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# 1.

NUMBER WORK
Numbers are my friends says Ramanujan, the well known Indian Mathematician. He loved
numbers and his contribution to Mathematics is great. We are familiar with some fundamental
mathematical calculations with numbers in the previous classes. Now we briefly revise the number
system which we have studied.
Any number is a concept. one is a number name and we use the numeral or symbol 1 to
denote it. Five is a number name and we use the numeral 5 to denote it. In olden days, different
symbols were used in different parts of the world to denote the numerals. The present system is based
on ten numerals 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. It was developed by Indians. Arabs made these numerals
known to western countries. Hence these numerals are called Indo-Arabic numerals. This system is
universally accepted.
1.1 Numbers Revision
1.2 Four fundamental operations on Whole numbers
1.3 Number patterns
1.4 Large numbers in Exponential form
1.5 Tests of divisibility Revision
1.6 Greatest common divisor and Least common multiple
1.7 Integers
1.8 Fractions
1.9 Decimal numbers.

## 1.1 Numbers Revision

1.1.1 Natural Numbers and Whole Numbers
1.1.2 Face value and Place value
1.1.3 Expanded form

## 1.1.1. (a) Natural Numbers :

The counting numbers 1, 2, 3, are called natural numbers. Natural numbers are
beginning with 1 and increasing one by one. The set of natural numbers is denoted by the
symbol N. In the set of natural numbers, 2 is called the successor of 1. 1 is called the predecessor of 2
and 3 is called successor of 2 and 2 is called predecessor of 3. Can you give the last natural number?
Thus N = {1, 2, 3, }

## (b) Whole Numbers :

If we include the number 0 to the set of natural numbers, we get 0, 1, 2, 3, . This is
called the set of whole numbers and is denoted by the symbol W.
Thus W = {0, 1, 2, 3, }

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1.1.2 Face Value and Place Value
The numerals 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 are called digits. It is by using these ten digits, we are
generating all the numbers in the set of whole numbers. For example, to write the numeral for two
thousand four hundred and eighty seven, we write 2487. Here we use the digits together with place
value.
Every digit in a number has a face value and a place value. For example in 2487, the digits we
have used are 2, 4, 8 and 7. The face value of these digits are respectively 2, 4, 8 and 7 only. However
depending upon the place they occupy in the number, each digit has a distinct value. In 2487,
the place value of 2 is 2000;
the place value of 4 is 400 ;
the place value of 8 is 80 ;
the place value of 7 is 7;
Using the ten digits and the concept of place value, we can write any number.
The place value increases in powers of 10, starting from units. The digits in numbers from right
to left have the place values of 1, 10, 100, 1000, 10000 etc. Thus the place value of each digit in
894063217 is as follows :
The place value of 7 is 7 ones 7
The place value of 1 is 1 ten 10
The place value of 2 is 2 hundreds 200
The place value of 3 is 3 thousands 3000
The place value of 6 is 6 ten thousands 60000
The place value of 0 is 0 lakh 0
The place value of 4 is 4 ten lakhs 4000000
The place value of 9 is 9 crores 90000000
The place value of 8 is 8 ten crores 800000000
Now this number can be read as eightynine crore, forty lakh, sixtythree thousand two hundred
and seventeen and is written as 89,40,63,217.
Another method of expressing the numbers is known as international notation. In the
international system of writing the number 742894063154, it is grouped in threes starting from the
unit place and written as 742, 894, 063, 154. Place value of international notation are as follows :
Billions Millions Thousands Hundreds Tens Ones
Hundred Thousand
Hundred Million
Hundred billion

Ten Thousand
Ten Million
Ten billion

Thousand

Hundreds
Million
billion

Ones
Tens

7 4 2 8 9 4 0 6 3 1 5 4

We read the number as seven hundred and forty two billion, eight hundred and ninety four
million, sixty three thousand one hundred and fifty four.

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Example 1 :
Give the face value and the place value of each of the digit in the number 5, 47, 61, 893.
Solution :
Face value (digit) Place value
5 5,00,00,000
4 40,00,000
7 7,00,000
6 60,000
1 1000
8 800
9 90
3 3
Table 1.1
The number is written in words as five crore forty seven lakh sixty one thousand eight hundred
and ninety three.
In the international notation, the above number 5, 47, 61, 893 is grouped as 54, 761, 893 and
written as fifty four million, seven hundred and sixty one thousand eight hundred and ninety three.
1.1.3. Expanded form :
A number can be written in an expanded form using the place values.
Example 2 :
Write 53624 in expanded form.
Solution :
53624 = 50000 + 3000 + 600 + 20 + 4
= 5 10000 + 3 1000 + 6 100 + 2 10 + 4
Example 3 :
Find the number which corresponds to the expanded form.
3 10000 + 2 1000 + 8 10 + 3
Solution :
3 10000 + 2 1000 + 8 10 + 3 = 30000 + 2000 + 80 + 3
= 32083
Discuss :
Take various numbers and practise writing the face values and place values of the digits in the
numbers.

Exercise 1.1
1) Which is the smallest natural number?
2) Which is the smallest whole number?
3) Which is the predecessor of the whole number 1 ?
4) Which is the successor of the natural number 10 ?

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5) Which is the greatest four digit number?
6) Which is the smallest four digit whole number?
7) Mention the place values of the underlined digits (in Indian system)
(a) 832758 (b) 78430 (c) 100258 (d) 289 (e) 372853461
8) Mention the place values of the underlined digits (in International system)
(a) 7483216 (b) 615308457 (c) 41932673 (d) 37047854 (e) 477931
9) Write the number names of the following in Indian system
(a) 2005624 (b) 732416 (c) 503302
10) Write in numerals
(a) Sixty three lakhs twenty one thousand nine hundred and forty six.
(b) Two lakh three hundred and four.
(c) Seven hundred and two million nine hundred and thirty four thousands four hundred
and twenty.
(d) Two billion forty one million seventy nine thousand and sixty five.
11) (a) How many thousands are in a lakh?
(b) How many lakhs are in a million?
(c) How many millions are in a crore?
(d) How many millions are in a billion?
12) How many thousands are in each of the following number?
(a) 3785 (b) 642135 (c) 7000000
13) Write the numbers correspond to the following expanded forms :
(a) 3 10000 + 5 1000 + 2 100 + 6 10 + 4
(b) 2 10000 + 7 1000 + 5 10 + 3
14) Write the following numbers in the expanded form :
(a) 25638 (b) 72804 (c) 600003
15) Find the difference of the place values of two 5s in 65354.
Activity :
(a) Prepare a chart and display in your class containing Tamil numerals.
(b) Prepare a chart containing Roman numerals and the system of writing.
(c) Prepare a chart containing various system of numerals in the world.
(d) Discuss the advantage of Indo-Arabic numerals over other systems of the numerals.
THINGS TO REMEMBER
(1) Natural numbers N = {1, 2, 3, }
(2) Whole numbers W = {0, 1, 2, 3, }
(3) Every digit in a number has a face value and a place value.
(4) The face value of a digit will always be the same as the digit. The place value
of a digit changes according to its position in the number.
(5) In the Indian system of numeration, the number is grouped in two digits
after the hundreds place.
(6) In the International system of numeration, the number is grouped in three
digits starting from unit place.

