You are on page 1of 5

Available online at www.sciencedirect.

com

ScienceDirect
Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 171 (2015) 1325 1329

ICEEPSY 2014

Development of the Engaged learning in reading


research articles measure
Sareeya Chotithama*, Suwimon Wongwanichb, Nonglak Wiratchaia,b,
a
Department of Educational Research and Psychology, Faculty of Education, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
b
Department of Educational Research and Psychology, Faculty of Education, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
a,b,*
Department of Educational Research and Psychology, Faculty of Education, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand

Abstract

Engaged learning in reading research articles is essential for graduate students because they need to do research. Most of research
on engaged learning has focused on students concentration on learning. In this study, we focused on engaged learning in reading
research articles. The aim of this research was to verify the quality of the developed engaged learning in reading research articles
measure. One hundred Chulalongkorn University graduate students completed the developed engaged learning in reading
research articles measure. The measure consisted of 24 items. Data were analyzed by confirmatory factor analysis. Results
showed that the newly developed measure appeared to be valid and reliable.

2015
2015TheTheAuthors.
Authors.Published
Publishedbyby Elsevier
Elsevier Ltd.Ltd.
This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
Peer-review under responsibility of the Organizing Committee of ICEEPSY 2014.
Peer-review under responsibility of the Organizing Committee of ICEEPSY 2014.
Keywords: engaged learning; reading research articles

1. Introduction

Graduate students must read research articles to gain their newly knowledge in their fields (Reis, Eckert,
McCoach, Jacobs, & Coyne, 2008) because reading research articles can help students develop their analytical
thinking skills (Liem, Lau, & Nie, 2008) and research skills.
Measuring engaged learning in reading research articles can indicate the degrees of students engaged learning
that could lead to enhance their engaged learning in reading research articles. Therefore, studying on developing the

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +66 86 526 3950;


E-mail address: sareeyachotitham@gmail.com

1877-0428 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
Peer-review under responsibility of the Organizing Committee of ICEEPSY 2014.
doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.01.249
1326 Sareeya Chotitham et al. / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 171 (2015) 1325 1329

engaged learning in reading research articles measure is essential. The aim of this research was to verify the quality
of the developed engaged learning in reading research articles measure.

1.1 Engaged learning in reading research articles


Many inventories addressing engagement consisted of 3 main components; absorption, dedication, and vigor
(Schaufeli, Salanova, Gonzalex-Roma, & Bakker, 2002; Schaufeli & Bakke, 2003). Absorption is behaviors that
refer to being happily immersed in ones work and hard to detach from it so that times passes quickly. Dedication is
behaviors that refer to feeling enthusiastic and proud about ones job, and feeling inspired by it. Vigor is behaviors
that refer to high levels of resilience and energy, and willingness to invest effort.
In this research, absorption of learning is learning behaviors consisted of two components (concentration and
enjoyment) that refer to being totally and happily immersed in reading research articles and having difficulties
detaching oneself from it so that times passes quickly and one forget everything else during reading research
articles. Dedication to learning is learning behaviors consisted of two components (value and energy) that refer to
deriving a sense of significance from reading research articles, feeling enthusiastic and proud about reading, and
feeling inspired and challenged by it. Vigor in learning is learning behaviors consisted of two components (mental
effort and mental capacity) that refer to high levels of energy and resilience and the willingness to invest effort on
reading research articles.

Fig.1. Measurement model for the second-order factor model of engaged learning in reading research article.

2. Methodology

2.1 Participants
According to Bentler and Chou (1987) the appropriate sample size for structural equation model analysis was 5 to
20 times of estimated parameters. There were 19 estimated parameters in this model. Therefore, the appropriate
sample size was at least 95 participants. In this research participants were 100 graduate students at Chulalongkorn
University (27 males and 73 females with the average age of 25).

2.2 Measure
2.2.1 Engaged learning in reading research articles measure
Twenty four items were developed from engagement measures of Schaufeli & Bakker (2003) Green, Rhodes,
Hirsch, Suarez-Orozco, & Camic (2008) Suarez-Orozco, Pinmentel, & Martin (2009) Fan & Williams (2010)
Maulana, Opdenakker, Stroet, & Bosker (2012). Engaged learning in reading research articles measure consists of 3
main components, absorption, dedication, and vigor (8 items for each main components). The participants indicated
their agreement or disagreement with the statements on a 5-point scale (5=agree, 1= disagree). Some example items
were as follows: I forget everything else around me when I am reading research articles (absorption), Reading
research article inspires me to do research (dedication), I read intensely although the article is difficult to understand
(vigor).

2.3 Data Analysis


Tests for the factor structures of the overall quality of engaged learning in reading research articles among
graduate students were based on confirmatory factor analysis (CFA).
Sareeya Chotitham et al. / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 171 (2015) 1325 1329 1327

3. Results
3.1 Reliability
An aspect of reliability in this research is considered by internal consistency, also called stability. Table 1
showed the internal consistencies of the measure. Cronbachs alpha of eight items for absorption of learning and
vigor in learning (.752 and .744) were slightly more internally consistent than dedication to learning component
(.704). The measure exceeded the generally accepted criterion for existing scales of alpha 70 (Nunnal & Bernstein,
1994).

