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ARCHBISHOP USHER'S

ANSWER TO A JESUIT;

WITH

OTHER TRACTS ON POPERY

CAMBRIDGE:

PRINTED AT THE PITT PRESS, BY JOHN SMITH,

PRINTER TO THE UNIVERSITY.

J. & J. J. DEIGHTON, CAMBRIDGE;

AM) J. \V. PARKER, WEST STRAND, LONDON.

M.DCCC.XXXV.

ADVERTISEMENT.

JAMES

USHER was born in Dublin, January 4, 1580,

and was successively Provost of Trinity College 1610, Bishop

of Meath 1620, and Archbishop of Armagh 1624. He died

March 21, 1655-56.

The principal Treatise in this volume, The Answer to

a Jesuit's Challenge, was

first published by the learned

Author in Dublin in 1624, when he was Bishop of Meath;

and was reprinted in London in

followed in 1631, "corrected and enlarged by the Author;"

and the fourth in 1686, after his death, professing to be " cor-

rected and augmented from a copy left under the Author's

own hand." The augmentations, however, in this last edition amount to very little, and the corrections to almost less than

nothing, as the errors of the third edition are very generally

retained, and innumerable others of the grossest kind are

1625.

The third edition

Be-

sides this, the Speech in the Castle-Chamber and Sermon

before the Commons, which had been printed with the edition

superadded, so as to render the book almost illegible.

of 1631, are omitted;

and also a few passages in the Answer

to the Jesuit, which possibly the Author may have designed

to omit

present Editor has

retained them, as not thinking it safe to omit any thing of

this invaluable writer upon the mere authority of an edition

The passages alluded to the Reader

so shamefully inaccurate.

will find pointed out by notes in the margin.

in

his

last

revision ;

but the

The Jesuit,

whose Challenge called forth this noble

Answer, was William Malone, though the initials affixed to

his Challenge are W. B.

I cannot explain.

The

The reason of this discrepancy

same man published a

Reply to

Usher's Answer, " permissu Superiorum," in the year 1627,

in

the

Preface to which

he has

given an account of the

IV

ADVERTISEMENT.

whole circumstance, as having originated in a remark made

to him by a Protestant Knight,

cerning the

alteration of faith and religion in the Roman

" con-

Sir Piers Crosby,

Church."

The Reply occupies upwards of 700 very closely-

and the argument of it is helped out by

printed pages;

whatever prejudice can be excited in its favour in the outset

by a miserable pun in the title-page, (If ye have ten thou-

and a

sand USHERS in Christ, yet not many FATHERS,)

grotesque vignette intended to represent the delightful unity found in the Roman Catholic Church, and the discord of

what he calls " the jarring synagogues of severed novellers."

To this latter device he seems to attach considerable im-

portance from the satisfaction with which he speaks of it

in his Preface, as " representing unto the very eyes of the

discreet Reader" this comparative view of the one side and

the other.

It does not appear that the Archbishop considered any

other rejoinder necessary, than that which is incidentally

contained in the enlarged edition of his Treatise published

four years subsequent to the Jesuit's Reply.

The other treatises contained in the present volume require

the Author himself

Dedication, &c. But the " Discourse of the Religion

no explanation beyond what is furnished by

in his

professed by the Ancient Irish" must be regarded as an

invaluable supplement to the more general treatise on Popery,

as it enters largely into the question of the Pope's Supremacy,

which is a point that had not been brought forward in the

Jesuit's Challenge ; and its re-publication at the present crisis

will be considered not unseasonable, especially as its statements

on some points of leading importance are uncontradicted by

historians on the other side.

CAMBRIDGE, May, 1835.

ERRATUM.

J.

S.

In page 185, note 72, correct as follows :

xom K^ND DITI jin-wai jinnm-n pnnu>33 Knbx K*n mx

CONTENTS.