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1.2 Four fundamental operations on Whole numbers :
We have already learnt the method of applying the four fundamental operations on whole
numbers. Now we use some simple techniques to do the above operations quickly and easily.
1.2.2 Subtraction
1.2.3 Multipliction
1.2.4 Division

Example 4 :
Add : (a) 59 + 21 (b) 118 + 122
Solution :
(a) 59 + 21 = 50 + 9 + 20 + 1
= 70 + 10 = 80
(50 + 20) + (9 + 1)
(b) 118 + 122 = 110 + 8 + 120 + 2
= 230 + 10 = 240
Discuss :
In the above example, how the unit digits are grouped?
Example 5 :
Add : (a) 65 + 37 (b) 48 + 76
Solution :
(a) 65 + 37 = 65 + 35 + 2 = 100 + 2= 102
(b) 48 + 76 = 40 + 8 + 70 + 6 = 110 + 14 = 124
Discuss :
Why were the numbers specified as follows :
37 = 35 + 2, 76 = 70 + 6 and 48 = 40 + 8
Example 6 :
Add : (a) 62 + 70 + 8 (b) 43 + 62 + 17 + 38
Solution :
(a) = 62 + 8 + 70
62 + 70 + 8 = 70 + 70
= 140
(b) = 43 + 17 + 62 + 38
43 + 62 + 17 + 38 = 60 + 100
= 160

Discuss :
The different grouping techniques in the above examples.

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Example 7 :
Add : 80,765 + 25,437 + 9,502 + 108
Solution :
1 1 1
2
8 7 0
6 5
2 4 5
3 7
5 9
0 2
1 0 8

11 5 8 1 2

Discuss :
In the above example, how do we arrive at the numbers placed just above the dotted lines?

1.2.2 Subtraction :
We know that subtraction and addition are inverse operations. For every addition there are two
subtraction facts.
For example,
2 + 8 = 10 is an addition fact. From this, we can state two related subtraction facts. They are
10 8 = 2 and 10 2 = 8.
Discuss :
What are the two subtraction facts for the addition fact 6 + 5 = 11 ?
We do problem of subtraction in the same way as we do addition by writing according to the
place value.
Example 8 :
Subtract 2568 from 7349
Solution :
6 12 14
7 3 4 9
2 5 6 8

4 7 8 1

Discuss :
Find out how we arrived at the numbers noted just above the dotted line.
Since the subtraction operation is the inverse operation of addition, we can verify the answer
From the previous example
1 1
2 5 6 8
+ 4 7 8 1

7 3 4 9

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In the example 8, 7349 2568 = 4781.
By addition fact, 7349 = 2568 + 4781.
Discuss :
Can we use simple methods for subtraction as in the case of addition?
25 9 = 25 10 + 1 = 15 + 1 = 16 Is it not easy ?
How will you find
4678 999 and 846 98?
Exercise 1.2
(a) 199 + 61 (b) 256 + 184 (c) 62 + 57 + 38
(d) 2003 + 200 + 97 (e) 38 + 81 + 92 + 49 (f) 38 + 41 + 52 + 79
2. Do the subtraction using simple methods and verify the answers by subtracting directly.
(a) 37 9 (b) 85 7 (c) 258 99
(d) 564 98 (e) 4583 999 (f) 7325 998
3. Subtract :
(a) 5 4 8 3 (b) 1 7 8 2 5
3758 9574

4. Mention two corresponding subtraction facts for each of the following :
(a) 15 + 6 = 21 (b) 38 + 65 = 103
6. By using the digits 7, 5, 1, 8 and 4 only once write the greatest and the smallest five digit
numbers. Find the difference between them.
7. The cost price of a refrigerator is Rs. 12,500 and a television set costs Rs. 8750 more than
the refrigerator. Find the total cost of both the refrigerator and the television set.
8. There are 3847 people in a village. Out of them 2014 are males. How many females are
there?
9. In a group of 5200 people, 2500 watch TV serial A and 1940 watch TV serial B. How
many people do not watch any serial?
10. Anbu went to the market with Rs. 1500. He bought a shirt for Rs. 250 and a pant for Rs.
350. Also he bought a pair of shoes for Rs. 500. How much money is left with him?

1.2.3 Multiplication :
Multiplication is a short form of addition of the same number several times.
8+8+8+8+8+8 = six times 8
= 68
= 48
Note : 6 8 means six times eight or eight times six.
In multiplication, if we use some simple and easy techniques, we can get the products easily and
quickly.

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Consider the following examples :
Example 9 :
Multiply 283 by 101
Solution :
283 101 means 101 times 283
or 100 times 283 + one time 283
or 28300 + 283
or 28583
283 101 = 28583
Example 10 :
Multiply 750 99
Solution :
750 99 means 99 times 750
or 100 times 750 one time 750
or 75000 750
or 74250
750 99 = 74250
Example 11 :
Find the value of 10 5 + 12 5 + 13 5
Solution :
10 5 + 12 5 + 13 5 means
10 times 5 + 12 times 5 + 13 times 5
or 35 times 5
or 35 5
or 175
The value = 175
Example 12 :
Multiply 843 by 54 by ordinary method
Solution :
8 4 3
5 4

3 3 7 2
4 2 1 5

4 5 5 2 2

Discuss :
Why is the second row of the multiplication written one place away from the unit place of the
first row?

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Exercise 1.3
1. Write down the multiplication facts for the following :
(a) 7 +7 + 7 + 7 + 7 + 7 = 42 (b) 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 = 16
(c) 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 = 0 (d) 3 + 3 + 3 = 9
2. Write down the addition facts for the following :
(a) 5 6 = 30 (b) 0 3 = 0 (c) 8 1 = 8 (d) 10 4 = 40
3. Find the product using short methods
(a) 86 99 (b) 165 101 (c) 102 101 (d) 999 20
(e) 34 3 + 47 3 + 29 3 (f) 18 10 + 25 10 + 12 10 + 15 10
4. Find the product :
(a) 2003 476 (b) 8432 423 (c) 521 304 (d) 294 2004
5. Murugan earns three times of what his brother earns. If his brother earns Rs. 1800 in a
month, how much does Murugan earn?
6. A pen costs Rs. 12 and a pencil costs Rs. 1. If 220 sets of pen and pencil are ordered in a
school, what is the total amount the school has to pay?
7. Instead of multiplying 468 by 45 a student had multiplied it by 54. How much had the
answer increased than the correct one?

1.2.4 Division
Division can be considered as repeated subtraction or equal distribution.
Example 13 :
Divide 40 by 8
Solution :
40
8 (1)

32
8 (2)

24
8 (3)

16
8 (4)

8
8 (5)

0

Here division is done as repeated subtraction. From 40, eight can be subtracted repeatedly five
times.
When 40 chocolates are to be distributed equally among eight children, each child will get five
chocolates.
Division is the inverse operation to multiplication.