Table 1 Cronbachs alpha of engaged learning in reading research articles


Number of
factors Cronbachs alpha
items
1. absorption of learning 8 .752
2. dedication to learning 8 .704
3. vigor in learning 8 .744

3.2 Validity
We tested for multicollinearity problem by Pearsons correlation coefficient. Results for the six subcomponents
were found that the subcomponents of engaged learning in reading research articles had significant positive
relationship between subcomponents (r=.319 to .594). This indicated that there was no multicollinearity problem.

Table 2 Correlations between engaged learning in reading research articles components


Variables CONCEN ENJOY VALUE ENERGY EFFORT MENTAL
CONCEN 1.00
ENJOY .594* 1.00
VALUE .431* .446* 1.00
ENERGY .584* .501* .334* 1.00
EFFORT .402* .494* .433* .498* 1.00
MENTAL .319* .359* .351* .357* .439* 1.00
Mean 3.088 2.758 3.630 3.318 3.395 3.598
S.D. 0.544 0.699 0.630 0.564 0.585 0.601
Bartlett's Test of Sphericity2 = 185.876, df = 15, p=.000
Kaiser-Mayer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy (KMO) = 0.834
Note: *p < .05

The construct validity of the measure tested by LISREL showed 2 = 10.525; df = 6; p = .244; RMSEA = 0.087.
Hu and Bentler (1999) suggest that cutoffs close to or below .08 for SRMR, .06 for RMSEA, and at or above .95 for
CFI indicate adequate fit. This indicated the following estimates of model fit.

Table 3 Factor loadings and R2 of engaged learning in reading research articles measure
Factor loadings R2
Variables 2
b(SE) B t R
First-order factor
ABSORP
CONCEN 0.416(0.062) 0.764 6.450* .570 0.583
ENJOY 0.544 0.778 <---> .547 0.605
DEDICAT
VALUE 0.403(0.069) 0.688 5.621* .393 0.474
ENERGY 0.408 0.724 <---> .566 0.542
VIGOR
EFFORT 0.393(0.093) 0.624 4.231* .654 0.389
MENTAL 0.338 0.563 <---> .282 0.317
Second-order factor
ABSORP .926 (0.131) .926 7.072* .857
DEDICAT .988 (0.141) .988 6.984* .976
VIGOR .926 (0.186) .926 4.983* .858
2 = 10.525, df = 6, p= .104, GFI= 0.966, AGFI= 0.880, RMR= 0.133, RMSEA= 0.087
1328 Sareeya Chotitham et al. / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 171 (2015) 1325 1329

Table 3 Factor loadings and R2 of engaged learning in reading research articles measure (continued)
Correlation matrix ABSORP DEDICAT VIGOR ENGAGE
ABSORP 1.000
DEDICAT .866* 1.000
VIGOR .874* .664* 1.000
ENGAGE .819* .523* .589* 1.000
Note: * p<.05
<---> constrained parameter

Chi-square=10.525, df=6, p-value=.104, RMSEA=0.087

Fig. 2. Results of the second-order factor model of engaged learning in reading research articles.

4. Conclusions
The aim of this research was to develop and verify the quality of the developed engaged learning in reading
research articles measure. We collected data by questionnaires. One hundred Chulalongkorn University students
voluntarily completed questionnaires. Results showed that the developed engaged learning in reading research
articles measure had an acceptable quality in both reliability and validity.

Acknowledgements
The researchers would like to thank THE 90th ANNIVERSARY OF CHULALONGKORN UNIVERSITY
FUND (Ratchadaphiseksomphot Endowment Fund) for funding this research.

References
Bentler, P. M., & Chou, C. P. (1987). Practical issues in structural modeling. Sociological Methods & Research 16,
78-117.
Fan, W., & Williams, C. M. (2010). The effects of parental involvement on students academic self-efficacy,
engagement and intrinsic motivation. Educational Psychology, 30, 53-74.
Green, G., Rhodes, J., Hirsch, A. H., Suarez-Orozco, C., & Camic, P. M. (2008). Supportive adult relationships and
the academic engagement of Latin American immigrant youth. Journal of School Psychology, 46, 393-412.
Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indices in covariance structure analysis: Conventional
criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 61, 155.
Liem, A. D., Lau, S., & Nie, Y. (2008). The role of self-efficacy, task value, and achievement goals in predicting
cognitive engagement, task disengagement, peer relationship, and achievement outcome. Contemporary
Educational Psychology, 33, 486-512.
Maulana, R., Opdenakker, M.-C., Stroet, K., & Bosker, R. (2012). Observed lesson structure during the first year of
secondary education: Exploration of change and link with academic engagement. Teaching and Teacher
Education, 28, 835-850.
Sareeya Chotitham et al. / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 171 (2015) 1325 1329 1329

Nunnaly, J. C., & Bernstein, I. H. (1994). Psychometric Theory (3rd ed.), NY: McGraw-Hill.
Reis, S. M., Eckert, R. D., McCoach, D. B., Jacobs, J. K., & Coyne, M. (2008). Using enrichment reading practices
to increase reading fluency, comprehension, and attitudes. The Journal of Education Research, 101, 299-315.
Schaufeli, W., & Bakke, A. (2003). UWES Utrecht Work Engagement Scale. Preliminary Manual. Utrecht
University.
Suarez-Orozco, C., Pinmentel, A., & Martin, M. (2009). The significance of relationships: Academic engagement
and achievement among newcomer immigrant youth. Teachers College Record, 111, 712-749.