AN Answer to a Challenge made by a Jesuit in

PAGK

1

A Discourse of the Religion anciently professed by the Irish

and British

515

A Speech in the Castle-Chamber at Dublin, at the censuring

of certain Officers

Supremacy

who refused to

take the

Oath of

641

A Sermon preached before the Commons' House of Parliament,

the 18th of February, 1620

A Brief Declaration of the Universality of the Church of

Christ, and the Unity of the Catholic Faith professed

therein :

A

Sermon before the

King's Majesty, the

20th of June, 1624

651

689

AN ANSWER

TO

A CHALLENGE

MADE BY A JESUIT IN IRELAND:

WHEUE I N

THE JUDGMENT OF ANTIQUITY IN THE POINTS QUESTIONED IS TRULY

DELIVERED, AND THE NOVELTY OF THE NOW ROMISH

DOCTRINE PLAINLY DISCOVERED.

From the beginning it was not so.

MATTH. XIX. 8.

TO

HIS MOST SACRED MAJESTY.

JAMES,

BY THE GRACE OF GOD

KING OF GREAT BRITAIN, FRANCE, AND IRELAND,

DEFENDER OF THE FAITH, <kc.

MOST GRACIOUS AND DREAD SOVEREIGN,

WE find it recorded for the everlasting honour

of Theodosius the younger, that it was his use ] to reason

with his Bishops of the things contained in the holy Scrip-

tures,

of the

time he could spare from the public cares of the common-

as if he

himself had been one of their order ;

days,

and

Emperor Alexius in latter

that '-whatsoever

wealth,

he

did

wholly employ in

the diligent reading of

God^s book, and in conferring

thereof with worthy men,

of whom his court was never empty.

How little inferior,

or how much superior rather, your Majesty is

to either

of

these in

this

kind of praise,

I

need not

speak :

it

is

acknowledged even by such as differ from you in the point

of religion, as a matter that hath 3 added more than ordinary

lustre of ornament to your Royal estate, that you do not

forbear so much

as at the time of your bodily repast, to

have,

for

the

then

like feeding of your intellectual part,

your Highness" 1 table surrounded with the attendance and

conference of your grave and learned Divines.

What inward joy my heart conceived, as oft as I have

I forbear

had the happiness to be present at such seasons,

to

utter: only

I

will

say

with Job,

that *the

ear

which

1 Socrat. Histyfib. vii. cap. 22.

- Euthyni. Zugaben. in Pra-tat. Dog- matics; Panoplhr.

3 Jo. Brereley,

in

his Epistle before

St Augustine's Religion.

1 Job xxix. 11.

X

THE EPISTLE DEDICATORY.

heard you blessed you ; and the eye which saw you, gave

witness to you.

But of all other things which I observed,

your singular dexterity in

detecting the

frauds

of

the

Romish Church, and untying the most knotty arguments

of the sophisters

admired most, especially where occasion was offered you

of that

side,

was it

(I

confess) that

I

to utter

also

in

your skill,

not

in the word of

the antiquities of the Church;

but

wherein you have

God alone,

attained such a measure of knowledge, as (with honour to

God, I trust I may speak it, and without flattery to you)

com-

in

a

well studied Divine we

would

account very

mendable,

but

in

such

a

Monarch as yourself almost

incredible. And this is one cause, most gracious Sovereign, beside my general duty, and the many special obligations

whereby I am otherwise bound unto your Majesty, which

hath emboldened me to entreat your patience at this time,

in vouchsafing to be a spectator of this combat, which I

am now entered

disallow many chief Articles, which the Saints and Fathers

into with a

Jesuit,

who chargeth

us to

of the primitive

Church

did generally hold

to be true;

and undertaketh to make good, that they of his

side do

not disagree from that holy Church, either

in these, or in

any other point of religion.

Now

true

it

is,

if

a

man

do only attend

unto the

bare sound of the word, (as in the question of Merit, for

example,)

or

to the thing in general, without descending

into the particular consideration of the true ground thereof, (as in the matter of praying for the dead,) he may easily

be induced to believe, that in divers of these controversies

the Fathers speak clearly for them and against us: neither

is there any one thing that hath

won more credit to that

religion, or more advanced it in the consciences of simple

men,

than the conformity

that

it retaineth in some words

and outward observances with the ancient Church of Christ.