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See the diagram below :
Multiply by 5
8 40
Divide by 5

## For every multiplication fact there corresponds two division facts.

In the example, 8 5 = 40, (a) 40 5 = 8 and (b) 40 8 = 5 are the two division facts.
Discuss :
For every division fact, there is only one related multiplication fact.
That is for 40 8 = 5, 8 5 = 40
Example 14 :
Write the division facts of 56 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 = 0
Solution :
We have subtracted 8, seven times from 56 and the resultant is zero.
56
One division fact is 8 = 7
56
Another division fact is 7 = 8

Example 15 :
Write the division facts of 42 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 = 0
Solution :
The division facts of 42 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 = 0
42 42
are 7 = 6 and 6 = 7

Discuss :
Now consider the two division facts related to each of the following multiplication facts
10=0 , 20=0 , 30=0 , 15 0 = 0 , 23 0 = 0

0 0 0 0 0
(a) 1 = 0 , 2 = 0 , 3 = 0 , 15 = 0 , 23 = 0
0 0 0 0 0
(b) 0 = 1 , 0 = 2 , 0 = 3 , 0 = 15 , 0 = 23
From the above, we get two interesting properties of zero.
(a) Zero divided by any non-zero whole number is zero.
(b) Zero divided by zero gives different values. That is, 1, 2, 3,
This is not acceptable. Therefore division by zero is not permitted.
Discuss :
There is another very exciting question about zero.
What happens when a non-zero whole number is divided by zero?
That is to find 1 0, 2 0, 3 0 etc.
Suppose 1 0 is a whole number, then the related multiplication fact is
(The whole number) 0 = 1.

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But we know that any whole number multiplied by zero is zero.
So the above statement must be false. Therefore we say,
Division by zero is not a permissible operation in whole numbers.
Ramanujan, the great Mathematician of our country was a student in Town High School,
Kumbakonam in Tamilnadu. While he was studying in the 7th class, one day his teacher said that a
number divided by itself gives always one. Ramanujan asked the teacher whether it was true in the
case of zero also. How Ramanujan would have surprised the teacher and the class !
Example 16 :
Divide 20 by 6
Solution : Here 20 is the dividend
3 6 is the divisor
20
6 20 (or denominator of 6 )
18
3 is the quotient
2 2 is the remainder

20 = 6 3 + 2
Dividend = divisor quotient + remainder
We know that division is repeated subtraction. But it is a tedious process if dividend is far
bigger than divisor. So we need a technique.
Consider the following examples :
Example 17 :
Divide 639 by 3.
Solution :
Here we write the dividend in the expanded notation (place value notation)
200 + 10 + 3
3 600 + 30 + 9
600 + 30 + 9
Now the quotient is 200 + 10 + 3 = 213.
Now we shall see some shortcut methods for multiplication and division problems.
Example 18 :
Multiplication by 5. Multiply : (a) 240 5 (b) 3645 5
10 2400
(a) 240 5 = 240 2 = 2 = 1200
10 36450
(b) 3645 5 = 3645 2 = 2 = 18225
Example 19 :
Multiplication by 25. Multiply : (a) 32 25 (b) 2003 25
100 3200
(a) 32 25 = 32 4 = 4 = 800
100 200300
(b) 2003 25 = 2003 4 = 4 = 50075

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Example 20 :
Division by 5.
Divide : (a) 170 5 (b) 2345 5
170 170 2 340
(a) = = = 34
5 52 10
2345 2345 2 4690
(b) = = = 469
5 52 10
Example 21 :
Divide (a) 325 25 (b) 875 25
Division by 25
(a) 325 25
325 325 4 1300
= = = 13
25 25 4 100
(b) 875 25
875 875 4 3500
= = = 35
25 25 4 100
Discuss :
Can you suggest a similar simple method to divide a number by 125?
Exercise 1.4
1. State the following as division facts :
(a) 63 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 = 0
(b) 12 2 2 2 2 2 2 = 0
(c) 4 4 = 0
(d) 15 5 5 5 = 0
2. State the multiplication facts related to the following divisions :
(a) 18 6 = 3 (b) 84 7 = 12 (c) 120 10 = 12 (d) 121 11 = 11
3. State the two division facts related to the given multiplication
(a) 8 7 = 56 (b) 10 8 = 80 (c) 12 14 = 168 (d) 13 5 = 65
4. Multiply the following by using short-cut methods :
(a) 777 5 (b) 264 5 (c) 3256 5 (d) 988 5
(e) 299 25 (f) 472 25 (g) 5329 25 (h) 6251 25
5. Divide the following by using short-cut methods :
(a) 85 5 (b) 315 5 (c) 1995 5 (d) 2875 5
(e) 1225 25 (f) 550 25 (g) 2875 25 (h) 8775 25
6. Find the quotient and remainder fot the following :
(a) 564 6 (b) 1234 12 (c) 2925 23 (d) 8243 43
7. A person changes Rs. 345 into 25 paise coins. How many 25 paise coins will he get?
8. In a problem, given that the divisor is 15, quotient is 4 and the remainder is 2, find the
dividend.
9. When a number is divided by 215, the quotient is 74 and the remainder is 19. Find the
number.

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10. The product of two whole numbers is 140436. If one number is 249, find the other number.
11. 42 persons participated in a tour to North India. If the total expenditure was Rs. 90,300 how
much amount each has to pay?
THINGS TO REMEMBER
(1) The four fundamental operations on numbers are Addition, Subtraction,
Multiplication and Division.
(2) Addition is the process of combining two or more numbers into one number.
(3) Subtraction is the reverse process of addition. Here from a given number we
take away a smaller number and find out the remainder.
(4) Multiplication is repeated addition of the same number.
(5) Division is repeated process of subtraction of the same number and the
remainder is found.
(6) The division algorithm is
Dividend = quotient divisor + remainder.
(7) Adding any number with zero gives the same number.
Subtracting zero from any number gives the same number.
Multiplying any number by zero gives zero.
Dividing any number by zero is not defined.

