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lntroduction

Viscous shear stresses between a moving layer of fluid


and fluid within a cavity produce a swirl motion
within the cavity. (ParticLes in oil; time exposure.)
(Photograph by B. R. Munson.)

LEARNING OBJECTIVES
After completing this chapter, you should be able to:
r determine the dimensions and units of physical quantities.
r identify the key fluid properties used in the analysis of fluid behavior.
r calculate common fluid properties given appropriate information.
. explain effects of fluid compressibility.
r use the concepts of viscosity, vapor pressure and surface tension.

f luid mechanics is that discipline within the broad field of applied mechanics concerned with
I the behavior of liquids and gases at rest or in motion. This held of mechanics obviously
encompasses a vast alray of problems that may vary from the study of blood flow in the cap-
illaries (which are only a few microns in diameter) to the flow of crude oil across Alaska
through an 800-mile-1ong, 4-ft-diameter pipe. Fluid mechanics principles are needed to explain
why airplanes are made streamlined with smooth surfaces for the most efficient flight, whereas
golf balls are made with rough surfaces (dimpled) to increase their efficiency. It is very likely
that during your career as an engineer you will be involved in the analysis and design of sys-
tems that require a good understanding of fluid mechanics. It is hoped that this introductory
text will provide a sound foundation of the fundamental aspects of fluid mechanics.
--

2 Chapter 1 I Introduction

1.1 Some Characteristics of Fluids


One of the first questions we need to explore is-what is a fluid? Or we might ask-what
is the difference between a solid and a fluid? We have a general, vague idea of the
difference. A solid is "hard" and not easily deformed, whereas a fluid is "soft" and is eas-
ily deformed (we can readily move through air). Although quite descriptive, these casual
observations of the differences between solids and fluids are not very satisfactory from a
scientific or engineering point of view. A more specific distinction is based on how mate-
rials deform under the action of an external load. A fluid is defined as a substance that
deforms continuously when acted on by a shearing stress of any magnitude. A shearing
stress (force per unit area) is created whenever a tangential force acts on a surface. When
common solids such as steel or other metals are acted on by a shearing stress, they will ini-
tially deform (usually a very small deformation), but they will not continuously deform
(flow). However, common fluids such as water, oil, and air satisfy the definition of a fluid-
that is, they will flow when acted on by a shearing stress. Some materials, such as slurries,
tar, putty, toothpaste, and so on, are not easily classified since they will behave as a solid
if the applied shearing stress is small, but if the stress exceeds some critical. value, the sub-
stance will flow. The study of such materials is called rheology and does not fall within the
province of classical fluid mechanics.
Although the molecular structure of fluids is important in distinguishing one fluid
from another, because of the large number of molecules involved, it is not possible to study
the behavior of individual molecules when trying to describe the behavior of fluids at rest
or in motion. Rather, we characterize the behavior by considering the average, or macro-
scopic, value of the quantity of interest, where the average is evaluated over a small vol-
ume containing a large number of molecules.
We thus assume that all the fluid characteristics we are interested in (pressure, veloc-
ity, etc.) vary continuously throughout the fluid-that is, we treat the fluid as a continuum.
This concept will certainly be valid for all the circumstances considered in this text.

L.2 Dimensions, Dimensional Homogeneity and Units


Since we will be dealing with a variety of fluid characteristics in our study of fluid mechan-
ics, it is necessa"ry to develop a system for describing these characteristics both qualitatively
and quantitatively. The qualitative aspect serves to identify the nature, or type, of the char-
acteristics (such as length, time, stress, and velocity), whereas the quantitative aspect pro-
vides a numerical measure of the characteristics. The quantitative description requires both
a number and a standard by which various quantities can be compared. A standard for length
might be a meter or foot, for time an hour or second, and for mass a slug or kilogram. Such
standards are called units, and several systems of units are in common use as described in
the following section. The qualitative description is conveniently given in terms of certain
primary quantities, such as length, t, time, 7, mass, M, and temperature, O. These primary
quantities can then be used to provide a qualitative description of any other secondary quan-
tity, for example, area: L2,velocity + LT-|, density = ML and so on, where the sym-
3,

bol : is used to indicate the dimensiorzs of the secondary quantity in terms of the primary
quantities. Thus, to describe qualitatively a velocity, % we would write
V=LT I

and say that "the dimensions of a velocity equal length divided by time." The primary quan-
tities are also referred to as bqsic dimensions.
1.2 Dimensions, Dimensional Homogeneity, and Units 3

For a wide variety of problems involving fluid mechanics, only the three basic
dimensions, L, T, and M, arc required. Alternatively, L, T, and F could be used, where F
is the basic dimension of force. Since Newton's law states that force is equal to mass times
acceleration, it follows that F = MLT 2 or M = FL-172. Thus, secondary quantities
expressed in terms of M can be expressed in terms of F through the relationship just given.
For example, stress, o, is a force per unit area, so that o: FL 2,but an equivalent dimen-
sional equation is o ! ML-|T-2. Table 1.1 provides a list of dimensions for a number of
common physical quantities.
All theoretically derived equations arc dimensionally homogeneous-that is, the di-
mensions of the left side of the equation must be the same as those on the right side, and all
additive separate terms must have the same dimensions. We accept as a fundamental premise

r TABLE 1.1
Dt-."rt""r A.r".i
FLT MLT
System System

Acceleration LT2 LT'2


Angle FoLoTo MoLoTo
Angular acceleration T2 T2
Angular velocity TI TI
Area L2 L2
Density FL-4TZ ML3
2
Energy FL ML2T
Force F MLT_2
Frequency T-1 T-l
Heat FL ML2T_2
Length L L
Mass FL'172 M
Modulus of elasticity FL2 ML-rT-2
Moment of a force FL ML2T-2
Moment of inertia (area) L4 L4
Moment of inertia (mass) FLT2 ML2
I
Momentum FT MLT
3
Power FLT_I MLZT
Pressure FL_2 MLIT2
Specific heat L2T-2o-l LzT 2g I

Specific weight FL_3 ML2T2


Strain FoLoTo MoLoTo
Stress FL-2 ML-tT-2
Surface tension FL-1 ML_2
Temperature o o
Time T T
Torque FL ML-zT-2
Velocity LT-1 LT_I
Viscosity (dynamic) FL'27 ML-tT-l
Viscosity (kinematic) L2T I tr-t
Volume L3 L3
Work FL ML2T'2
4 Chapter 1 I Introduction

that all equations describing physical phenomena must be dimensionally homogeneous. For
example, the equation for the velocity, V, of a uniformly accelerated body is
V:Vo-lat (1.1)

where Vs is the initial velocity, a the acceleration, and / the time interval. In terms of dimen-
sions the equation is
LT-t*LT1+LT-l
and thus Eq. 1.1 is dimensionally homogeneous.
Some equations that are known to be valid contain constants having dimensions. The
equation for the distance, d, traveled by a freely falling body can be written as
d : I6.lt2 (1.2)

and a check of the dimensions reveals that the constant must have the dimensions of LT-2
if the equation is to be dimensionally homogeneous. Actually,Eq. I.2 is a special form of
the well-known equation from physics for freely falling bodies,
gt2
d= (1.3)
2

in which g is the acceleration of gravity. Equation 1.3 is dimensionally homogeneous and


valid in any system of units. For g : 32.2ftls2 the equation reduces toEq' l'2, and thus
Eq. L2 is valid only for the system of units using feet and seconds. Equations that are
restricted to a particular system of units can be denoted as restricted homogeneous equa-
tions, as opposed to equations valid in any system of units, which are general homogeneous
equations. The concept of dimensions also forms the basis for the powerful tool of dimens-
ional analysis, which is considered in detail in Chapter 7.
Note to the users of this text. All of the examples in the text use a consistent problem-
solving methodology which is similar to that in other engineering courses such as statics. Each
example highlights the key elements of analysis: Given, Find, Solution, and Comment.
The Given and Find are steps that ensure the user understands what is being asked
in the problem and explicitly list the items provided to help solve the problem.
The Solution step is where the equations needed to solve the problem are formulated
and the problem is actually solved. In this step, there are typically several other tasks that
help to set up the solution and are required to solve the problem. The first is a drawing of
the problem; where appropriate, it is always helpful to draw a sketch of the problem. Here
the relevant geometry and coordinate system to be used as well as features such as control
volumes, forces and pressures, velocities and mass flow rates are included. This helps in
gaining a visual understanding of the problem. Making appropriate assumptions to solve
the problem is the second task. In a realistic engineering problem-solving environment, the
necessary assumptions are developed as an integral part of the solution process. Assump-
tions can provide appropriate simplifications or offer useful constraints, both of which can
help in solving the problem. Throughout the examples in this text, the necessary assump-
tions are embedded within the Solution step, as they are in solving a real-world problem.
This provides a realistic problem-solving experience.
The final element in the methodology is the Comment. For the examples in the text,
this section is used to provide further insight into the problem or the solution. It can also
be a point in the analysis at which certain questions are posed. For example: Is the answer
reasonable, and does it make physical sense? Are the final units correct? If a certain param-
eter were changed, how would the answer change? Adopting the above type of methodol-
ogy will aid in the development of problem-solving skills for fluid mechanics, as well as
other engineering disciplines.
1.2 Dimensions, Dimensional Homogeneity,
and Units 5

EXAMPLE 1.1
GIVEN A commonly used equation for determining the
volume rate of flow, e of a liquid through an orifice iocated
in
the side of a tank as shown in Fig. E1.1 is

Q: 0.61A{kh
where A is the area of the orifice, g is the acceleration
of grav_
ity, and h is the height ofthe liquid above the orifice.

