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Detailed Lesson Plan in Science and Health for Grade 11

I. Objectives
At the end of the 80 minutes lesson, the students will be able to:
a) Identify the digestive system and its major parts.
b) Trace the flow of food as it is being digested.
c) Appreciate the importance of each part of Digestive System.

II. Subject Matter


A. Topic: Digestive System
B. References:
Carmelita M. Capco, Phoenix Science Series (Biology)
Mariano, Jan Jason, Science Links II (Biology). Sampaloc, Manila: Rex
Book Store, Inc
Campo, Pia, et.al, Science Grade 8 Learners Module. Pasig City: Vibal
Publishing House, Inc.
C. Values: Honesty, Develop the correct habit of eating for proper digestion.

III. Materials: LCD projector, Laptop, Strips of Cartolina, White Board Marker, Visual
aid (Picture of Human Digestive System), Chocolate

IV. Procedure
Teachers Activity Students Activity
A. Daily Activities:

1. Prayer

Everybody, please stand for the (The students will stand and pray)
prayer.

_____ kindly lead the prayer Heavenly FatherAmen

2. Greetings

Good afternoon Grade 11! Good Afternoon Maam Grace!

3. Classroom Management

Before you take your seats kindly (Students will straighten their chairs,
straighten your chairs, pick up some pick up pieces of papers and throw
pieces of papers and throw the trash in the trash in the bin.)
the trash bin.

You may now take your seats.

4. Checking of Attendance

How are you doing? We are doing good Maam

Im glad to hear that. Who are absent Nobody is absent today!


today?

Very good!

B. Preparatory Activities:

1. Review of the past Lesson


Our topic yesterday was about the
What was our topic yesterday? nutrients for energy

The three nutrients are


Thats right! What are these nutrients? Carbohydrates, Fats, and Proteins

The foods rich in Carbohydrates are


What are the examples of foods rich in beets, sugarcane, cereals, rice, bread,
Carbohydrates? and potato.

The foods rich in Fats are meat,


Very good! How about foods rich in butter, cheese, dark chocolate,
Fats? avocado and margarine.

The foods rich in Proteins are


Thats right! What are examples of chicken, fish, eggs, beans and nuts.
Protein-rich foods?

Very good! Since all of you already


mastered our topic yesterday, lets us
proceed to our next lesson.

2. Motivation

Each of you will be given a chocolate. I Yes Maam


want you to eat and swallow it slowly

What do you think happen to chocolate The chocolate broken down into
when you ate it? small pieces.

Thats right! When you ate the chocolate, it


breaks down into pieces and will be
digested into the stomach.

So, what do you think is our topic today? Our topic today will be digestive
system.
Thats right!

3. Presentation

Now let us watch a video clip about the


Digestive System. Take down notes for I Yes Maam.
will ask questions later.

C. Lesson Proper:

1. Discussion

What is the first organ involved in Mouth Maam.


Digestive System?

Thats right! What process is involved Ingestion Maam.


when you put the food in your mouth?

What is ingestion? Ingestion is the process of the food


entering the mouth.

Very good! Where do you think digestion The digestion begins in the Mouth.
begins?

Yes. Digestion begins in the mouth Digestion is the process of breaking


specifically in the oral cavity. What is down of food into smaller
digestion? component.

Yes. Digestion is simply the breakdown of The two forms of Digestion are
food into smaller components. There are Mechanical digestion and Chemical
two forms of digestion. What are the two digestion.
forms of digestion?

Thats right! What is Mechanical Mechanical Digestion is the process


Digestion? of breaking down of food.
Yes. Mechanical digestion is simply the Chemical digestion is the process of
breaking down of food into progressively converting food into substances.
smaller and smaller particles through
tearing, cutting, grinding, and the moving
of food along the digestive tract. What is
Chemical Digestion?

Very good! Chemical digestion is the


process where food is converted to
substances usable by the body. Substances
called enzymes speed up this process. Your
oral cavity receives the food and begins the
preparation of food for digestion. Food is The bolus will go to esophagus.
torn and ground into smaller pieces
through chewing. Tongue moves the food
around your oral cavity so that all food can
be ground up. Food is now a wet and
become a bolus. Where do you think bolus
will go after the mouth?

Thats right! The bolus will push into the


pharynx with the aid of your tongue.
Tongue cannot push food all the way down
to the stomach. And the bolus is moved
further downward by rhythmic, muscular
contractions of the Pharynx, known as
Peristalsis.

What is esophagus? Esophagus is a long flexible-tube like


structure.
Very good! Esophagus is where the bolus
passes through to go to the stomach. Its The next stop is the stomach
important function is to carry food, liquids, Maam.
and saliva from the mouth to the stomach.
Wheres the next stop of bolus?

Yes. The bolus continues its journey to The function of the stomach is to
this J shaped expanded bag called the digest further the bolus.
Stomach. What is the function of
Stomach?