## 1.3 Number patterns :

1.3.1 Divisors, Factors and Multiples
1.3.2 Even and Odd numbers
1.3.3 Prime and Composite numbers
In this lesson we study the concepts of divisors, factors, multiples and prime numbers. Also we
shall see the fascinating properties of number patterns.
1.3.1 Divisors, Factors and Multiples :
Divisors :
Consider the number 24. Divide 24 by 3. When we divide 24 by 3, the remainder is 0.
3 is the divisor of 24. Similarly if we divide 24 by 2, we will get 0 as the remainder.
Again 2 is the divisor 24. By applying the same process, 1, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24 are also divisors.
Thus the divisors of 24 are 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12 and 24.
Now, what are the divisors of 13? Clearly 1 and 13 are the only divisors.
Note : The divisor in the division algorithm is different from this divisor. In division algorithm the
divisor indicates the denominator only.
Example 22 :
What are the divisors of (a) 18, (b) 45
Solution :
(a) The divisors of 18 are 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 18
(b) The divisors of 45 are 1, 3, 5, 9, 15, 45

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Number Divisors Facts
24 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24 1 24 = 24 ; 2 12 = 24
3 8 = 24 ; 4 6 = 24
13 1, 13 1 13 = 13
18 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 18 1 18 = 18, 2 9 = 18, 3 6 = 18
45 1, 3, 5, 9, 15, 45 1 45 = 45, 3 15 = 45, 5 9 = 45
19 1, 19 1 19 = 19
Table 1.2
Note : Some numbers have only two divisors. That is, the number 1 and the number itself.
Factors :
The divisors of a number other than 1 and the number itself are called the factors of that
number.
Example 23 :
Find all the divisors and factors of (a) 20, (b) 32
Solution :
(a) The divisors of 20 are 1, 2, 4, 5, 10 and 20
The factors of 20 are 2, 4, 5 and 10
(b) The divisors of 32 are 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32
The factors of 32 are 2, 4, 8 and 16
Multiples :
Consider the number 4
Multiply 4 by the numbers 1, 2, 3,..........
Then we get 4, 8, 12, 16, 20,.............
All these are multiples of 4.
Example 24 :
(a) Find six mltiples of 8 (b) Find five multiples of 12
Solution :
(a) The six multiples of 8 are
18 = 8
28 = 16
38 = 24
48 = 32
58 = 40
68 = 48
The six multiples of 8 are 8, 16, 24, 32, 40, 48
(b) The five multiples of 12 are
1 12 = 12
2 12 = 24
3 12 = 36
4 12 = 48
5 12 = 60
The five multiples of 12 are 12, 24, 36, 48, 60

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1.3.2 Even and Odd numbers :
Consider the whole numbers which are multiples of 2
0 2, 1 2, 2 2, 3 2, 4 2,
That is, 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, are multiples of 2.
Consider the whole numbers which are not multiples of 2
1, 3, 5, 7, 9,
The whole numbers which are multiples of 2 are called even numbers.
If we divide the even number by 2, the remainder will be 0.
The whole numbers which are not multiple of 2 are called odd numbers.
If we divide an odd number by 2, the remainder will not be 0 (but the remainder
will be 1).
Now observe the following :
(a) 2 + 2 = 4 ; 2 + 6 = 8 ; 4 + 8 = 12 ; 10 + 20 = 30
(b) 2 2 = 4 ; 2 6 = 12 ; 4 8 = 32 ; 10 20 = 200
(c) 1 + 3 = 4 ; 3 + 5 = 8 ; 7 + 9 = 16 ; 13 + 11 = 24
(d) 1 3 = 3 ; 3 15 = 15 ; 7 9 = 63 ; 13 11 = 143
From the above examples the following are true.
even number + even number = even number
even number even number = even number
odd number + odd number = even number
odd number odd number = odd number

## 1.3.3 Prime numbers and Composite numbers

Consider the following table 1.3 :
Numbers Divisors
1 1
2 1, 2
3 1, 3
4 1, 2, 4
5 1, 5
6 1, 2, 3, 6
7 1, 7
8 1, 2, 4, 8
9 1, 3, 9
10 1, 2, 5, 10
Table 1.3
We can continue this table as much as we like.
From the above, what are the numbers which have only 2 divisors?
2, 3, 5 and 7 have only two divisors.
What are the numbers which have more than 2 divisors?

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4, 6, 8, 9 and 10 have more than 2 divisors.
The natural numbers which have only two divisors are called prime numbers.
The natural numbers which have more than two divisors are called the composite numbers.
Discuss :
1 is neither prime nor composite. Why?
Example 25 :
Express the following numbers as product of prime numbers.
(a) 6 (b) 10 (c) 12
Solution :
(a) 6 = 2 3 (2 and 3 are prime numbers)
(b) 10 = 2 5 (2 and 5 are prime numbers)
(c) 12 = 3 4 = 3 2 2 (3 and 2 are prime numbers)
Here all the composite numbers are expressed as product of prime numbers.
This is called prime factorisation.
Thus any composite number can be written as a product of prime numbers.
A Greek Mathematician Eratosthenes suggested a simple method for finding the prime numbers.
Let us use this method to find prime numbers upto 100.
Write the numbers from 1 to 100
1 is not a prime. Cross it.
2 is a prime. Circle it. Cross out all other multiples of 2.
3 is a prime. Circle it. Cross out all other multiples of 3.
4 is a composite. This number and multiples of 4 are already crossed out. (Why?)
5 is a prime. Circle it. Cross out all other multiples of 5.
We continue the process of Circling and crossing till every number in the list is either circled or
crossed out.
All the Circled numbers are prime numbers and the numbers that are crossed out
(except 1) are composite numbers.
Now we can write the circled prime numbers only on the table as follows :
Prime numbers between 1 and 100 :
2 3 5 7
11 13 17 19
23 29
31 37
41 43 47
53 59
61 67
71 73 79
83 89
97
Table 1.4
From the table 1.4, we find few facts :

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There are 25 primes between 1 and 100. Except 2, all the primes are odd. Except 5, no prime
ends with 5.
Example 26 :
List all the prime numbers between 20 and 30.
Solution :
The numbers between 20 and 30 are
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29
The prime numbers are 23 and 29

Exercise 1.5
1) Write all the divisiors and factors of
(a) 16 (b) 25 (c) 27 (d) 42 (e) 125
2) Find the prime factorisation of the following numbers :
(a) 36 (b) 24 (c) 80 (d) 63 (e) 120
3) How many numbers have exactly two divisors from 30 to 40?
4) List all the primes between
(a)1 and 20 (b) 45 and 50 (c) 55 and 65 (d) 90 and 100

THINGS TO REMEMBER
(1) A number, which divides a given number leaving no remainder is called a
divisor of the given number.
(2) Some numbers have only two divisors, that is 1 and the number itself.
(3) The divisors of a number other than 1 and the number itself are called the
factors of that number.
(4) The whole numbers which are multiples of 2 are called even numbers.
(5) The whole numbers which are not multiples of 2 are called odd numbers.
(6) The natural numbers which have only two divisors are called prime
numbers.
(7) The natural numbers which have more than two divisors are called
composite numbers.
(8) Composite number can be written as a product of prime numbers.

## 1.4 Large numbers in Exponential form :

Let us see how the product of a number, when repeated more than once can be expressed in a
simple way. It is known as exponential form. This form is very helpful in expressing large numbers.

## 6 6 is expressed in brief 62.

In 62, 6 is called the base, 2 is called the index or the power or the exponent.
62 is read as 6 squared or 6 raised to the power 2.