FIND Investigate the dimensional homogeneity of this


formula.

r FIGURE E1.1
SOI.UTION
The dimensions of the various terms in the equation
are A quick check of the dimensions reveals that
Q: volume/tjme: L3T-1
+
A : area: L2 L3T_1 (4.9q(Ls/2)

g : acceleration of gravity : LT*2


and, therefore, the equation expressed as Eq. I
can only be
h : height: L
dimen^sionally correct if the number,4.90, has the dimensions
of Ll/27-t. Whenever a number appearing in an equation
These terms, when substituted into the equation, yield or
the di_ formula has dimensions, it means that th; specific
mensional form value of
the number will depend on the system of units
used. Ihus, for
(L' r -' ) = (0.6D(L1(Vt)(Lr - /2(L)t lz the case being considered with feet and seconds used
11 as
units, the number 4.90 has units of fti/2/s. Equation
OT 1 will
only give the correct value for p 1in ft3ls) when A is
(1, r -') = [(0.6 1
_
\,4] (r, r r, pressed in square feet and h in feet. Thus, Eq.
ex_
) I is a restricted
It is clear from homogeneous equation, whereas the original equation
this result that the equation is dimensionally ho_ is a
mog-eneous (both sides of the formula have the same general homogeneous equation that would be
dimensions valiO fbr anv
of L3T-11, and the numbers (0.61 and .'.Ll areJi*.nrionf"rr. consistent system of units. A quick check of the
dimensions
of the various terms in an equation is a useful practice
and
COMMENT If we were going to use this relationship re_ will often be helpful in eliminating erors_rhaiis, as noted
peatedly, we might be tempted to simplify it by previously, all physicalty meaningful equarions
replacing g must be di_
with its standard value of 32.2 ft/ s2 and rewriting the formula mensionally homogeneous. We have briefly alluded
as to units
in this example, and this important topic will be considered
Q: 4.e0Afi (1) in more detail in the next section.

1.2.1 Systems of Units


In addition to the qualitative description ofthe various quantities
ofinterest, it is generally nec-
essary to have a quantitative measure of any given
quantity. For example, if we rneasure the
width of this page in the book and say trrat it is 10 uniis
wide, the statement has no meaning un-
til the unit of length is defined. If we indicate that the unit of
length is a meter, and define the
meter as some standard length' a unit system for length
has been"established (and a numerical
value can be given to the page width). In addition
to length, a unit must be established for each
of the remaining basic quantities (force, mass, time, and
temperature). There are several sys-
tems of units in use and we shall consider two systems
that are commonly used in engineering.
British Gravitutional (BG) System. In the BG sysrem rhe unir of length
is rhe foor
(ft), the time unit is the second (s), the force unit
is the pouncl (rb), and the temperature unit
is the degree Fahrenheit ('F), or the absorute temperature
unit is the degree Rankine ("R), where
oR: oF + 459.61
Y

Chapter 1 I Introduction

The mass unit, called the slug, is defined from Newton's second law (force : mass X
acceleration) as

1 lb : (1 slug)(l ftls2)

This relationship indicates that a l-lb force acting on a mass of 1 slug will give the mass
an acceleration of 1 ftls2.
The weight, "14/ (which is the force due to gravity, g) of a mass, m, is given by the
equation

W:mg
and in BG units
14/ (lb) : ru (slugs)s (fVs2)

Since the earth's standard gravity is taken as I : 32.174 ftls2 (commonly approximated as
32.2ft/s2), it follows that a mass of 1 slug weighs 32.2 Ib under standard gravity.

How long is a foot? Today, in the United States, the common a special French commission proposed that a new universal
length anil is thefoot, but throughout antiquity the unit used to length unit called a meter (metre) be defined as the distance
measure length has quite a history. The hrst length units were of one-quarter of the earth's meridian (north pole to the equa-
based on the lengths of various body parts. One of the earliest tor) divided by 10 million. Although controversial, the meter
units was the Egyptian cubit, first used around 3000 s.c. and was accepted in 1799 as the standard. With the development
defined as the length of the arm from elbow to extended fin- of advanced technology, the length of a meter was redefined
gertips. Other measures followed with the foot simply taken in 1983 as the distance traveled by light in a vacuum during
as the length of a man's foot. Since this length obviously the time interval of 1/299,'792,458 s. The foot is now defined
varies from person to person it was often "standardized" by as 0.3048 meters. Our simple rulers and yardsticks indeed
using the length of the current reigning royalty's foot. In 1 79 1 have an intriguing history. I

International System (SI).


In 1960, the Eleventh General Conference on Weights
and Measures, the international organization responsible for maintaining precise uniform
standards of measurements, formally adopted the International System of Units as the inter-
national standard. This system, commonly termed SI, has been adopted worldwide and is
widely used (although certainly not exclusively) in the United States. It is expected that the
long-term trend will be for all countries to accept SI as the accepted standard, and it is
imperative that engineering students become familiar with this system. In SI the unit of
length is the meter (m), the time unit is the second (s), the mass unit is the kilogram (kg),
and the temperature unit is the kelvin (K). Note that there is no degree symbol used when
expressing a temperature in kelvin units. The Kelvin temperature scale is an absolute scale
and is related to the Celsius (centigrade) scale ('C) through the relationship
K:oC+273.15
Although the Celsius scale is not in itself part of SI, it is common practice to specify tem-
peratures in degrees Celsius when using SI units.
The force unit, called the newton (N), is defined from Newton's second law as
1N : (1kg)(1m/s2)

Thus, a l-N force acting on a l-kg mass will give the mass an acceleration of 1 m/s2. Standard
gravity in SI is 9.807 m/s2 (commonly approximated as 9.81 m/s2) so that a l-kg mass weighs
9.81 N under standard gravity. Note that weight and mass are different, both qualitatively and
1.3 Analysis of Fluid Behavior 7

r TABLE i.2
Conversion Factors from BG Units to SI
Unifs
(See inside of back cover.)

r TABLE 1.3
Conversion Factols from SI Units to BG
Units
(See inside of back cover.)

quanrrtativelyrrhe unit of work in SI is the joule (J), which


is the work
point ofapplication ofa l-N force is displaced through a 1-m distance in done when the
the force. Thus, the direction of

1J : tN.m
The unit of power is the watt (W) defined
as a joule per second. Thus,
1W:tJls:tN.m/s
Prefixes for forming multiples and fractions
of SI units are commonly used. For exam-
ple, the notation kN wourd be iead as "kilonewtons,,
and stands for 10ti-. ;;;ffi;, ;;
would be read as "milrimeters" and stands
ro, to:1-. it"".""it-"". is nor an accepted
unit of length in the SI system, and for most problems
in fluid mechanics in which sI units
are used, lengths will be expressed in
millimlters or meters.
In this text we w,r use the BG system ancr sI
problems and examples are given in Bii for units. Approximately one-half the
units and one-half in siunits. Tables 1.2
provide conversion factors for some quantities and 1.3
that are commonly encountered in fluid
mechanics' and these tables are locatei
on the inside of the back cJver. Note that
tables (and others) the nu,mbers are expressed in these
by using notation.
example' the number 5.154 E * 2is equivalent "o-pui"r.*ponentiat For
the number 2.832 E
to s.i5+ x 10, i;Jcientific norarion, and
- 2 is equivalent io 2.832 x r0-2. M.;; of conver_
sion factors for a large variety of unit systems ";;;ve rables
can be found in Appendix E.

Units and space travel A NASA spacecraft,


Orbiter, was launched in December 199g to
the Mars Ctimate
?oojr
il the maneuvering commands sent from
earth caused
study the Martian the orbiter to sweep within 37 miles of
geography and weather patterns. The spacecraft the surface rather than
was slated to the intended 93 miles. The subsequent
begin orbiting Mars on September 23, i999. investigation revealed
Horr"u"r, NASA that the errors were due to a simple
officials lost communication with the spacecrali mix _up initnits.On" ,"u_
early that controlling the Orbiter used SI units whereas another team
day, and it is believed that the spacecraft
troke apart or over_ used BG units. This costly experience
heated because it came too close to the illustrates the impor_
surface of Mars. tance ofusing a consistent system ofunits.
I

Anal of Fluid Behavior


The study of fluid mechanics involves the
same fundamental laws you have encountered
t"l"tr"::-"i1:r::t in
courses. These taws inctude Newron,s
i","ilnics
servation of mass, and the first and second laws of morion, con_
raws of thermodynami"r. T;;,
;"r: #:,-*
similarities between the general approach
to fluid mechanics and to rigid_body and
deformable-body solid mechanics.
a,-

Chapter 1 I Introduction

The broad subject of fluid mechanics can be generally subdivided into fluid statics,
in which the fluid is at rest, and fluid dynamics, in which the fluid is moving. In subse-
quent chapters we will consider both of these areas in detail. Before we can proceed, how-
ever, it will be necessary to define and discuss certain fluid properties that are intimately
related to fluid behavior. In the following several sections, the properties that play an impor-
tant role in the analysis of fluid behavior are considered.

