Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 13

The Design And Construction Of Electric Arc Welding Machine

ii
TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page

Certification

Dedication

Acknowledgement

Table of content

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 Introduction

1.1 History

1.2 Aims/objective

1.3 Scope

1.4 Principle of transformer Operation

1.5 Equivalent Circuit of the Machine

iii
CHAPTER TWO

2.0 Literature Review

2.1 Transformer Design

2.2 Coil Design

2.3 Core Design

2.4 Specification for design

CHAPTER THREE

3.0 Construction

3.1 Lamination

3.2 Transformer former

3.3 Copper coils

3.4 Insulating Materials


3.5 Methodology
3.6 Test and Operating Conditions
3.7 Operating Conditions
3.8 Conclusion
3.9 Recommendation

iv
REFERENCES

CHAPTER ONE

HISTORY/INTRODUCTION

1.0 The machine is specially designed for industrial and agricultural

welding. It is only powered from A.C power source for all welding.

The unit is designed to operate on single phase 240v A.C. supply and it is

mainly a transformer unit. It is capable of operating from 25 Amps socket for

most of its output range. The current drawn form the mains supply may exceed

the 25 Amps, hence the unit must be provided with 30A switch fuse input as

those provided for electric cookers, heaters etc. this connection must be made

to the dead side of a 30A circuit. The circuit should not be shared by any other

appliance.

The unit consists of the following main components single phase

transformer (with tap changing secondary). The transformer is a step-down

transformer with different tapping at H, M and L; welding tung cables.

v
The transformer is a conventional-cooled, single phase transformer

which has shell type of lamination core and insulated windings of copper cols.

In addition, the windings are given double insulation with the use of varnish

solution which helps to prevent short-circuiting in the windings.

With the help of Angle iron and lamination core, the core loss, iron loss in the

machine is reduced to minimum. They also help to reduce humming in the

machine. Hence, efficiency of the machine is greatly improved.

1.1 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

Sequel to the vast need and use of iron rods, metal bars and pipes, right from

the domestic level up to industrial extent, the arc welding machine was built in

order to ensure that the ulterior motive of the manufacturers of these products

(iron rods, metal bars and pipes) by their manufacturers is being achieved as

part f technological advancement. With the electric Arc welding machine, the

difficulty of using iron rods, bars and pipes in construction works has been

removed.

Moreso, the Arc welding machine has also contributed a lot towards the

economy of life in such a way that when products like machine tools,

vi
agricultural tools, machine parts, motor parts etc get broken, they could be

restored to usage, or made functional once again through welding, by the use of

the electric Arc welding machine. In that respect, the problem has been solved

without going back to purchase a new one.

1.2 SCOPE

The machine is specially designed for industrial and agricultural welding. It is

powered from single phase, 240v 50Hz power supply. It is operated from 30A

socket.

During use; when tap changing, the entire machine should be off before tap

changing the load terminal when welding.

When there is low welding current and due to variation of power supply,

a higher tap should be used to increase the welding current.

This electric Arc welding machine is a heavy duty welding machine

which is capable of welding all or 12 gauges of electrodes, while in operation.

For material cutting, the machine should be tapped at the highest

tapping, although cutting is not very effective at low voltage supply.

vii
1.3 PRINCIPLE OF TRANSFORMER OPERATION

An alternating voltage applied to P circulates an alternating current through P

and this current produces an alternating flux in the iron core, the mean path of

this flux being represented by the dotted line D. if the whole of the flux

produced by P pass through S, the emf induced in each turn is the same for P

and S. hence if N1 and N2 be the number of turns on P and S respectively (refer

to fig. 2.0).

Total emf induced in S = N2 x emf per turn = N2

Total emf induced in P = N1 x emf per turn = N1

When the secondary S is open circuit, its terminal voltage is the same as the

induced emf. The primary current is then very small, so that the applied voltage

V1 is practically equal and opposite to emf induced in P, hence

V2 = N2
V1 N1
Since the full load efficiency of a transformer is nearly 100 percent, I 1V1 x

primary power factor = I2V2 x secondary power factor. But, the primary and

secondary power factor at full load are nearly equal

viii
I1 = V2
I2 V1
When a load is connected across secondary terminals (short circuited), the

secondary current - by Lenzs law produces a demagnetizing effect.

Consequently, the flux and the emf induced in the primary are reduce slightly.

But this small change may increase the difference between the applied voltage

and the e.m.f induced in the primary from say 0.05% to say 1%, in which case

the new primary current would be 20 times the no-load current. The

demagnetizing ampere-turns of the secondary is thus nearly neutralized by the

increase in the primary ampere-turns and since the primary ampere-turns on no

load are very small compared with the full load ampere-turns.

- full load primary ampere-turns = full load secondary ampere-turns.

i.e I1N2 = I2N2

so that I1 = N2 = V2
I2 N1 V1
It will be seen that the magnetic flux forms the connecting link between the

primary and secondary currents and that any variation of the secondary

current is compared by a small variation of the flux and therefore of the

e.m.f induced in the primary, thereby enabling the primary current to vary

approximately proportional to the secondary current. This balance of

ix
primary and secondary ampere-turns is an important relationship whenever

transformer action occurs.

1.4 EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT OF THE MACHINE

ZP

I1 RP XP

Io
I1ZP
V1
Input
voltage
R X
V1 x

Ic
Imag

Fig. 1.4

x
Zs

I2 XS I2
RS

I2ZS

To
V2 Load
E2

Fig. 1.4

RP and RS are resistances equal to resistance of the primary and secondary

windings of the machine.

Similarly, inductive reactance XP and XS represent the reactance of the

windings due to leakage flux in the machine. The inductance reactor X is such

that it takes a reactive current equal to the magnetizing current (I M) of the

transformer. The core losses due to hysteresis and eddy currents are allowed for

xi
by a resistor R of such value that it takes a current I C equal to the core-loss

component at the primary current, i.e IC2R is equal to the core loss of the actual

transformer. The resultant of (IM) and IC is IO.

*** INSTRUCTIONS ***

Please Read The Below Instructions Carefully.

******************************

xii
HOW TO ORDER THIS COMPLETE MATERIAL
If you want to order the complete materials (Chapter One
to Five, Including Abstract, References, Questionnaires, Proposal (where

applicable)) of the above mentioned topic, please visit


www.freeplace.org and click on Order (i.e.
www.freeplace.org/order)

******************************

HOW TO BECOME OUR PARTNER


To become our partner, visit www.freeplace.org and click on
partnership.

******************************

TERMS OF USE
This Material is for Academic Research Purposes only. On no
account should you copy this material word for word. Copying
this material Word for Word is against our Terms of Use.
That you ordered this material shows you have agreed Our
Terms of Use.

******************************

Better is not good enough, the best is yet to come!


Endeavour to be the best!!

xiii