17
Observe the following table 1.5 :
Exponent
Repeated product of a Exponential Base Read
or Index
number Form
or power
66 62 6 2 six squared or six raised
to the power two.
555 53 5 3 Five cubed or five raised
to the power three.
22222 25 2 5 Two raised to the power
five.
10101010101010 107 10 7 Ten raised to the power
seven
Table 1.5
To express in the exponential form the index is written on the top to the right of the base.
Generally the large numbers are written using exponential notation.
103 = 10 10 10 = 1000
105 = 10 10 10 10 10 = 100000
107 = 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 = 10000000
Discuss :
108 means 1 followed by how many zeros ?
1036 means 1 followed by how many zeros ?
A number can be written in an expanded form using the place values and it can also be written
using exponential notation.
For example 58634 is written in the expanded form as follows :
58634 = 50000 + 8000 + 600 + 30 + 4
= 5 10000 + 8 1000 + 6 100 + 3 10 + 4
= 5 104 + 8 103 + 6 102 + 3 10 + 4
Observe the following multiplication :
11=1 5 5 = 25 9 9 = 81
22=4 6 6 = 36 10 10 = 100
33=9 7 7 = 49 11 11 = 121
4 4 = 16 8 8 = 64 12 12 = 144
When a number is multiplied by the same number, the product is known as square of that
number.
1, 4, 9, 16, 25, 36, 49, 64, 81, 100, are known as square numbers.
Discuss :
Write and observe the squares of first thirty natural numbers.
The unit digit of a square number is either 0, 1, 4, 5, 6 or 9.
A square number does not end with unit digit as 2 or 3 or 7 or 8.
For example,
20, 51, 44, 35, 46, 39 are not square numbers.

18
Discuss :
Can we say that the numbers ending with unit digits 0, 1, 4, 5, 9 will certainly be square
numbers?
Example 27 :
Find the square of 75
Solution :
Square of 75 = 752 = 75 75
= 5625
Observe the following multiplication :
111=1 6 6 6 = 216
222=8 7 7 7 = 343
3 3 3 = 27 8 8 8 = 512
4 4 4 = 64 9 9 9 = 729
5 5 5 = 125 10 10 10 = 1000
When a number is multiplied repeatedly thrice by itself, the result is the cube of that number.
1, 8, 27, 64, 125, are known as cube numbers.
Example 28 :
Find the cube of 13 :
Solution :
Cube of 13 = 133 = 13 13 13
= 169 13
= 2197
Example 29 :
Write 216 in exponential notation
Solution :
216 = 666 6 216
3
= 6 6 36
6

Example 30 :
(a) Is 81 a square number ? (b) Is 125 a cube number?
Solution :
(a) 81 = 9 9 = 92
81 is a square number.
(b) 125 = 5 5 5 = 53
125 is a cube number.
Example 31 :
Write 5 5 7 7 4 4 using exponential notation.
Solution :
557744 = 52 72 42

19
Example 32 :
Find the value of 23 32 52
Solution :
23 32 52 = 2223355
= 8 9 25
= 1800
Discuss :
The square of an odd number is odd.
The square of an even number is even.
The cube of an odd number is odd.
The cube of an even number is even.
The square of a prime number other than 2 is odd.

Exercise 1.6
1. Write the following in exponential form.
(a) 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 (b) 10 10 10 10
(c) 8 8 8 8 8 (d) 3 9 7 5 3 7 5 5 3 9 5
2. Write in exponential form :
(a) Base 6, power 4
(b) Base 4, power 7
(c) Base 10, power 6
3. Find the square and cube of the following :
(a) 5 (b) 14 (c) 8 (d) 15
4. Find the values of the following :
(a) 172 (b) 212 (c) 63 (d) 123 (e) 24 32
(f) 22 52 72 (g) 105 53 (h) 107 23
5. (a) Write 64 as a square number and also as a cube number.
(b) Write 1 as a square number and as a cube number.
THINGS TO REMEMBER
(1) The product of a number, when repeated more than once can be expressed in
a simple way. It is known as exponential form.
(2) To denote power of a number, the index is written on the top, to the right of
the base.
(3) When a number is multiplied by the same number, the result is known as
square of that number.
(4) When a number is multiplied repeatedly thrice by itself, the result is the cube
of that number.

## 1.5 Tests of divisibility Revision

If we understand the nature of divisibility among numbers, we can find divisors easily without
doing complete division.
Numbers ending with 0 are divisible by 10

20
For example, the numbers 10, 20, 50, 580, 2700 end with 0 are exactly divisible by 10.
Numbers ending with 0 or 5 are divisible by 5
For example, the numbers 10, 15, 35, 175, 825 (ending with 0 or 5) are divisible by 5.
Numbers ending with 0 2 4 6 or 8 are divisible by 2
For example 20, 32, 64, 76, 28 are divisible by 2.
Discuss :
If a number is divisible by 2 and 5, then it will be divisible by 10.
If the number formed by the last two digits of a given number is
divisible by 4 then the number will be divisible by 4.
Example 33 :
Are the numbers 216, 1900, 1788 divisible by 4?
Solution :
Each of the numbers 216, 1900, 1788 are divisible by 4 because
The last two digists of 216 is 16 and 16 is divisible 4.
216 is divisible by 4.
The last two digits of 1900 is 00 and 0 is divisible by 4.
1900 is divisible by 4.
The last two digits of 1788 is 88 and 88 is divisible by 4.
1788 is divisible by 4.
Example 34 :
Is 1930 divisible by 4?
Solution :
The last two digists of 1930 is 30 and 30 is not divisible 4.
1930 is not divisible by 4.
If the number formed by the last three digits of a given number is
divisible by 8 then the number will be divisible by 8.
Example 35 :
Is 78848 divisible by 8?
Solution :
The last three digits of 78848 is 848. Here 848 is divisible by 8.
78848 is divisible by 8.
Example 36 :
Is 23102 divisible by 8?
Solution :
The last three digits of 23102 is 102. Here 102 is not divisible by 8.
23102 is not divisible by 8.
If the sum of the digits of a number is divisible by 3, the number is
divisible by 3.
Example 37 :
Is 6234 divisible by 3?

21
Solution :
The sum of the digits = 6 + 2 + 3 + 4 = 15 and 15 is divisible by 3.
6234 is divisible by 3.
If the sum of the digits of a number is divisible by 9, the number is
divisible by 9.
Example 38 :
Is 7623 divisible by 9?
Solution :
The sum of the digits 7 + 6 + 2 + 3 = 18 and 18 is divisible by 9.
7623 is divisible by 9.
Discuss :
If a number is divisible by 3 and also by 2, will it be divisible by 6?
If the difference of the sums of the digits in alternate places is
divisible by 11, the number is divisible by 11.
Example 39 :
Is 92785 divisible by 11?
Solution :

9 2 7 8 5

9 + 7 + 5 = 21
2 + 8 = 10 The difference between these two additions is 11. It is divisible by 11.

## 92785 is divisible by 11.

Example 40 :
Is 49853 divisible by 11?
Solution :

4 9 8 5 3

4 + 8 + 3 = 15
9 + 5 = 14 The difference between these two additions is 1. It is not divisible by 11.