1.4 Measures of Fluid Mass and Weight

1.4.1 Density
The density of a fluid, designated by the Greek symbol p (rho), is defined as its mass per
unit volume. Density is typically used to characterize the mass of a fluid system. In the BG
system, p has units of slugs/ft3 and in SI the units are kg/m3.
The value of density can vary widely between different fluids, but for liquids, varia-
tions in pressure and temperature generally have only a small effect on the value of p. The
small change in the density of water with large variations in temperature is illustrated in
Fig. 1.1. Tables 1.4 and 1.5 list values of density for several common liquids. The density
of water at 60' F is 1.94 slugs/ft3 or 999 kg/m3. The large difference between those two
values illustrates the importance of paying attention to unitsl Unlike liquids, the density of
a gas is strongly influenced by both pressure and temperature, and this difference is dis-
cussed in the next section.
The specific volume, a, is the volume per unit mass and is therefore the reciprocal of
the density-that is,
I
a:- p (1.4)

This property is not commonly used in fluid mechanics but is used in thermodynamics.

1.4.2 Specific Weight


The specffic weight of a fluid, designated by the Greek symbol 7 (gamma), is defined as
its weight per unit volume. Thus, specific weight is related to density through the equation

y:p8 (1.s)

1000

990
@ 4C P = 1000 kglm3
tr
; e8o

;
? 970
o

Temperature, 'C

r FIGURE 1.1 Density of water as a function of temperature.


1.5 Ideal Gas Law I
r TABLE 1.4
te Physical Properties of Some Common (BG Units)
(See inside of front cover..y

r TABLE 1.5
ate Physical rties of Some Common (SI Units)
(See inside of front cover.)

where g is the local acceleration of gravity. Just as density is used to characteize


the mass
of a fluid system, the specific weight is used to charccterize the weight of the system.
In
the BG system, 7 has units of lb/ft3 and in SI the units are N/m3. Under conditions
of stan-
dard gravity (c : 32.114 ftls2 : 9.807 rn/s2), water ar 60'F has a specific
weight of 62.41b/ft3
and 9.80 kN/m3. Tables 1.4 and 1.5 list values of specific weight for several
common liquids
(based on standard gravity). More complete tables for watei can
be found in Appendix B
(Thbles 8.1 and 8.2).

1.4,3 Specific Gravity


The specifrc gravity of a fluid, designated as SG, is defined as the ratio
of the density of the
fluid to the density of water at some specified temperature. Usually the specified tempera-
ture is taken as 4o C (39.2" F), and at this temperature the density of watei
is 1.94 slugs/ft3
or 1000 kg/m 3. In equation form specific g.uuity is expressed as

SG: (1.6)
Puro@+"c
and since it is the ratio of densities, the value of SG does not depend on
the system of units
used. For example, the specific gravity of mercury at 20" C is 13.55, and the
dlnsity of mer-
cury can thus be readily calculated in either BG or SI units through the use of Eq.
1.6 as
pHg : (13.55)(1.94 slugs/ft3| : ZA.Z slugs/ft3
or

pHs: (13.5s)(1000kg/m3) : 13.6 x 103kg/m3


It is clear that density, specific weight, and specific gravity are all interrelated, and
from a knowledge of any one of the three the others can be calculated.

1.5 Ideal Gas Law


Gases are highly compressible in comparison to liquids, with changes in gas
density directly
related to changes in pressure and temperature through the equattn

P: PRT (r.7)
where p is the absolute pressure, p the density, T the absolute temperature,r
and R is a gas
constant. Equation 1.7 is commonly termed the petfect or ideal gas law,
or the equatioi of

ffi,"pIeSenttempeIafuIeinthermodynamicrelationships,althoughZisalSousedtodenotethebasicdimensionoftime'
10 Chapter 1 I Introduction

r TABLE 1.6
Approximate Physical Properties of Some Common Gases at Standard
Atmospheric Pressure (BG Units)
(See inside of front cover.)

r TABLE 1.7
Approximate Physical Properties of Some Common Gases at Standard
Pressure (SI Units)

(See inside of front cover.)

state for an ideal gas. It is known to closely approximate the behavior of real gases under
normal conditions when the gases are not approaching liquefaction.
Pressure in a fluid at rest is defined as the normal force per unit area exerted on a
plane surface (real or imaginary) immersed in a fluid, and is created by the bombardment
of the surface with the fluid molecules. From the definition, pressure has the dimension of
FL-', andin BG units is expressed as lb/ft2 (psfl or lbiin.2 (psi) and in SI units as N/m2.
In SI, 1 N/m2 is defined as a pascal, abbreviated as Pa, and pressures are commonly spec-
ified in pascals. The pressure in the ideal gas law must be expressed as an absolute pres-
sure, which means that it is measured relative to absolute zero pressure (a pressure that
would only occur in a perfect vacuum). Standard sea-level atmospheric pressure (by inter-
national agreement) is 14.696 psi (abs) or 101.33 kPa (abs). For most calculations, these
pressures can be rounded to 14.1 psi and 101 kPa, respectively. In engineering, it is com-
mon practice to measure pressure relative to the local atmospheric pressure; when meas-
44.1 ured in this fashion it is called gqge pressure. Thus, the absolute pressure can be obtained
from the gage pressure by adding the value of the atmospheric pressure. For example, as
shown by the figure in the margin, a pressure of 30 psi (gage) in a tire is equal to 44.1 psi
(abs) at standard atmospheric pressure. Pressure is a particularly important fluid character-
istic, and it will be discussed more fully in the next chapter.
The gas constant, R, which appears in Eq. 1.7, depends on the particular gas and is
14.7 related to the molecular weight of the gas. Values of the gas constant for several common
gases are listed in Tables 1 .6 and I.7 . Also in these tables the gas density and specific weight
are given for standard atmospheric pressure and gravity and for the temperature listed. More

(abs) (gage)
complete tables for air at standard atmospheric pressure can be found in Appendix B (Tables
lr, p5r 8.3 and B.4).

EXAMPLE 1,2
GIVEN A compressed air tank has a volume of 0.84 ft3. The FIND Determine the density of the air and the weight of air
tank is filled with air at a E^ge pressure of 50 psi and a temper- in the tank.
ature of70o F. The atmospheric pressure is 14.7 psi (abs).

SO LUTIO N
The air density can be obtained from the ideal gas law (Eq. 1.7) so that
expressed as + lblin.1044 in.2lft2)
p n:6 (50 1b/in.2 14.7

D=-
'RT : 0.0102 slugs/ft3 (Ans)
1.6 Viscosity 11

COMMENT Note that both the pressure and the tempera_ of air in the tank, but doubling the absolute pressure does. Thus,
ture were changed to absolute values. a scuba diving tank at a gage pressure of 100 psi does not contain
The weight, 1r, of the air is equal to twice the amount of air as when the gage reads 50 psi.
W: pg X (volume)
: (0.0102 sluss/fr3)(32.2 ftlsr)(0.84 ft3)
: 0.276 slug .ftls2
c
F (50 psi, 0.276 lb)
W :0.2761b (Ans)
sincellb:1slug.fVs2.

COMMENT By repeating the calculations fbr various val- -20 0 20 40 60


uesofthe pressure, p, the results shown in Fig. El.2 are obtained. P' Psi (gage)
Note that doubling the gage pressure does not double the amount r FIGURE E.I .2

The properties of density and specific weight are measures of the "heaviness" of
a fluid. It
is clear, however, that these properlies are not sufficient to uniquely characteizehow
fluids
behave, as two fluids (such as water and oil) can have approximately the same
value of den-
M# sity but behave quite differently when flowing. There is apparently some additional property
./l\ that is needed to describe the "fluidity" of the fluid (i.e., how easily it flows).
To.determine this additional property, consider a hypothetical experiment in which
vl.1 Viscous fluids a
material is placed between two very wide parallel plates as shown in Fig. 1.2. The
bottom
plate is rigidly fixed, but the upper plate is free to move.
When the force P is applied to the upper plate, it will move continuously with a veloc-
ity U (after the initial transient motion has died out) as illustrated in Fig. t.Z. f'nis behavior
is consistent with the definition of a fluid-that is, if a shearing stress is applied to a fluid
it
will deform continuously. A closer inspection of the fluid motion between theiwo plates would
reveal that the fluid in contact with the upper plate moves with the plate velocity,
U, and the
fluid in contact with the bottom fixed plate has a zero velocity. The fluid between the two
plates moves with velocity u: u(y) that would be found to vary linearly, u: (Jy/b,
as illus-
trated in Fig. 1.2. Thus, a velocity gradient, du/dy, is developed in the fluid between
the plares.
In this particular case the velocity gradient is a constant, as du/dy : U/b, but in more com_
plex flow situations this would not be true. The experimental observation that the fluid .,sticks"
V1.2 No-slip
to the solid boundaries is a very important one in fluid mechanics and is usually referred to
condition
asthe no-slip condition. Alt fluids, both liquids and gases, satisfy this condition.
In a small time increment 6t, an imaginary vertical line AB in the fluid (see Fig. 1.2)
would rotate through an angle, 6B, so that

6a
tan6B: $B :
b
U
H 5a

B IB'
I
I

7
I
l, I

1i A 6p r FIGURE 1.2 Behaviorofafluid


xed placed between two parallel plates.
12 Chapter 1 I Introduction

Since 6a : U 6t it follows that

6B:y6t
b
Note that in this case, 5B is a function not only of the force P (which governs I/) but also of
time. We consider the rate at which 6B is changing, and define the rate of shearing strain, y, as

i:' fimP
dr--o 61
which in this instance is equal to
.Udu
'- b dy
A continuation of this experiment would reveal that as the shearing stress, r, is
increased by increasing P (recall that r: P/A), the rate of shearing strain is increased in
direct proportion-that is
rc'.y
or