Whereas, if the thing itself were narrowly looked into, it

THE

KI'ISTI.E DEDICATOR Y.

\1

would be found that they have only the shell without the

without the shell; they having

kernel, and

we

the

kernel

retained certain

words and

rites

of

the ancient Church,

but applied them to a

the other side having relinquished

new invented doctrine ;

and we on

and

ob-

these words

servances, but

retained nevertheless the same primitive

doctrine, unto which

relation.

by

their

first institution

they had

The more cause have I

to count myself happy, that

am to answer of these matters before a king that is able

to discern betwixt things that differ, and hath knowledge

of all these questions, before whom therefore I may 5 speak

boldly ; because I am persuaded that none of these things

of late days that your

are hid from him.

For

it

is

not

Majesty hath begun

to take

these

things into your

con-

sideration : from a child have you been

trained

up to this

warfare;

Lord had

sin, and

yea, before you

were

twenty

years

of

age, the

taught your hands to

fight against the man of

your

fingers to

make battle

against his Babel.

Whereof your Paraphrase upon the Revelation of St John

is a memorable monument left to all posterity ;

can never look

upon, but

always in my mind :

those verses

of the

Csesaribus virtus contigit ante diem;

Ingenium coeleste suis velocius annis

which

I

poet run

Surgit, et ignavae fert mala damna morac. OVID.

How constant you have been ever since in the profession

and maintenance of the truth, your late protestation, made

unto both the houses of your Parliament, giveth sufficient

evidence.

So much whereof as may serve for a present

antidote against that false and scandalous 6 Oration spread

amongst foreigners under your Majesty's sacred name, I

humbly make bold

to

insert in

this place, as a perpetual

testimony of your integrity in this behalf :

5

Acts xx vi. 2(5.

6 Merc. Gallobelgic. Ann. 1623.

Xll

THE EPISTLE DEDICATORY.

" 7 What

my religion is,

my books do declare, my pro-

fession and my behaviour do shew :

and I hope in God,

I shall never live

shall never deserve it.

might be written in

to be thought otherwise ;

And for

my part

marble, and

I

sure I

wish

am

that

I

it

remain to posterity, as

a mark upon me, when I shall swerve from my religion :

for he that doth dissemble with God, is not

by man.

bled, when

I

have heard

of the

trusted

My Lords, I protest before God, my heart hath

to be

increase of Popery :

and

God is my judge, it hath been so great a grief unto me,

that it hath

been like thorns in mine eye*,

and pricks

in

my

sides ;

so

far

have

turning any other way.

I

been,

and

ever

shall be,

from

And, my Lords and Gentlemen,

you

all shall be my confessors : if I knew any way better

than other to hinder the growth of Popery, I would take it:

and he cannot be an honest man, who knowing as I do, and being persuaded as I am, would do otherwise."

As you have

tinued,

so

go

on,

so long

since begun,

and

happily con-

most renowned

King, and

still shew,

yourself to be

battles courageously, honour him evermore, and advance

a Defender of the faith :

fight the Lord's

his truth,

finished your course, and kept

that when you have 8 fought this good fight, and

the faith, you may receive

the crown of righteousness,

for the obtaining of which

and .of glory, together with all outward prosperity and

happiness in this prayers of

reserved in heaven

for you :

double blessing, both of grace

shall never

want the instant

life,

you

Your Majesty's most faithful Subject,

and humble Servant,

JA. MIDENSIS.

7 His Majesty's Answer to the Petition of the Parliament touching Recusants,

TO THE READER

IT is now about six years, as I gather by the reckoning

laid down in the 23rd page of this book, since this following

Challenge was brought unto me from a Jesuit ; and received

that general

Answer, which now serveth

first chapter only

of this present

work.

to make up the

The particular

points which were by him but barely named, I meddled

not withal at that time ; conceiving it to be his part (as in

sustained the person of the

the 31st page is touched) who

assailant, to bring forth his arms, and give the first onset ;

repel his encounter after-

and mine,

wards.