## 49853 is not divisible by 11.

Exercise 1.7
1. Find out the number or numbers to be placed in the * if
(a) 7354 * is divisible by 10 (b) 275*0 is divisible by 10
(c) 5381* is divisible by 5 (d) 634* is divisible by 4
(e) 57*2 is divisible by 4 (f) 6*432 is divisible by 3
(g) 2463* is divisible by 9 (h) 5326* is divisible by 8
(i) 4*3016 is divisible by 11 (j) 495*38 is divisible by 11
2. State with reason which of the following numbers 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, 10, 11 are divisiors of the
following numbers :
(a) 4356 (b) 73520 (c) 480963 (d) 792135 (e) 202408 (f) 2004

22
3) (a) Is a number divisible by 4 also divisible by 2 ? Give an example.
(b) Is a number divisible by 9 also divisible by 3? Give an example.
4) State true or false. If false, give an example.
(a) A number divisible by 4 is also divisible by 8.
(b) A number divisible by 2 or 4 is divisible by 8.
(c) A number divisible by 3 is also divisible by 9.
THINGS TO REMEMBER
(1) Numbers ending with 0 are divisible by 10.
(2) Numbers ending with 0 or 5 are divisible by 5.
(3) Numbers ending with 0, 2, 4, 6 or 8 are divisible by 2.
(4) If the number formed by the last two digits of a given number is divisible by
4, the given number will be divisible by 4.
(5) If the number formed by the last three digits of a given number is divisible
by 8, the given number will be divisible by 8.
(6) If the sum of the digits of a number is divisible by 3, the number is divisible
by 3.
(7) If the sum of the digits of a number is divisible by 9, the number is divisible
by 9.
(8) If the difference of sums of the digits in alternate places is divisible by 11, the
number is divisible by 11.

## 1.6 Greatest common divisor and Least common multiple :

1.6. (a) Greatest common divisors (G.C.D.) :
Two numbers may have several common divisors. The largest among them is called the greatest
common divisors (g.c.d) of the numbers.
Note : G.C.D. is also known as the highest common factor (H.C.F.)
Example 41 :
Find the g.c.d. of 12 and 16
Solution :
Method 1 : To find the g.c.d.
Step :
(1) Write the divisors of 12 and 16
(2) Write the common divisors of 12 and 16
(3) Select the greatest common divisor.
Divisors of 12 : 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 12
Divisors 16 : 1, 2, 4, 8, 16
Common divisors : 1, 2, 4
Greatest common divisor : 4
Method 2 :
Step :
(1) Find the prime factors of 12 and 16.
(2) Circle common divisors.
(3) Multiply the encircled common divisors.

23
12 = 2 2 3 (Prime factorisation)

16 = 2 2 2 2 (Prime factorisation)

## Here the common divisors are 2 and 2.

g.c.d. = 2 2 = 4
Method 3 : (Short cut method)
2 12 16 (Divide by common divisor 2)
2 6 8 (Divide by common divisor 2)
3, 4

g.c.d. = 2 2 = 4
Method 4 : Continued Division Method
The division method is useful for finding the g.c.d. of large numbers.
Divide the bigger number by smaller number. Then the divisors are divided in succession by the
remainders got. This division should be carried out till we get the remainder zero. The last divisor is
the g.c.d. of the given numbers.
Example 42 :
Find the g.c.d. of 124 and 648.
Solution :
124) 648 (5
620

28) 124 (4
112

12) 28 (2
24

4) 12 (3
12

0

Here the last divisor is 4.Therefore the g.c.d. of 124 and 648 is 4.
Example 43 :
Find the g.c.d. of 10, 15, 20 by shortcut method.
Solution :
5 10 15 20 (Divide by common divisor 5)
2 3 4
g.c.d. = 5
Example 44 :
Find the g.c.d. of 12, 18, 60 by prime factorisation method.

24
Solution :
12 = 2 2 3
18 = 2 3 3
60 = 2 2 3 5
Here the common factors are 2 and 3.
g.c.d. = 2 3 = 6.
Example 45 :
The length and breadth of a rectangular sheet are 12cm and 8cm respectively. Equal squares of
a maximum size are to be cut without wasting the sheet. What will be the side of such a square?
Solution :
Greatest equal distances have to be cut from the
length as well as breadth of the rectangle. So we 8
need to find the g.c.d. of the length and breadth
12
The g.c.d. of length 12 and breadth 8 is
12 = 2 2 3
8 = 2 2 2

g.c.d. = 2 2 = 4
The side of a square will be 4 cm.
1.6.(b) Least common multiple (L.C.M.) :
The smallest among the common multiples of two numbers is called their least common
multiple (l.c.m.)
Method :
To find the l.c.m.
Step (1) Write the multiples of first number
(2) Write the multiples of second number
(3) Write the common multiples
(4) Write the least common multiple
Example 46 :
Find the l.c.m. of 8, 12.
Solution :
Multiples 8 : 8, 16, 24 , 32, 40, 48 , 56, 64, 72
Multiples of 12 : 12, 24 , 36, 48 , 60, 72 , 84
Common multiples : 24, 48, 72,
Least common multiples : 24
Another method (division method) :
Example 47 :
Find the l.c.m. of 30 and 12.

25
Solution :
2 30 12 (common divisor 2)
3 15 6 (common divisor 3)
5, 2 (no common divisor)
l.c.m. = 2 3 5 2 = 60
Example 48 :
Find the g.c.d. and l.c.m. of 36, 48
Solution :
2 36 48 (common divisor 2)
2 18 24 (common divisor 2)
3 9 12 (common divisor 3)
3, 4 (No common divisor)
g.c.d. = 2 2 3 = 12 [Product of common divisors only]
l.c.m. = 2 2 3 3 4 = 144.
Example 49 :
(a) Find the g.c.d. and l.c.m. of 8 and 12.
(b) Find the product of their l.c.m. and g.c.d.
(c) Find the product of these numbers 8 and 12.
(d) What do you find from these results ?
Solution :
(a) 2 8 12
2 4 6
2 3
g.c.d. = 2 2 = 4
l.c.m. = 2 2 2 3 = 24
(b) Product of l.c.m. and g.c.d. = 24 4 = 96.
(c) Product of the numbers 8 and 12 = 8 12 = 96.
(d) Here we find the product of l.c.m. and g.c.d is equal to the product of the given numbers.
Thus we can say
The product of g.c.d. and l.c.m. of two numbers is equal to the product of
given numbers.
Example 50 :
The g.c.d. of 36 and 80 is 4. Find their l.c.m.
We know that
(g.c.d.) (l.c.m.) = (product of given numbers)
4 l.c.m. = 36 80
4 l.c.m. = 2880
4 l.c.m. 2880
4 = 4
2880
l.c.m. = 4
l.c.m. = 720