,oi,du
This result indicates that for common fluids, such as water, oil, gasoline, and air, the shearing
stress and rate of shearing strain (velocity gradient) can be related with a relationship of the form

du
r: p=
dy
(1.8)

where the constant of proportionality is designated by the Greek symbol p (mu) and is called
the absolute viscosiSt, dynamic viscosity, or simply the viscosity of the fluid. In accordance with
Eq. 1.8, plots of r versw du/dy should be linear with the slope equal to the viscosity as illustrated
in Fig. 1.3. The actual value ofthe viscosity depends on the particular fluid, and for a particular
V1.3 Capillary tube fluid the viscosity is also highly dependent on temperature as illustrated in Fig. 1.3 with the two
viscometer
curves for water. Fluids for which the shearing stress is linearly related to the rate of shearing
strain (also referred to as rate of angular deformation) are designated as Newtonianfluids.Fortu-
nately, most common fluids, both liquids and gases, are Newtonian. A more general formulation
of Eq. 1.8, which applies to more complex flows of Newtonian fluids, is given in Section 6.8.1.
Fluids for which the shearing stress is not linearly related to the rate of shearing strain
V1.4 Non- are designated as non-Newtonian fluids. It is beyond the scope of this book to consider the
Newtonian behavior behavior of such fluids, and we will only be concerned with Newtonian fluids.

A vital fluid In addition to air and water, another fluid that is rate. As the shear rate is increased from a low value, the ap-
essential for human life is blood. Blood is an unusual fluid con- parent viscosity decreases and approaches asymptotically a
sisting of red blood cells that are disk-shaped, about 8 microns constant value at high shear rates. The "asymptotic" value of
in diameter, suspended in plasma. As you would suspect, the viscosity of normal blood is 3 to 4 times the viscosity of
since blood is a suspension, its mechanical behavior is that of water. The viscosity of blood is not routinely measured like
a non-Newtonian fluid. Its density is only slightly higher some biochemical properties such as cholesterol and triglyc-
than that ofwater, but its typical apparent viscosity is signifi- erides, but there is some evidence indicating that the viscosity
cantly higher than that of water at the same temperature. It is of blood may play a role in the development of cardiovascular
diffrcult to measure the viscosity of blood since it is a non- disease. Ifthis proves to be true, viscosity could become a stan-
Newtonian fluid and the viscosity is a function of the shear dard variable to be routinely measured. (See Problem 1.24.) a
1.6 Viscosity 13

Crude oil (60 .F)

U;
o
U
'-c
Eo Water (60 "F)
a

Water (100'F)

Air (60 "F)


r FIGURE 1.3 Linearvaria-
Rate of shearing strain,ft
tion of shearing stress with rate of
shearing strain for common fluids.

From Eq. 1.8 it can be readily deduced that the dimensions of viscosity
are FTL-2. Thvs,
in BG units viscosity is given as lb's/ft2 and in sI units as N's/m2. values
of viscosity for sev-
eral common liquids and gases are listed in Thbles 1.4 through 1.7.
A quick glance at these
tables reveals the wide variation in viscosity among fluids. viscosity
is only miidly dependent
on pressure' and the effect of pressure is usually neglected. However,
as mentioned prwiously,
and as illustrated in Appendix B (Figs. B.1 and B.2), viscosity is
very sensitive to ternperature.
Quite often viscosity appears in fluid flow problems combined with the density in the form

lL
v--
p
This ratio is called the kinemutic viscosity and is denoted with the
Greek symbol z (nu).
The dimensions of kinematic viscosity are L2/T and the BG units
areft2/suna sr,niB;;
mtls. Values of kinematic viscosiry for some common liquids and gases
are given in Thbles 1.4
through 1.7. More extensive tables giving both the dynamic arid kinematic
viscosities for
water and air can be found in Appendix B (Tables B.1 through B.4),
and graphs showing
the variation in both dynamic and kinematic viscosity with temperature
for a variety of fluI
ids are also provided in Appendix B (Figs. 8.1 and B.2).
Although in this text we are primarily using BG and SI units, dynamic
viscosity is
often expressed in the metric cGS (centimeter-gram-second) system with
units of
dyne's/cm2. This combination is called a poise, abbreviated p. In the
CGS system, kine-
matic viscosity has units of cm2ls, and this combination is called a stoke,
abbreviated St.

EXAMPLE 1.3
GIVEN A dimensionless combination of variables that is flows through a 2s-mm-diameter pipe with a velocity of
important in the study of viscous flow through pipes is 2.6 mls.
called the Reynolds number, Re, defined as pVDlp. where
p is the fluid density, V the mean fluid velocity, D the pipe FIND Determine the value of the Reynolds number using
diameter, and pr. the fluid viscosity. A Newtonian fluid hav_ (a) SI units and
ing a viscosity of 0.38 N.s/m2 and a specific gravity of 0.91 (b) BG units.
7

14 Chapter 1 I Introduction

50 LUTI O N
(a) The fluid density is calculated from the specific gravity as p: (910kg/m3x1.940 x 10-3) : 1.77 slugs/ft3

: : v= : 8.53 ftls
(2.6 n/s)(3.281)
p - SGPH"o@+.c 0.91 (1000 kg/m3; 910 kg/m3
: 8.20 x l0-2ft
D: (0.02sm)(3.281)
and from the definition of the Reynolds number : 2) : 7.94 x 10-3 lb's/ft2
pr (0.38 N.s/m2X2.089 x 10
pvD (910 kg/m3x2.6 n/s)(25 mm)(10-3 m/mm) and the value of the Reynolds number is
Nc- p 0.38N's/m2 x
, (r.7'7 slugs/ft3x8.53 ft/s)(8.20 10*2 f0
: t56(kg.m/s2)/N NC:
7.94 x lo-3 lb.stfe
However, since I N : 1 kg'm/sz it follows that the Reynolds : 156(slug.ft/s2;ltu : tso (Ans)
number is unitless (dimensionless)-that is,
since 1 lb = 1 slug'ft/s2.
Re = 156 (Ans)
COMMENT The values from part (a) and part (b) are the
COMMENT The value of any dimensionless quantity does same, as expected. Dimensionless quantities play an important
not depend on the system of units used if all variables that make role in fluid mechanics, and the significance of the Reynolds
up the quantity are expressed in a consistent set ofunits. To check number, as well as other important dimensionless combina-
this we will calculate the Reynolds number using BG units. tions, will be discussed in detail in Chapter 7. It should be
(b) We first convert all the SI values of the variables appear- noted that in the Reynolds number it is actually thetatro 1't'/p
ing in the Reynolds number to BG values by using the conver- that is important, and this is the property that we have defined
sion factors from Table 1.3. Thus, as the kinematic viscosity.

EXAMPLE 1.4
GIVEN The velocity distribution for the flow of a Newton- FIND Determine
ian fluid between two wide, parallel plates (see Fig. 81.4) is (a) the shearing stress acting on the bottom wall and
given by the equation (b) the shearing stress acting on a plane parallel to the walls
and passing through the centerline (midplane).
"=+l'-(;il
where V is the mean velocity. The fluid has a viscosity of
0.04 lb's/ft2. Also, V : 2 ftls and h = 0.2 in. T,
rl
t
SO LUTIO N h
I
For this type of parallel flow the shearing stress is obtained
from Eq. 1.8.
du r FIGURE E1.4
r:p, ay
(1)

Thus, ifthe velocity distribution, u:


u(y), is known, the shear- and therefore the shearing stress is
ing stress can be determined at all points by evaluating the ve-
(0.04 lb.s/fr'?x3)(2 ft/s)
locity gradient , du/dy. For the distribution given
Tbonom wall = .(+): (0.2 in.X1 ft/12in.)
du:
dy -3u! h2
e) : 14.4lblt( (in direction of flow) (Ans)

(a) Along the bottom wall y : -/r so that (from Eq. 2) COMMENT This stress creates a drag on the wall. Since
the velocity distribution is symmetrical, the shearing stress along
du 3V the upper wall would have the same magnitude and direction.
dvh
1.7 Compressibility of Fluids 15

(b) Along the midplane where y : 0, it follows from Eq. 2 that COMMENT From Eq. 2 we see that the velocity gradienr
(and therefore the shearing stress) varies linearly with y and
du
in this particular example varies from 0 at the center of the
dy
channel to 14.4 lb/ft2 at the walls. For the more general case
and thus the shearing stress is the actual variation will, of course, depend on the nature of
the velocity distribution.
Tmidplane : 0

1.7.1 Bulk Modulus


An important question to answer when considering the behavior of a particular fluid is how
easily can the volume (and thus the density) of a given mass of the fluid be changed when
there is a change in pressure? That is, how compressible is the fluid? A property that is
commonly used to charactefize compressibility is the bulk modulus, E,, defined as
dp
En: (1.e)
dvlv
whete dp is the differential change in pressure needed to create a differential change in volume,
dY, of a volume 1l, as shown by the figure in the margin. The negative sign is included since
an increase in pressure will cause a decrease in volume. Because a decrease in volume of a
given mass, m: pv, will result in an increase in density, Eq. 1.9 can also be expressed as

dn
" (1.r0)
dplp
The bulk modllus (also referred to as the bulk modulus of elasticity) has dimensions of
pressure, FL-2.In BG units values for Erare usually given as lb/in.t (psi) and in SI units
as N/m2 (Pa). Large values for the bulk modulus indicate that the fluid is relatively incom-
pressible-that is, it takes a large pressure change to create a small change in volume. As
expected, values of E, for common liquids are large (see Tables 1.4 and 1.5).
Since such large pressures are required to effect a change in volume, we conclude
that liquids can be considered as incompressible for most practical engineering applications.
As liquids are compressed the bulk modulus increases, but the bulk modulus near atmos-
pheric pressure is usually the one of interest. The use of bulk modulus as a property describ-
ing compressibility is most prevalent when dealing with liquids, although the bulk modu-
lus can also be determined for gases.

