8.1 CONCLUSIONS FROM RESULTS

When the external environment changes suddenly the system cannot track the
maximum power point quickly. With the use of different types of dc to dc converter it is
possible to track the maximum power with increase in efficiency of the system, but on
the other hand with the excess use of dc to dc converter there can be decrease in overall
efficiency of the system. Hence there will be an approach where with the help of detail
study of the comparison of dc to dc buck and buck-boost converter topologies, to
suggest an appropriate converter.
8.2 SCOPE FOR FUTURE WORK

In this thesis, the various dc to dc converters such as buck, boost, buck-boost and cuk
converters are used with perturb and observe (P & O) and INC maximum power point
algorithm. The work can be extended for designing a fly-back converter along with P &
O, INC and fuzzy logic maximum power point algorithm.

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