26
Example 51 :
Find the g.c.d. and l.c.m. of 12, 20, 32.
Solution :
Using short cut method
2 12 20 32

2 6 10 16
3 5 8
g.c.d. = 22=4
l.c.m. = 2 2 3 5 8 = 480
Example 52 :
The g.c.d. of two numbers is 2 and their l.c.m. is 48. If one of the numbers is 16, find the other
number.
Product of given numbers = l.c.m. g.c.d.
(one number) (other number) = l.c.m. g.c.d.
16 (other number) = 48 2
= 96
(other number) 96
16 16 = 16

other number = 6
Example 53 :
Find the g.c.d. and l.c.m. of the numbers 3 and 5.
Solution :
The g.c.d. of 3 and 5 = 1 1 3 5

## The l.c.m. of 3 and 5 = 15 3 5

Discuss :
(a) The g.c.d. of two prime numbers is 1
(b) The l.c.m. of two prime numbers is their product

Exercise 1.8
1. Find the g.c.d. of the following :
(a) 3 5 7, 3 7 13 (b) 2 2 2 3, 2 3 5 7
(c) 18, 24 (d) 26, 32 (e) 16, 32, 48 (f) 15, 20, 30
(g) 120, 274 (h) 285, 480
2. Find the l.c.m. of the following :
(a) 2 3 3 3, 2 3 5 7 (b) 3 5 11, 2 5 11
(c) 8, 15 (d) 12, 20 (e) 6, 18, 24 (f) 20, 30, 45
3. Find g.c.d. and l.c.m. of 12, 16, 24.
4. Given two prime numbers. What are their g.c.d. and l.c.m.?

27
5. A merchant has 120 litres and 180 litres of two kinds of oil. He wants to sell the oil by filling
the two kinds of oil in tins of equal volumes. What is the greatest volume of such a tin?
6. The students of a class can be divided into groups of 6 or groups of 8 without leaving out any
student. What will be the minimum number of students in such a class ?
7. The g.c.d. of 72 and 252 is 36. Find their l.c.m.
8. The l.c.m. of two numbers is 1320. Their g.c.d. is 12. If one of the numbers is 132, find the
other.
THINGS TO REMEMBER
(1) The largest among the common divisors of two or more numbers is called the
greatest common divisor (g.c.d.) of the numbers.
(2) The smallest among the common multiples of two or more numbers is called
their least common multiple (l.c.m.).
(3) The product of g.c.d. and l.c.m. of two numbers is equal to the product of
given numbers.

1.7 Integers
We have studied several properties of whole numbers and four fundamental operations namely
addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. But we have not studied the differences such as
5 7, 6 10, 20 30 etc. in the whole number system. This shows the need to extend our whole
number system to represent such differences as well.
To enable us to study such numbers we shall see the new idea of representing the numbers with
direction. These numbers are known as directed numbers.

## 1.7.1 Directed numbers

1.7.2 Integers and order in number line
1.7.3 Addition and Subtraction of integers
1.7.4 Multiplication of integers
1.7.5 Division of integers

## 1.7.1 Directed numbers :

In our day to day life we often use the idea of opposites. East-west, right-left, up-down, profit-
loss are few examples of opposites.
Consider the following situation :
West
West East
East
I H
H G
G FF A B C D
D EE

Fig. 1.1
In the figure 1.1, a road running east-west is shown. The distance between any two consecutive
places is 1 km.
Let the point A represent a bus stand. Suppose two friends Vani and Selvi got down at the bus
stand and walked in opposite directions.

28
Now Selvi is at D and Vani is at G.
This means Selvi has walked 3km east from the bus stand and this can be written as 3km .
Similarly Vani has walked 2km west from the bus stand and this can be written as 2km.
From the above representation we can find their present position clearly.
Unless we specify the direction with the distance we cannot fix their positions.
Therefore numbers associated with direction are known as directed numbers.
Example 54 :

An aeroplane is flying at 2000m above the
sea level. A submarine ship is moving at a depth
of 800m in the sea. Write these details using
directed numbers. 2000 m

## Aeroplane is flying at a height of

2000m or up 2000m.

## Submarine ship moves at a depth of

800 m or down 800 m.
800 m

Fig. 1.2
Example 55 :
Mary deposited Rs. 1000 in the bank and noted it as Rs. 1000 . She withdrew Rs. 400 from
the bank. How did she note this amount?
Mary deposited Rs. 1000
Mary withdrew Rs. 400.
We use the symbols , , to represent the different positions. Instead of such symbols
we can use the symbols + and to represent the opposites.
Figure 1.1. can be modified as follows :
4 3 2 1 O +1 +2 +3 +4

I H G F A B C D E

Fig. 1.3.
Here B, C, D, Eare denoted as + 1, + 2, + 3, and F, G, H, I are denoted as
1, 2, 3, . The numbers + 1, + 2, + 3, + 4, are known as positive numbers and
1, 2, 3, are known as negative numbers. (read as minus 1, minus 2, minus 3)
Discuss :
Is zero positive or negative?
Zero corresponds to the origin. This is the reference point. This does not involve any direction.
Therefore zero is neither positive nor negative.

29
Example 56 :
Kannan deposited Rs. 5000 in the savings account. He withdrew Rs. 1500. Use positive and
negative numbers for the above statement.
Solution :
Kannan deposited : + Rs. 5000
Kannan withdrew : Rs. 1500
Exercise 1.9
Write the following using suitable directions :
1) End of last week, National Stock Exchange point increased by 26 points.
This week, National Stock Exchange point decreased by 15 points.
2) Go 10 km towards North from the bus stand.
Go 12 km towards South from the bus stand.
3) Before the rainy season, the level of water in well went down by 1m. After the rain it has
risen by 2m.
4) The shop owner had a profit of Rs. 500 yesterday and had a loss of Rs. 100 today.
5) Go up by five floors in the lift and then come down by three floors.
6) Write the above five statements using + and signs.
1.7.2 Integers and order in number line :
Positive numbers, zero and negative numbers together form integers.
We denote the set of integers by Z. Therefore Z : 3, 2, 1, 0, + 1, + 2, + 3, .
+ 1, + 2, + 3, are called positive integers.
1, 2, 3, are called negative integers.
Note : Positive numbers can be written even without the + sign. For example, +5, +4, +3, +2, +1 are
written as 5, 4, 3, 2, 1.
Thus, Z = { 3, 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, 3, }
The integers are represented on the number line as follows :

4 3 2 1 O 1 2 3 4

Fig. 1.4
From the above figure 1.4
4 is to the right of 2 4 > 2
3 is to the right of 0 3 > 0
0 is to the right of 1 0 > 1
2 is to the right of 4 2 > 4
3 is to the left of 5 3 < 5
1 is to the left of 3 1 < 3
3 is to the left of 2 3 < 2
4 is to the left of 1 4 < 1
On the number line, we find that the number values increase as we move to the right and
decrease as we move to the left.