This water jet is a blast Usualty liquids can be treared as in- or 3000 to 4000 atmospheres), the water is compressed (i.e., the
compressible fluids. However, in some applications the comp- volume reduced) by about 1O to 15Vo. When a fastopening
ressibility of aliquid can play a key role in the operation of a de- valve within the pressure vessel is opened, the water expands
vice. For example, a water pulse generator using compressed and produces a jet of water that upon impact with the target ma-
water has been developed for use in mining operations. It can terial produces an effect similar to the explosive force from con-
fracture rock by producing an effect comparable to a conven- ventional explosives. Mining with the water jet can eliminare
tional explosive such as gunpowder. The device uses the energy various hazards that arise with the use ofconventional chemical
stored in a water-filled accumulator to generate an ultrahigh- explosives such as those associated with the storage and use of
pressure water pulse ejected through a 10- to 25-mm-diameter explosives and the generation of toxic gas by-products that re-
discharge valve. At the ultrahigh pressures used (300 to 400 Mpa, quire extensive ventilation. (See Problem 1.43.)a
Y

16 Chapter 1 I Introduction

1,7,2 Compression and Expansion of Gases


When gases are compressed (or expanded), the relationship between pressure and density
depends on the nature of the process. If the compression or expansion takes place under
constant temperature conditions (isothermal process), then from Eq. I.7

tp : constant (1.11)

If the compression or expansion is frictionless and no heat is exchanged with the sur-
roundings (isentropic process), then
p
constant (r.12)
pk
where k is the ratio of the specific heat at constant pressure, c' to the specific heat at constant
volume, c, (i.e., k : c,,lco).The two speciltc heats are related to the gas constant, R, through
the equation R : ,, - cr. The pressure-density variations for isothermal and isenropic condi-
tions are illustrated in the margin figure. As was the case for the ideal gas law, the pressure in
both Eqs. 1.11 and 1.12 must be expressed as an absolute pressure. Values of k for some com-
mon gases are given in Tables 1.6 and 1.7 , and for air over a range of temperatures, in Appen-
dix B (Tables B.3 and B.4). It is clear that in dealing with gases greater attention will need to
be given to the effect of compressibility on fluid behavior. However, as discussed in Section
3.8, gases can often be treated as incompressible fluids if the changes in pressure are small.

EXAMPLE 1.5
GIVEN A cubic foot of air at an absolute pressure of 14.7 psi FIND What is the final pressure?
is compressed isentropically to j ftt.

SO LUTI O N
For an isentropic compression reduce a given volume of air as is done in an automobile en-
gine where the compression ratio is on the order of Yr/Yi :
Pi _PJ 1/8 - 0.125.
pf p!
where the subscripts I and/refer to initial and final states, re-
spectively. Since we are interested in the final pressure, pp it
follows that

*: (3J,, 250

6
As the volume, Y, is reduced by one-half, the density must dou- '*. 2oo

ble, since the mass, m:


py, of the gas remains constant.
Thus, with k :
1.40 for air
150

pt: (z)t ao(t+.7 psi) : 38.8 psi (abs) (Ans)


(0.5,38.8 psi)
COMMENT By repeating the calculations for various val-
ues of the ratio of the fi nal volume to the initial uo1:u111s, Yy /Y,
the results shown in Fig. E1.5 are obtained. Note that even though
air is often considered to be easily compressed (at least com-
pared to liquids), it takes considerable pressure to significantly r FIGURE E1.5
1.7 Compressibility of Fluids 17

1.7.3 Speed of Sound


Another important consequence of the compressibility of fluids is that disturbances introduced
at some point in the fluid propagate at a finite velocity. For example, if a fluid is flowing in
a pipe and a valve at the outlet is suddenly closed (thereby creating a localized disturbance),
the effect of the valve closure is not felt instantaneously upstream. It takes a finite time for
the increased pressure created by the valve closure to propagate to an upstream location. Sim-
ilarly, a loud speaker diaphragm causes a localized disturbance as it vibrates, and the small
change in pressure created by the motion of the diaphragm is propagated through the air with
a finite velocity. The velocity at which these small disturbances propagate is called the
acoustic velocity or the speed of sound, c. It can be shown that the speed of sound is related
to changes in pressure and density of the fluid medium through the equation

,:'E (1.13)

or in terms of the bulk modulus defined by Eq. 1.10

,:'E (1.14)

Because the disturbance is small, there is negligible heat transfer and the process is assumed
to be isentropic. Thus, the pressure-density relationship used in Eq. 1.13 is that for an isen-
tropic process.
For gases undergoing an isentropic process, E, : kp, so that
I

,- tlT
and making use of the ideal gas law, it follows that
,:ftnr (r.1s)

Thus, for ideal gases the speed of sound is proportional to the square root of the absolute
temperature. The speed of sound in air at various temperatures can be found in Appendix B
(Tables B.3 and B.4). EquationI.I4 is also valid for liquids, and values of Eucan be used
to determine the speed of sound in liquids. As shown by the figure in the margin, the speed
of sound in water is much higher than in air. If a fluid were truly incompressible (E" : a)
the speed of sound would be infinite. The speed of sound in water for various temperatures
100 200
ldegF can be found in Appendix B (Tables B.1 and 8.2).

EXAMPLE 1.6
GIVEN A jet aircraft flies at a speed of 550 mph at an alti- FIND Determine the ratio of the speed of the aircraft, V, to
tude of 35,000 ft, where the temperature is -66' F and the spe- that of the speed of sound, c, at the specified altitude.
:
cific heat ratio is ft 1.4.

SO LUTIO N
From Eq. I . 1 5 the speed of sound can be calculated as Since the air speed is

lkRr (550 mi/hr)(s280 ftlmi)


:
V: (3600 s/hr)
807 ftls
:9'73ft/s
18 Chapter 1 I Introduction

the ratio is

v 807 ftls
(Ans)
= 0.829
C 973 ftls ( 66"F, Ma)

COMMENT This ratio is called the Mach number Ma. lf


Ma < 1.0 the aircraft is flying at subsonic speeds, whereas for
Ma > 1.0 it is flying at supersonic speeds. The Mach number s
I o.7
is an important dimensionless parameter used in the study of
the flow of gases at high speeds and will be further discussed in
Chapters 7 and 9.
By repeating the calculations for different temperatures, the
results shown in Fig. E1.6 are obtained. Because the speed of
sound increases with increasing temperature, for a constant
airplane speed, the Mach number decreases as the temperature
-100 -50 0
increases. T, deg F

r FIGURE E1.6

1.8 Vapor Pressure


It is a common observation that liquids such as water and gasoline will evaporate if they
are simply placed in a container open to the atmosphere. Evaporation takes place because
some liquid molecules at the surface have sufficient momentum to overcome the intermol-
ecular cohesive forces and escape into the atmosphere. As shown in the figure in the margin,
if the lid on a completely liquid-filled, closed container is raised (without letting any air in),
a pressure will develop in the space as a result of the vapor that is formed by the escaping
molecules. When an equilibrium condition is reached so that the number of molecules leav-
ing the surface is equal to the number entering, the vapor is said to be saturated and the
pressure the vapor exerts on the liquid surface is termed the vapor pressure, pD.
Since the development of a vapor pressure is closely associated with molecular activ-
ity, the value of vapor pressure for a particular liquid depends on temperature. Values of
vapor pressure for water at various temperatures can be found inAppendix B (Tables B.1
andB.2), and the values of vapor pressure for several common liquids at room tempera-
tures are given in Tables 1.4 and 1.5. Boiling, which is the formation of vapor bubbles within
a fluid mass, is initiated when the absolute pressure in the fluid reaches the vapor pressure.
An important reason for our interest in vapor pressure and boiling lies in the com-
mon observation that in flowing fluids it is possible to develop very low pressure due to
the fluid motion, and if the pressure is lowered to the vapor pressure, boiling will occur.
For example, this phenomenon may occur in flow through the irregular, narrowed passages
of a valve or pump. When vapor bubbles are formed in a flowing liquid, they are swept
along into regions of higher pressure where they suddenly collapse with sufficient intensity
to actually cause structural damage. The formation and subsequent collapse of vapor bub-
bles in a flowing liquid, called cavitation, is an important fluid flow phenomenon to be
given further attention in Chapters 3 and 7.