Scriptures and writings of the

make use of for a second conflict, whensoever our Challenger

should be pleased to descend to the

of

had taken upon him to prove by the express

which he

testimonies of the Fathers of the primitive Church, as also

by good and certain grounds out of the sacred Scriptures,

if the Fathers' authority would not suffice.

as

the

defendant, to

Only I then

collected certain materials out of the

Fathers, which

I meant to

handling of the par-

the

truth of every

ticular articles by him proposed ;

Thus this matter lay

dead for divers

years together ;

and so would still have done, but that some of high place

in both kingdoms, having been pleased to think far better

of that

little

advised me to

which I had done than the thing deserved,

go

forward, and to deliver

the judgment

of antiquity touching those particular points in controversy,

wherein

the Challenger was so confident

that the

whole

current of the Doctors, Pastors and Fathers of the primitive

Church did mainly run on his side.

Hereupon I gathered

my scattered notes together,

employments would give me

and as the multitude of my

leave,

now entered

into the

handling

of one

point, and

then of another;

treating of

XIV

TO THE READER.

each, either more briefly or more largely, as the opportunity

of my present leisure would give me leave.

And so at last,

after many interruptions, I have made up, in such manner

several

special instances of

points,

as thou seest, a kind of a doctrinal history of those

which the Jesuit culled

out as

the consonancy of the doctrine now maintained in the Church

of Rome with the perpetual and constant judgment of all

antiquity.

The doctrine that here

I

take

upon me

to defend,

(what different opinions soever I relate of others,)

is

that

which by public authority is professed in

the Church of

England,

and

comprised in the book

of Articles agreed

upon in the Synod held at London in the year 1562 ; con-

cerning which I dare be bold to challenge our Challenger

and all his accomplices, that they shall never be able to prove,

disallowed

that

there is

either any one article

of religion

therein,

which the Saints

and Fathers of the primitive

Church did generally hold to be true, (I use the words of

my challenging Jesuit,) or any one point of doctrine allowed, which by those Saints and Fathers was generally held to

be untrue.

As for

the testimonies of the authors which I

allege, I have been careful to set down in the margin their

own words in their own language, (such places of the Greek

Doctors only excepted, whereof the original text could not

be had,)

(who either cannot come by that variety of books, whereof

use is here made, or will not take the pains to enter into

a curious search of every particular allegation,) as for the preventing of those trifling quarrels that are commonly made

as well for

the better satisfaction of the readers,

against translations :

for

if

it

fall

out,

that word be not

every where precisely rendered by word, (as who would tie himself to such a pedantical observation?) none but an idle

caviller can object, that this was done with any

purpose to

corrupt the meaning of the author;

whose words he seeth

laid down before

his eyes,

judge of the translation,

cause.

to the end

and rectify

he may the better

it

where there

is

Again, because it is a thing very material in the historical

handling of controversies,

both

to

understand the times

wherein the several authors lived, and likewise what books be truly or falsely ascribed to each of them ; for some direc-

TO THE HEADER.

XV

tion of the reader in the first,

I

have annexed at the end

of this book a chronological catalogue of the authors cited

therein ; wherein such as have no number of years affixed unto them, are thereby signified to be incerti temporis ; their

age being not found by me, upon this sudden search, to

be noted

neglected in the work itself, whensoever a doubtful or sup-

posititious writing was alleged, to give some intimation

whereby it might be discerned, that it was not esteemed to

by

any :

and for

the second,

I

have

seldom

be

the book

of that author,

unto

whom it was

entitled.

The exact discussion as well of the authors 1 times, as of the

censures of their works,

I refer to my Theological Biblio-

theque ;

if God hereafter shall lend me life

and leisure to

make up that work, for the use of those that mean to give

themselves to that noble study of the doctrine and rites of

the ancient Church.

In the mean time I commit this book to thy favourable

censure, and thyself to God's gracious direction ; earnestly

advising thee, that whatsoever other studies thou intermittest,

the

careful and con scion able reading of God's book may

never be