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# Section 1: Numerical

1.
The velocity of the bullet at rest with respect to the pursuit car is u = c/3.
The velocity of original reference frame with respect to the pursuit car is v = -0.5c.

(a) According to Galileo, the velocity of the bullet in the original reference frame is = u-v
= c/3 + 0.5c = 5c/6 = 0.833c, which is greater than 0.75c and so the bullet will reach the
getaway car.

(b) According to Einstein, the velocity of the bullet in the original reference frame is =
5 5
6 6 5
= = 1 = = 0.7143c, which is less than 0.75c and so the bullet will not
1 2 ( ) 1+ 7
13 22 6

reach the getaway car.

2.
Energy of beam of proton = 50000 eV
Velocity of beam of proton = 3x106
Current = 10 mA
Mass of proton = 1.67x10-27 kg
1 1
Kinetic energy of proton KE = 2 mv2 = 2 x 1.67x10-27 x 3x106 = 2.505x10-21
= 0.01566 eV
50000
Therefore, number of protons in the beam n = 0.01566 = 3193613
Diameter = 1 cm = 10x10-3 m
Radius = 5x10-3 m
1
Potential Difference between axis and surface of beam k = n x 4 x
0
1.61019
= 3193613 x 8987551788 x 5103
= 0.9185 V

Therefore, 4 = 0.2296 V

Section 2: Theoretical

0
Evaluation of Differential Scattering Cross
Section

1

## Sl.No: Contents Page No:

1. Abstract 3
2. Background 3
3. Introduction 3
4. Problem 3
5. Solution 3
6. Conclusion and Inference 4
7. References 5

2
Abstract
This report evaluates the differential scattering cross section in lowest order Born approximation
for the scattering of a spin-one-target of infinite mass.

Background
Usually in scattering experiments a sharp beam of particles of definite momentum are scattered
from a localized target and these collisions could be elastic, inelastic or absorption type collisions
. Nuclear and High Energy physics deal with deep inelastic collisions. But elastic collisions
conserve both energy and particle number.

Introduction
Scattering theory is one of the most important theorems in physics and forms the basis of quantum
mechanics. Most of nuclear and atomic physics have been discovered by scattering experiments
and is the standard tool to explore solid state systems . Most scattering phenomenon are
characterized by scattering cross section . Differential cross section is the ratio of the number
of particles scattered per unit time per unit solid angle in a particular direction divided by incident
flux . It characterizes collisions.

Problem
h2 k2
A spin-one-target projectile has mass m, Energy E= 2m
e 1
Hamiltonian for the projectile = = A 1 2 = |f(, )| = 4 k |U|k

> 0 is the Pauli spin operators, where for i=1 spin operator is for projectile and for i=2 spin
operator is for target.
d
Find the differential scattering cross section (d) in lowest order Born approximation and as a

## function of k and scattering angle.

Solution
d 2 d
Total cross section  = = d d = 0 d 0 d sin d

3
d m2
The differential cross section  is given by = |f(, )| 2 = (2)2 4 |Tk,k |2
d

2 U(r)
The scattering potential  V(r) = 2m

## While, Tk,k = k |V|k is the transition matrix element.

Born approximations  can be carried out as follows
(r) = (r) + G0 (r, r )U(r )(r )d3 r (1)
A zeroth order V(r) results in a scattering wave-function being translated to unperturbed
(0)
incident plane wave, k (r) = k (r) = eik.r .
(1) (0)
The first order expansion of (1) in U k (r) = k (r) + d3 r G0 (r, r )U(r )k (r )
(2) (1)
The second order expansion of (1) is = k (r) = k (r) + d3 r G0 (r, r )U(r )k (r )
The equation can be expressed as
0 U
|k = |k + G 0 U
|k + G G0 U
k + =
=0(0 ) |k
1
Making use of the function |f(, )| = 4 k |U|k
1
f = 4 k |U + |UG0 U + UG0 UG0 U|k
1
fBorn = 4 k |U|k

Let, = k k, and is the momentum transfer, Born scattering amplitude for a central
potential is given by
1 sin(r)
fBorn = 4 d3 rei.r U(r) = 0 rdr U(r)

|k| = |k|, = 2ksin (2).

Make use of the Yukawa potential , U(r) = U0 , to transform fBorn as follows

sin(r) r 0U
fBorn = U0 0 dr e = 2 +2 (2)

put in 2 to get
d U20
= |f()|2 = This is the Rutherford formula 
d 16k4 sin4 (2)

## Conclusion and Inference

The differential scattering cross section is evaluated and is expressed as the lowest order Born
approximation. It is also expressed as a function of k and scattering angle.

4
References
 Newton, R.G. (1982). Scattering Theory of Waves and Particles. New York, New York:
Springer.
 Bjorken, J.D, Drell, S.D. (1964). Relativistic Quantum Mechanics. New York, New York:
McGraw-Hill.
 Roman, P. (1969). Introduction to Quantum Theory. Ann Arbor, Michigan: John Wiley
& Sons.
 Greiner, W, Reinhardt, J. (2009). Quantum Electrodynamics, Berlin, Berlin: Springer