1.9 Surface Tension


At the interface between a liquid and a gas, or between two immiscible liquids, forces develop
in the liquid surface that cause the surface to behave as if it were a "skin" or "membrane"
stretched over the fluid mass. Although such a skin is not actually present, this conceptual
1.9 Surface Tension 19

analogy allows us to explain several commonly observed phenomena. For example, a steel
needle ot razor blade will float on water if placed gently on the surface because the ten-
sion developed in the hypothetical skin supports these objects. Small droplets of mercury
will form into spheres when placed on a smooth surface because the cohesive forces in the
V1.5 Floating tazot surface tend to hold all the molecules together in a compact shape. Similarly, discrete water
blades droplets will form when placed on a newly waxed surface.
These various types of surface phenomena are due to the unbalanced cohesive forces
acting on the liquid molecules at the fluid surface. Molecules in the interior of the fluid
mass are surrounded by molecules that are attracted to each other equally. However, mole-
cules along the surface are subjected to a net force toward the interior. The apparent phys-
ical consequence of this unbalanced force along the surface is to create the hypothetical
skin or membrane. A tensile force may be considered to be acting in the plane of the sur-
face along any line in the surface. The intensity of the molecular attraction per unit length
along any line in the surface is called the surfuce tension and is designated by the Greek
symbol o (sigma). Surface tension is a property of the liquid and depends on temperature
as well as the other fluid it is in contact with at the interface. The dimensions of surface
tension are FL ' with BG units of lb/ft and SI units of N/m. Values of surface tension for
some common liquids (in contact with air) are given in Tables 1.4 and 1.5 and in Appen-
dix B (Tables B.l and B.2) for water at various temperatures. The value of the surface ten-
sion decreases as lhe temperature increases'

Walking on water Water striders are insects commonly video to examine in detail the movement of the water strid-
found on ponds, rivers, and lakes that appear to "wa1k" on ers. They found that each stroke of the insect's legs creates
water. A typical length of a water strider is about 0.4 in., and dimples on the surface with underwater swirling vortices
they can cover 100 body lengths in one second' It has long sufficient to plopel it forward. It is the rearward motion of
been recognized that it is surface tension that keeps the wa- the vortices that propels the water strider forward. To further
ter strider from sinking below the surface. What has been substantiate their expianation the MIT team built a working
puzzling is how they propel themselves at such a high model of a water strider, called Robostrider, which creates
speed. They can't pierce the water surface or they would surface ripples and underwater vortices as it moves across a
sink. A team of mathematicians and engineers from the water surface. Waterborne creatures, such as the water
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) applied con- strider, provide an interesting world dominated by surface
ventionai flow visualization techniques and high-speed tension. (See Problem 1.49.) I

Among common phenomena associated with surface tension is the rise (or fall) of a
liquid in a capillary tube. If a small open tube is inserted into water, the water level in the
tube will rise above the water level outside the tube as is illustrated in Fig. 1.4a. In this sit-
uation we have a liquid*gas-solid interface. For the case illustrated there is an attraction
(adhesion) between the wall of the tube and liquid molecules, which is strong enough to
overcome the mutual attraction (cohesion) of the molecules and pull them up to the wall.
Hence, the liquid is said to wet the solid surface.
The height, h, is governed by the value of the surface tension, a, the tube radius, R,
the specific weight of the liquid, 7, and the angle of contact, 0, between the fluid and tube.
From the free-body diagram of Fig. l.4b we see that the vertical force due to the surface
tension is equal to2trRo cos 0 and the weight is yrR2h and these two forces must balance
for equilibrium. Thus,
yrR2h : 2nRn cos 0
20 Chapter 1 I Introduction

\ 1/,
.*rfl
-|'2RF-
(a)

r FIG E 1 .4 Effect of capillary action in small tubes. (a) Rise of


UR
column for a liquid that wets the tube. (D) Free-body diagram for calcu-
lating column height. (c) Depression of column for a nonwetting liquid.

so that the height is given by the relationship

2rr cos 0
h:- yR
(1.16)

The angle of contact is a function of both the liquid and the surface. For water in contact
with clean glass 0 : 0o. It is clear from Eq. 1.16 (and shown by the figure in the margin)
that the height is inversely proportional to the tube radius. Therefore, the rise of a liquid in
a tube as a result of capillary action becomes increasingly pronounced as the tube radius is
decreased.

EXAMPLE 1.7
GIVEN Pressures are sometimes determined by measuring FIND What diameter of clean glass tubing is required so
the height of a column of liquid in a vertical tube. that the rise of water at20' C in a tube due to a capillary action
(as opposed to pressure in the tube) is less than 1.0 mm?

SO LUTI O N
J
FromEq. 1.16 COMMENT By repeating the calculations for various val- I
ues of the capillary rise, ft, the results shown in Fig. E1.7 are
2o cos 0 i
obtained. Note that as the allowable capillary rise is decreased,
yR the diameter of the tube must be significantly increased. There
I

is always some capillarity effect, but it can be minimized by us-


ing a large enough diameter tube.
2o cos 0
R: 100
yh
80
For water at20" C (from Table 8.2), o -
0.0728 N/m and 7 :
9.789 kN/m3. Since d :
0'it follows that for /z 1.0 mm, : E 60
E
ct
2(0.0'/28 N/m)(1)
R:
(9.789 x 103 N/m3X1.0 mm)(10-3 m/mm)
: 0.0149 m

and the minimum required tube diameter, D is

D : 2R: 0.0298 m : 29.8 mm (Ans) r FIGURE E1.7


1.10 Chapter Summary and Study Guide 21

If adhesion of molecules to the solid surface is weak compared to the cohesion between
molecules, the liquid will not wet the surface and the level in a tube placed in a nonwetting
liquid will actually be depressed, as shown in Fig. 1.4c. Mercury is a good example of a
nonwetting liquid when it is in contact with a glass tube. For nonwetting liquids the angle
of contact is greater than 90', and for mercury in contact with clean glass 6 : 130o.
Surface tension effects play a role in many mechanics problems, including the move-
ment of liquids through soil and other porous media, flow of thin films, formation of drops
and bubbles, and the breakup of liquid jets. Surface phenomena associated with liquid-gas,
liquid-liquid, liquid-gas-solid interfaces are exceedingly complex, and a more detailed and
rigorous discussion of them is beyond the scope of this text. Forlunately, in many fluid
mechanics problems, surface phenomena, as characterized by surface tension, are not impor-
tant, as inertial, gravitational, and viscous forces are much more dominant.

Spreading of oil spills. With the large traffic in oil tankers ing the size of the spill, wind speed and direction, and the
there is great interest in the prevention of and response to oil physical properties of the oil. These properties include
spills. As evidenced by the famous Exxon Valdez oi1 spill in surface tension, specffic gravity, and viscosity. The higher
Prince William Sound in 1989, oit spills can create disastrous the surface tension the more likely a spill will remain in
environmental problems. It is not surprising that much atten- place. Since the specific gravity of oil is less than one it
tion is given to the rate at which an oil spill spreads. When floats on top of the water, but the specific gravity of an oil
spilled, most oils tend to spread horizontally into a smooth can increase if the lighter substances within the oil evapo-
and slippery surface, called a slick. There are many factors rate. The higher the viscosity of the oil the greater the ten-
which influence the ability of an oit slick to spread, includ- dency to stay in one place. I

1.10 Chapter Summary and Study Guide


This introductory chapter discussed several fundamental aspects of fluid mechanics. Meth-
ods for describing fluid characteristics both quantitatively and qualitatively are consid-
ered. For a quantitative description, units are required, and in this text, two system of
units are used: the British Gravitational (BG) System (pounds, slugs, feet, and seconds)
fluid and the International (SI) System (newtons, kilograms, meters, and seconds). For the qual-
units itative description the concept of dimensions is introduced in which basic dimensions such
besic dimensions
as length, L, time, T, and mass, M, are used to provide a description of various quanti-
dimensionally ties of interest. The use of dimensions is helpful in checking the generality of equations,
homogeneous as well as serving as the basis for the powerful tool of dimensional analysis discussed in
density
detail in Chapter 7.
specific weight Various important fluid properties are defined, including fluid density, specific weight,
specific gravity specific gravity, viscosity, bulk modulus, speed of sound, vapor pressure, and surface ten-
ideal gas law
sion. The ideal gas law is introduced to relate pressure, temperature, and density in com-
absolute pressure mon gases, along with a brief discussion of the compression and expansion of gases. The
gage pressure
distinction between absolute and gage pressure is introduced, and this impofiant idea is
no-slip condition explored more fully in Chapter 2.
absolute viscosity The following checklist provides a study guide for this chapter. When your study of
Newtonian fluid the entire chapter and end-of-chapter exercises has been completed, you should be able to
kinemutic viscosity
bulk modulus r write out meanings of the terms listed here in the margin and understand each of the
speed of sound related concepts. These terms are pafiicularly important and are set in color and bold
vapor pressure type in the text.
surface tension r determine the dimensions of common physical quantities.
7

Chapter Introduction

r determine whether an equation is a general or restricted homogeneous equation.


I use both BG and SI systems of units.
I calculate the density, specific weight, or specific gravity of a fluid from a knowledge
of any two of the three.
r calculate the density, pressure, or temperature of an ideal gas (with a given gas con-
stant) from a knowledge of any two of the three.
r relate the pressure and density of a gas as it is compressed or expanded using Eqs.
I.ll and 1.12.
I use the concept of viscosity to calculate the shearing stress in simple fluid flows.
t calculate the speed of sound in fluids using Eq. | .14 for liquids and Eq. 1 . 15 for gases.
I determine whether boiling or cavitation will occur in a liquid using the concept of
vapor pressure.
use the concept of surface tension to solve simple problems involving liquid-gas or
liquid-solid-gas interfaces.

Review Problems
Go to Appendix F for a set of review problems with answers. Detailed solutions can be found in
for a Brief Introduction to Fluid Mechanics, by Young et al. (@ 2006 John
Student Solution Manual
Wiley and Sons, Inc.).

