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Example (Stress)

Each of the four vertical links has an 8x36-


mm uniform rectangular cross-section and
each of the four pins has a 16-mm
diameter.
Determine the maximum value of the
average normal stress in the links
connecting (a) points B and D, (b) points
C and E.
Determine (c) the average shearing
stress in the pin at B, (d) the average
bearing stress at B in member BD, (e)
the average bearing stress at B in
ANSWER: a. 101.56 MPa; b. 21.70
member ABC, knowing that this MPa; c. 80.82 MPa; d. 126.95 MPa;
member has a 10 3 50-mm uniform e. 203.13 MPa
rectangular cross section.
ES 13 Mechanics of Deformable Bodies I
ES 13
Mechanics of
Deformable Bodies I

LECTURE 2
Strain Concepts
John Kenneth B. Musico
Institute of Civil Engineering
ES 13 Mechanics of Deformable Bodies I

Outline

1. Strain Concept
2. Normal Strain
3. Shear Strain
4. Small Strain Analysis

What happens to structural
members subjected to stress?

ES 13 Mechanics of Deformable Bodies I


Strain Concept
3 Considerations in Design/Analysis

STRENGTH
stress

SERVICEABILITY

ECONOMICS

ES 13 Mechanics of Deformable Bodies I


Strain Concept
3 Considerations in Design/Analysis

STRENGTH

SERVICEABILITY
deformation

ECONOMICS

ES 13 Mechanics of Deformable Bodies I


Strain Concept

Deformation
the change in a bodys shape and size due to
a. Force applied to the body
b. Change in the temperature of the body (thermal
expansion or contraction)
Can be either highly visible (e.g. rubber bands) or
practically unnoticeable (e.g. structural members)

ES 13 Mechanics of Deformable Bodies I


Strain Concept

Strain
Describes the deformation of a body
Defines the change in length or angle of a body

ES 13 Mechanics of Deformable Bodies I


Normal Strain under Axial Loading
The normal strain is defined as the deformation per
unit length of a rod/member.


L =

2L
where:
P = axial strain
= deformation
L = original length of
member
2
P ES 13 Mechanics of Deformable Bodies I
Normal Strain under Axial Loading


=

where: UNITS:
= axial strain mm/mm or m/m (dimensionless)
= deformation SIGN:
L = original length of member (+) elongates (-) shortens

ES 13 Mechanics of Deformable Bodies I


Shear Strain
Shear strain is the angular change between two
initially perpendicular line segments


=
2
where:
= shear strain
= new angle between 2
SIGN: initially perpendicular lines
(+) when < /2; (-) when > /2
UNITS: radians
ES 13 Mechanics of Deformable Bodies I
Small Strain Analysis
Most engineering designs allow only small
deformations, i.e. 1.
For very small deformations,

sin
cos 1
tan
where is in radians.

ES 13 Mechanics of Deformable Bodies I


Example (Normal Strain)

When force P is applied


to the rigid lever arm
ABC in Fig. 25a, the arm
rotates counterclockwise
about pin A through an
angle of 0.05. Determine
the normal strain
developed in wire BD.
ANSWER: = 0.3491; = 0.00116/

ES 13 Mechanics of Deformable Bodies I


Example (Normal Strain)

A rigid bar AD is supported by


two rods as shown. There is no
strain in the vertical bars before
load P is applied. After load P is
applied, the axial strain in rod BF
is -400 m/m. Determine:
a. axial strain in rod CE.
b. axial strain in rod CE if there
is a 0.25-mm clearance in the
connection at pin C before
the load is applied. ANSWER: a. 0.002mm/mm; b. 0.015833mm/mm

ES 13 Mechanics of Deformable Bodies I


Example (Normal Strain)

The load P produces an axial


strain in the brass post B of -
0.0014 mm/mm. Determine
a. The axial strain in the
aluminum alloy rod A.
b. The axial strain in the
aluminum alloy rod A if there
is a 0.125-mm clearance in the
connection between A and C
in addition to the 0.25-mm
clearance between B and C. ANSWER: a. 0.001033 mm/mm;
b. 0.00093333 mm/mm

ES 13 Mechanics of Deformable Bodies I


Example (Shear Strain)

The plate shown in Fig. 27a is


fixed connected along AB and
held in the horizontal guides at
its top and bottom, AD and BC.
If its right side CD is given a
uniform horizontal displacement
of 2 mm, determine (a) the
average normal strain along the
diagonal AC, and (b) the shear
strain at E relative to the x, y
axes. ANSWER: a. 0.00669mm/mm; b. -0.0132 rad

ES 13 Mechanics of Deformable Bodies I


Homework (Normal+Shear Strain)

The counter-clockwise moment M applied to the rigid L-bar B


produces an axial strain of -0.004444 mm/mm in bar A and a shearing
strain of 0.007 radians at E, and causes support F to yield by 2 mm.
Determine the axial strain in bar C if there is a 0.5 mm clearance in the
connection between the triangular plate and the rigid L-bar D.

ES 13 Mechanics of Deformable Bodies I


ES 13 Mechanics of Deformable Bodies I

Outline

1. Strain Concept
2. Normal Strain
3. Shear Strain
4. Small Strain Analysis
Next Meeting:
LECTURE 3
Material Properties

References:
Beer, F.P. et al. (2006). Mechanics of materials. 6th Ed. SI. McGraw-Hill
Hibbeler, R.C. (2000). Mechanics of materials. 4th Ed. Prentice Hall