Thats right! The stomach is the main food Gastric juices an acidic substance
storage tank of the body. It also secretes a composed mainly of pepsin.
mixture of acid, mucus, and digestive
enzymes that helps to digest and sanitize
our food while it is being stored. This organ
is filled with gastric juices and mucus.
What is gastric juice?

Yes. Pepsin is an enzyme that breaks


down the proteins found in food. The
stomach makes a churning action by way The next stop is the small intestine.
of muscle contractions. This action
increases the effectiveness of gastric
juices. In the stomach bolus become semi
liquid, creamy, homogeneous substance
called chyme. Where does chymes next
stop?

Very good! Chyme leaves the bottom of The two processes involved in the
the stomach through the pyloric sphincter small intestine are Absorption and
and travels a short way to the small Assimilation.
intestine. There are two processes involved
in the small intestine. What are these?

Very good! What is Absorption? Absorption is the uptake of fluids or


other substances by the tissues of the
body.

Yes. Absorption is the process of the food Assimilation is the process of uptake
molecules being absorbed into the blood of nutrients into cells and tissues.
stream. What is Assimilation?

Thats right! Assimilation is the process by The main function of small intestine
which chemicals from food are taken into is to absorb the nutrients and
the cells. What is the main function of small minerals.
intestine?

Very good! The small intestine breaks


down the food mixture even more so your
body can absorb all the vitamins, minerals, The next stop is the large intestine.
proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. In the
small intestine digestion continues. Wheres
next stop of chyme after small intestine?

Yes. What will happen to the chyme in The large intestine will reabsorb the
large intestine? water from the chyme.

Thats right! Nutrients not absorbed in


small intestines are absorbed in the large
intestine as is some of the water. It also
serves as the storage and elimination Feces is the left over solid bits of
structure for indigestible substances. Still in waste.
the form of chyme when it enters, but in the
colon, chyme is converted into feces. What
is feces?

Very good! Where do feces go after? The feces will go to rectum.

Yes. When the descending colon becomes The main function of rectum is to act
full of feces, it empties its contents into the as a temporary storage site for fecal
rectum to begin the process of elimination. matter before it is eliminated.
What is the main function of rectum?

Thats right! Where do feces pass through In the anus or anus canal.
to be eliminated?

Yes. Feces will be eliminated through your Excretion is the process of discarding
anus canal. And this is the process of the waste from your body.
excretion. What is excretion?

Very good! Excretion is the final process of Yes Maam.


Digestive system. Did you understand?

2. Application
Using strips of Carolina students will
label each part of the Digestive System.

Expected Answers:

A. Mouth
B. Esophagus
C. Stomach
D. Small Intestine
E. Large Intestine
F. Anus

3. Generalization

What have you learned from our topic I have learned that major parts
today? involved in digestive system are
mouth, esophagus, stomach, small
intestine, large intestine and rectum.

Very good! What is the importance of Digestion is important because


Digestion? through it nutrients from the food we
eat can be absorbed into our body.

D. Evaluation

Direction: Identify the following. Write your Expected Answers:


answer on a sheet of paper. 1. Mouth
1. ________It is part of the digestive 2. Esophagus
system which process of breaking down 3. Stomach
the food. 4. Small Intestine
2. ________It is a long muscular tube that 5. Large Intestine
starts from the back of your throat and 6. Ingestion
ends at your stomach. 7. Absorption
3. ________It is a pear-shaped organ 8. Excretion
located in the upper left side of 9. Assimilation
abdomen. 10. Digestion
4. ________It completes the digestion of
foods.
5. ________It is a large tube where the
undigested food goes.
6. ________It is the process of taking food
into your mouth.
7. ________It is the process of absorbing
nutrients into your bloodstream.
8. ________It is the process of eliminating
the wastes through anus/anus canal.
9. ________It is the process of nutrients
becoming part of the tissues of the
body.
10. ________It is the process of breaking
down food into smaller components.

E. Assignment
Expected Answers:
Research on the accessory organs involved in the Liver- the largest gland in the body,
Digestive System and their functions. Write your weighing about 1.5 kg (3.3 lb) in an
assignment in a 1 whole sheet of paper. adult. It produces green fluid called
bile, which breaks down fats removes
wastes and toxins from the body
breaks down nutrients and stores
some vitamins and minerals.

Pancreas - located below the


stomach. It produces a mix of
enzymes that together are called
pancreatic juice. This juice helps
neutralize the very acidic chyme when
it enters the small intestine and helps
digest proteins, fats
and carbohydrates.

Gall bladder - a pouch-shaped organ


that stores the bile produced by the
liver. It shares a vessel, called the
common bile duct, with the liver.
When bile is needed, it moves
through the common bile duct into
the first part of the small intestine,
the duodenum. It is here that the bile
breaks down fat.

Prepared by:

Grace G. Fuentes