Problems
Note: Unless specific values of required fluid properties are mechanics. Make up five possible dimensionless parameters by
given in the statement of the problem, use the values found in the using combinations of some of the quantities listed in Table 1.1.
tables on the inside of the front cover. Probiems designated with
1.5 The volume rate of flow, Q, through a pipe containing a
an (*) are intended to be solved with the aid of a programmable
slowly moving liquid is given by the equation
calculator or a computer. Problems designated with a (t) are
"open-ended" problems and require critical thinking in that to rRa A,p
work them one must make various assumptions and provide the o= 8p4
necessary data. There is not a unique answer to these problems.
Answers to the even-numbered problems are listed at the end where R is the pipe radius, Ap the pressr4e drop along the pipe,
of the book. Access to the videos that accompany problems can p a fluid property called viscosity (FL-tD, and ( the length of
be obtained through the book's web site, www.wiley.com./ pipe. What are the dimensions of the constant z/8? Would you
coliege/young. The lab-type problems and FE problems can also classify this equation as a general homogeneous equation?
be accessed on this web site. Explain.
L.6 The pressure difference, Ap, across a partial blockage
Section 1.2 Dimensions, Dimensional Homogeneity in an artery (called a stenosis) is approximated by the equation
and Units

'f *'
1.1 Verify the dimensions, in both the FLT and. MLT sys- Lp: K,# * *,(*-
tems, of the following quantities, which appear in Table 1.1:
(a) angular velocity, (b) energy, (c) moment of inertia (area), where V is the blood velocity, p the blood viscosity (FL-2D,
(d) power, and (e) pressure. p the blood density (ML t;, D ttre artery diameter, As the area of
the unobstructed artery and At the area of the stenosis. Determine
1.2 Determine the dimensions, in both the FIZ system and the dimensions of the constants K, and K,. Would this equation
MLT system, for (a) the product of force times volume, (b) the be valid in any system of units?
product of pressure times mass divided by area, and (c) moment
of a force divided by velocity. 1.7 According to information found in an old hydraulics
book, the energy loss per unit weight of fluid flowing through a
f.3 If Vis a velocity. f a length, andv a fluid property hav- nozzle connected to a hose can be estimated by the formula
ing dimensions of L'T- ' , which of the following combinations
are dimensionless: (a) Vlv, (b) V(/v, (c) V2v, (d) Vltv? h : (0.04 to o.o9)(D/44v2/2s
1.4 Dimensionless combinations of quantities (commonly where h is the energy loss per unit weight, D the hose diameter,
called dimensionless parameters) play an important role in fluid d the nozzle tip diameter, V the fluid velocity in the hose, and g
Problems 23

the acceleration of gravity. Do you think this equation is valid in Section 1.5 Ideal Gas Law
any system ol units? Exptain.
1.19 Some experiments are being conducted in a labora-
t 1.8 Cite an example of a restricted homogeneous equation tory in which the air temperature is 2'7" C and the atmospheric
contained in a technical article found in an engineering journal pressure is 14.3 psia. Determine the density of the air. Express
in your field of interest. Define all terms in the equation, explain your answers in slugs/ft3 and in kg/m3.
why it is a restricted equation, and provide a complete journal 1.20 A closed tank having a volume of 2 ft3 is filled with
citation (title, date, etc.). 0.30 lb of a gas. A pressure gage attached to the tank reads I 2 psi
1.9 Make use of Table 1.2 to express the following quan- when the gas temperature is 80'F. There is some question as to
tities in SI units: (a) 10.2 in./min, (b) 4.81 slugs, (c) 3.02Lb, whether the gas in the tank is oxygen or helium. Which do you
(d) 73.1 ft/s2, (e) 0.0234 tb.stft2. think it is? Explain how you arrived at your answer.

1.10 Make use of Table 1.3 to express the following quan- tl.2l Estimate the volume of car exhaust produced per day
tities in BG units: (a) 1.4.2km, (b) 8.14 N/m3, (c) 1.61 kg/m3, by automobiles in the United States. List all assumptions and
(d) 0.0320 N'm/s, (e) 5.67 mm/hr. show calculations.

l.ll Clouds can weigh thousands of pounds due to their 1.22 A tire having a volume of 3 ft3 contains air at a gage
liquid water content. Often this content is measured in grams pressure of 26 psi and a temprature of 70 oF. Determine the den-
per cubic meter (g/m3). Assume that a cumulus cloud occupies sity of the air and the weight of the air contained in the tire.
a volume of one cubic kilometer, and its liquid water content is
0.2 glm3. (a) What is the volume of this cloud in cubic miles? Section tr.6 Viscosity (also see Lab Problems 1.52
(b) How much does the water in the cloud weigh in pounds?
and 1.53)
l.l2 An important dimensionless parameter in certain types 1.23 A liquid has a specific weight of 59 lb/ft3 and a dynamic
of fluid flow problems is the Froude number defned as Vl t/ g(,, viscosity of 2."75\b.s1ft2. Determine its kinematic viscosity.
where V is a velocity, g the acceleration of gravity, and (, a
length. Determine the value of the Froude number for V: 10 ftls, I.24 (See Fluids in the News article titled 'A vital fluid,"
g : 32.2 fVs', and C : 2 ft. Recalculate the Froude number us- Section 1.6.) Some measurements on a blood sample at
ing SI units for V, g, and d. Explain the significance of the 37 'C (98.6 'F) indicate a shearing stress of 0.52 N/m2 for a
corresponding rate of shearing strain of 200 s
t.
Determine
results of these calculations.
the apparent viscosity of the blood and compare it with the
viscosity of water at the same temperature.
Section 1.4 Measures of Fluid Mass and Weight
1.25 The time, /, it takes to pour a liquid from a container
f.13 The density of a certain liquid is 2.15 slugs/ft3. Deter-
depends on several factors, including the kinematic viscosity,
mine its specific weight and specific gravity.
z, of the liquid. (See Video V1.1.) In some laboratory tests,
l.l4 A hydrometer is used to measure the specific gravity various oils having the same density but different viscosities
of liquids. (See Video V2.6.) For a certain liquid a hydrometer were poured at a fixed tipping rate from small 150-ml beakers.
reading indicates a specific gravity of 1.15. What is the liquid's The time required to pour 100 ml of the oil was measured, and
density and specific weight? Express your answer in SI units. it was found that an approximate equation for the pouring time
inseconds was t : x * x
I + 9 1022 8 l}3u2with yin m2ls.
tf .l5 Estimate the number of pounds of mercury it would (a) Is this a general homogeneous equation? Explain. (b) Com-
take to fill your bath tub. List all assumptions and show all pare the time it would take to pour 100 ml of SAE 30 oil from
calculations.
a 150-m1 beaker at 0'C to the corresponding time at a temper-
1.16 When poured into a graduated cylinder, a liquid is ature of 60" C. Make use of Fig. B.2 in Appendix B for vis-
found to weigh 6 N when occupying a volume of 500 ml (mil- cosity data.
liliters). Determine its specific weight, density, and specific 1.26 SAE 30 oil at 60" F flows through a 2-in.-diameter
gravity. pipe with a mean velocity of 5 ftls. Determine the value of the
'?1,17 The variation in the density of water, p, with temper- Reynolds number (see Example 1.3).
ature, I, in the range of 20' C < Z < 50o C, is given in the fol- 1.27 Calculate the Reynolds number for the flow of water and
lowing table. for air through a 3-mm-diameter tube if the mean velocity is 2 m/s
and the temperature is 30'C in both cases (see Example 1.3).
Densiry 1kg/mr; I ooa.zl sot.t I ws.zl oe+.t I oozzl ooo.zl oss.t Assume the air is at standard atmospheric pressure.
l -28 A Newtonian fluid having a.specific gravity of 0.92
and a kinematic viscosity of 4 x 10 " m'ls flows past a fixed
Use these data to determine an empirical equation of the form
surface. Due to the no-slip condition, the velocity at the fixed
p : ct I c2T I caTz, which can be used to predict the density
surface is zero (as shown in Video V1.2), and the velocity
over the range indicated. Compare the predicted values with
profile near the surface is shown in Fig. Pl.28. Determine the
the data given. What is the density of water at 42.1' C?
magnitude and direction of the shearing stress developed on
t1.18 Estimate the number of kilograms of water con- the plate. Express your answer in terms of U and 6, with U
sumed per day for household purposes in your city.List all as- and 6 expressed in units of meters per second and meters,
sumptions and show all calculations. respectively.
24 Chapter 1 I Introduction

contact with the water is 0.08 ft2, and the viscosity of the water I
is 3.5 x 10-s lb s/ft2. Determine the thickness of the water u
layer under the runners. Assume a linear velocity distribution in F
the water layer. n
I
c
li

r FIGURE P1.28
1.29 As shown in Video V1.2, the "no-slip" condition
means that a fluid "sticks" to a solid surface. This is true for both
fixed and moving surfaces. Let two layers of fluid be dragged
along by the motion of an upper plate as shown in Fig.P1.29.
The bottom plate is stationary. The top fluid puts a shear stress
r FIGURE P1.31
on the upper plate, and the lower fluid puts a shear stress on the
botton plate. Determine the ratio of these two shear stresses.
1.32 A 40-1b, 0.8-ft-diamerer, l -fr-tall cylindrical tank slides
slowly down a ramp with a constant speed of 0.1 ftls as shown in
Frg. P1.32. The uniform{hickness oi1 layer on the ramp has a
F3m/s I viscosity of 0.2 lb . s/ftz. Determine the angle, 0, of the ramp.
1U
Fr=0.4N'#me

F2 m/st
: FIGURE P1.29
r FIGURE P"1.32
1.30 When a viscous fluid flows past a thin sharp-edged
plate, a thin layer adjacent to the plate surface develops in 1.33 A layer of water flows down an inclined fixed surface
which the velocity, z, changes rapidly from zero to the ap- with the velocity profile shown in Fig. P1.33. Determine the mag-
proach velocity, U, rn a small distance, 6. This layer is called a nitude and direction ofthe shearing stress that the water exerts on
boundary layer. The thickness of this layer increases with the the fixed surface for U : 3 wt/s and ft : 0.1 m.
distance x along the plate as shown in Fig. Pl.30. Assume that
u : Uy/6 and 6 : 3.5\,5x1 U where z is the kinematic viscos-
ity of the fluid. Determine an expression for the force (drag)
that would be developed on one side of the plate of length I
and width b. Express your answer in terms of (,, b, v and p,
where p is the fluid density.

H Boundary layer
r FIGURE P1.33
1.34
H Water flows near a flat surface, and some measurements
ofthe water velocity, u,parallel to the surface, at different heights,
y, above the surface are obtained. At the surface y : 0. After an
Plate
widlh = , F_-{_,_= analysis of data, the lab technician reports that the velocity distri-
bution in the range 0 < y < 0.1 ft is given by the equation
r FIGURE P1.30
u : 0.81 + 9.2y +4.1 x 103y3

1.31 The sled shown in Fig. P1.31 slides along on a thin with lz in ftls when y is in ft. (a) Do you think that this equa-
horizontal layer of water between the ice and the runners. The tion would be valid in any system of units? Explain. (b) Do
horizontal force that the water puts on the runners is equal to 1.2 lb you think this equation is correct? Explain. You may want to
when the sled's speed is 50 ftls. The total area of both runners in look at Video 1.2 to help you arrive at your answer.
Problems 25

1,35 The viscosity of liquids can be measured through the 1.37 One type of rotating cylinder viscometer, called a
use of a rotating cylinder viscometer of the type illustrated in Stormer viscometer, uses a falling weight, "14f, to cause the
Fig. P1.35. In this device the outer cylinder is fixed and the in- cylinder to rotate with an angular velocity, ro, as illustrated in
ner cylinder is rotated with an angular velocity, r,.r. The torque Fig. P1.37. For this device the viscosity, p, of the liquid is re-
I required to develop c,.r is measured, and the viscosity is cal- lated to W' and a through the equation W : Kp,t't, where K is
culated from these two measurements. Develop an equation re- a constant that depends only on the geometry (including the
lating p, a, T, (, Ru and R;. Neglect end efTects and assume the liquid depth) of the viscometer. The value of K is usually
velocity distribution in the gap is linear. determined by using a calibration liquid (a liquid of known
viscosity).
Fixed
(a) Some data for a particular Stormer viscometer, obtained us-
outer
cyl i nder ing glycerin at 20" C as a calibration liquid, are given below.
Plot values of the weight as ordinates and values of the angular
velocity as abscissae. Draw the best curve through the plotted
points and determine K for the viscometer.

I (
Wtlbr
c,.r1rev/s;
10.22 10.66 Il.l0 I l.s4 12.20
I 0.53 I 1.59 I 2]9 I 3.83 I 5.49

_1

r!- ^,r
n, *l
I

r FIGURE P1.35
1.36 The viscosity of a soft drink was determined by using
a capillary tube viscometer similar to that shown in Fig. P1.36
and Video V1.3. For this device the kinematic viscosity, v, is di- r FIGURE P1.37
rectly proportional to the time, /, that it takes for a given amount
:
of liquid to flow through a small capillary tube. That is, v Kt.
The following data were obtained from regular pop and diet
pop. The corresponding measured specific gravities are also (b) A liquid of unknown viscosity is placed in the same vis-
given. Based on these data, by what percent is the absolute vis- cometer used in part (a), and the following data are obtained.
cosity, pr,, of regular pop greater than that of diet pop? Determine the viscosity of this liquid.

Regular pop Diet pop Yr(lb)


r(s) 377.8 300.3
| 0.04 | 0.ll | 0.22 | 0.33 | 0.44

SG t.044 r.003

1.38 A 25-mm-diameter shaft is pulled through a cylindri-


ca1 bearing as shown in Fig. P1.38. The lubricant that fills the
0.3-mm gap between the shaft and bearing is an oil having a
kinematic viscosity of 8.0 x 10*a m2ls and a specific gravity
of 0.91. Determine the force P required to pull the shaft at a
Glass
velocity of 3 m/s. Assume the velocity distribution in the gap is
strengthen i ng
bridge linear.

Etched lines
/,,'Lubricanl

0.5m f
r FIGURE P1.36 r FIGURE P1-38
7

26 Chapter'1 I Introduction

1.39 There are many fluids that exhibit non-Newtonian water level in the tube is to rise one tube diameter (due to sur-
behavior (see, for example, Video V1.4). For a given fluid the face tension)?
distinction between Newtonian and non-Newtonian behavior
1.49 (See Fluids in the News article ritted .,Walking on
is usually based on measurements of shear stress and rate of
shearing strain. Assume that the viscosity of blood is to be de-
water," Section 1.9.) (a) The water strider bug shown in Fig.
P1.49 is supported on the surface ofa pond by surface ten-
termined by measurements of shear stress, r, and rate of shear-
ing strain, du/dy, obtained from a small blood sample tested in a
sion acting along the interface between the water and the
suitable viscometer. Based on the data given, determine if the
bug's legs. Determine the minimum length of this interface
needed to support the bug. Assume the bug weighs l0-aN
blood is a Newtonian or non-Newtonian fluid. Explain how you
and the surface tension force acts vertically upwards. (b) Re-
arrived at your answer.
peat part (a) if surface tension were to support a person
r1N/m2) lo.o+ lo.oo I o.r: I o.rs I 0.J0 I 0.52 lt.l2 12.t0 weighing 750 N.
dtt/dy1s ';1 12.25 l4.so llr.zs lz:.s 145.0 lso.o lzzs lqso

Section 1.7 Compressibility of Fluids


1.40 An important dimensionless parameter concerned
with very high speed flow is the Mach number defined, as V/c,
where V is the speed of the object, such as an airplane or pro-
jectile, and c is the speed of sound in the fluid surrounding the
object. For a projectile traveling at 800 mph through air at 50" F
and standard atmospheric pressure, what is the value of the
Mach number?
l.4l Often the assumption is made that the flow of a certain
fluid can be considered as incompressible flow if the density of r FIGURE P1.49
the fluid changes by less than 2Vo. If air is flowing through a
tube such that the air gage pressure at one section is 9.0 psi and
at a downstream section it is 8.6 psi at the same temperature, do 1.50 As shown in Video V1.5, surface tension forces can
you think that this flow could be considered an incompressible be strong enough to allow a double-edge steel razor blade to
flow? Support your answer with the necessary calculations. As- "float" on water, but a single-edge blade will sink. Assume
sume standard atmospheric pressure. that the surface tension forces act at an angle g relative to the
1.42 Oxygen at 30'C and 300 kPaabsolutepressure expands water surface as shown in Fig. Pl.50. (a) The mass of the double-
isothermally to an absolute pressure of 140 kPa. Determine the edge blade is 0.64 X 10-3 kg, and the total length of its sides
final density of the gas. is 206 mm. Determine the value of g required to maintain
equilibrium between the blade weight and the resultant sur-
I.43 (See Fluids in the News article
titled "This water jet is face tension force. (b) The mass of the single-edge blade is
a blast," Section 1.7.1.)By what percent is the volume of water 2.61 x 10-3 kg, and the total tength of its;ides i, 15+ *-.
decreased if its pressure is increased to an equivalent to 3000 Explain why this blade sinks. Support your answer with the
atmospheres (44,100 psi)?
necessary calculations.
1.44 Determine the speed of sound at 20 "C in (a) air,
(b) helium, and (c) natural gas. Express your answer in m/s.

Section 1.8 Vapor Pressure


1.45 When a fluid flows through a sharp bend, low pres-
sures may develop in localized regions of the bend. Estimate the
minimum absolute pressure (in psi) that can develop without
ifthe fluid is water at 160 oF.
causing cavitation r FIGURE P1.50
1.46 When water at 70 'C flows through a converging sec-
tion of pipe, the pressure is reduced in the direction of flow. Es- 1.51 Under the right conditions, it is possible, due to sur-
timate the minimum absolute pressure that can develop without face tension, to have metal objects float on water. (See Video
causing cavitation. Express your answer in both BG and SI units. V1.5.) Consider placing,a short length of a small diameter
1.47 At what atmospheric pressure will water boil at 35 "C? steel (sp. wt. : 490 1b/ft3) rod on a surface of water. What is
Express your answer in both SI and BG units. the maximum diameter that the rod can have before it will
sink?Assume that the surface tension forces act vertically up-
ward. Note: A standard paper clip has a diameter of 0.036 in.
Section 1.9 Surface Tension
Partially unfold a paper clip and see if you can get it to float
1.48 An open, clean glass tube (0 : 0') is inserred verti- on water. Do the results of this experiment support your
cally into a pan of water. What tube diameter is needed if the analysis?