30
Example 57 :
Which is greater? 4 or 2?
Solution :
Locate these numbers on the number line.

5 4 3 2 1 O 1 2 3 4

Fig. 1.5
On the number line, 2 is on the right side of 4.
2 > 4.
Example 58 :
Write in ascending order
5, 2, 1, 0, 3, 4, 3
Solution :
Represent these numbers on a number line.

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
Fig. 1.6
Now arrange the numbers from left to right to get them in ascending order.
5 < 3 < 1 < 0 < 2 < 3 < 4.
The ascending order is 5, 3, 1, 0, 2, 3, 4.
Example 59 :
Write in descending order 4, 5, 0, 2, 3, 6.
Solution :
Represent these numbers on a number line.

6 5 4 3 2 1 O 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Fig. 1.7
Now arrange the numbers from right to left to get them in descending order.
5 > 3 > 0 > 2 > 4 > 6.
The descending order is 5, 3, 0, 2, 4, 6.
Discuss : When two integers are given, can you decide which is greater or less without the help of a
number line?

Exercise 1.10
1. Find all integers between
(a) 0 and 6 (b) 1 and 5 (c) 3 and + 2 (d) 8 and 1
2. Put the sign < or > in the box :
(a) 3  1 (b) 1  4 (c) 15  0
(d) 5  5 (e) 0  10 (f) 24  48

31
3. In the following pairs of numbers which one is greater?
(a) 37, 45 (b) 28, 18 (c) 0, 145
(d) 200, 318 (e) 145, 150 (f) 100, 0
4. Write the following in ascending order :
(a) 3, 4, 5, 10, 7, 10, 9 (b) 4, 7, 4, 0, 7, 2, 2, 3
5. Write fhe following in descending order :
(a) 4, 3, 6, 8, 0, 5, 2, 1 (b) 100, 4, 20, 50, 45, 65, 75

## 1.7.3 Addition and Subtraction of integers :

Example 60 :
Solution :
+3 +4

6 5 4 3 2 1 O 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Fig. 1.8
First go to 3. Then move right by 4 units. We reach 7.
Therefore 3 + 4 = 7.
Example 61 :
Solution :
5 2

8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Fig. 1.9
First go to 2. Then move left by 5 units. We reach 7.
Therefore ( 2) + ( 5) = 7.
Example 62 :
Solution :
7

3 2 1 O 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Fig. 1.10
First go to 7. Then move left by 3 units. We reach 4.
Therefore 7 + ( 3) = 4.

32
Example 63 :
Solution :
6

+4

8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 O 1 2 3 4 5 6
Fig. 1.11
From the figure ( 6) + 4 = 2.
Example 64 :
Solution :
3

+4 +3

4 3 2 1 O 1 2 3 4
Fig. 1.12
From the figure 3 + ( 3) = 0.
Sometimes we get zero when we add a negative number and a positive number. Then these
numbers are called additive inverses of each other.
Here 3 and 3 are called additive inverses of each other. Similarly 4 and 4 ; 5 and 5 ;
6 and 6 are some examples for additive inverses.
Discuss :
(1) On the number line, why did you go some units right in the examples (60) and (63) and
left in the examples (61) and (62)?
(2) From the above examples, when a positive integer and a negative integer are added we get
either a positive integer or a negative integer or zero.
Thus the following simple rule is used for doing addition of integers.
To add a positive number and a negative number, subtract the smaller
number from the bigger number without taking the sign into account and
to the result, give the sign of the bigger number.
Now we shall do the additions in Integers (Z), without using number line.
Example 65 :
Solution :
The bigger number among 10, 12 is 12
The difference between these numbers is (12 10) = 2
The sign of the bigger number is
10 + ( 12) = 2

33
Example 66 :
Add : (a) ( 3) + 8 (b) ( 9) + 6 (c) 7 + ( 2) (d) 3 + ( 5)
Solution :
(a) The bigger number among 3 and 8 is 8.
The difference between these numbers is 5.
The sign of the bigger number is +.
3 + 8 = +5
= 5 (Why)
(b) The bigger number among 9 and 6 is 9.
The difference between these numbers is 3.
The sign of the bigger number is .
9 + 6 = 3
(c) The bigger number among 7 and 2 is 7.
The difference between these numbers is 5.
The sign of the bigger number is +.
7 + ( 2) = + 5
= 5
(d) The bigger number among 3 and 5 is 5.
The difference between these numbers is 2.
The sign of the bigger number is .
3 + ( 5) = 2

## So far we have studied the addition of two integers when

(a) both are positive
(b) one is positive and another is negative
Now, let us see the simplest method to add two negative integers.
Step 1 : Add the two integers without taking the signs.
Step 2 : Put the sign before the result.
Example 67 :
Solution :
Step 1 : 5 + 3 = 8
Step 2 : 8
Thus 5 + ( 3) = 8
1.7.3 (b) Subtraction :
In whole numbers, we have learnt that addition and subtraction are inverse operations. We have
also learnt that for every subtraction fact we have one addition fact.
For 8 2 =  , we write the addition fact 8 =  + 2. This means what should be added to 2 to
give 8. We know that the answer is 6.

34
Example 68 :
Subtract 3 from 7.
Solution :
Subtract 3 from 7 means, what should be added to 3 to give 7. Clearly the answer is 4.
Example 69 :
Subtract 2 from 8.
Solution :
To subtract 2 from 8, we should find what should be added to 2 to give 8. Let us consider
this on a number line.

6 5 4 3 2 1 O 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

Fig. 1.13
From the figure 1.13, from 2 to 8, we see that there are 10 units.
8 ( 2) = 10
But we know that 8 + (+ 2) = 10

Therefore to subtract ( 2) from 8, it is enough to add the additive inverse of ( 2). Thus the
following simple rule is used for the subtraction of two integers.
To subtract an integer from another integer it is enough to add
the additive inverse of the second number.
Now we shall do subtraction in Z, without using numberline.
Example 70 :
Subtract (a) 4 from 10 (b) subtract 3 from 5
Solution :
(a) 10 ( 4) = 10 + (additive inverse of 4)
= 10 + 4
= 6 (see addition of two integers)
(b) 5 (3) = 5 + (additive inverse of 3)
= 5 + ( 3)
= 53
= 8
Exercise 1.11
1. Add by using the number line.
(a) 5 + 3 (b) ( 3) + 7 (c) 6 + ( 4) (d) ( 3) + ( 4)
(e) 4 + ( 4) (f) 0 + ( 3)

35
2. Write the details of addition or subtraction shown in the following figure :

## 3. Add without using the numberline.

(a) 11 + ( 7) (b) ( 13) + 8 (c) ( 15) + ( 18)
(d) ( 250) + (+ 150) (e) (+ 380) + ( 273) (f) 0 + ( 36)
4. Subtract :
(a) 35 ( 20) (b) ( 15) ( 45) (c) 28 ( 12)
(d) 67 ( 67) (e) 73 ( 38) (f) 850 ( 350)

Discuss :
+ sign and sign have been used in different situations.
(i) How is plus sign used in different situations?
(1) It is used to mention positive integers.
(2) It is used to mean the operation of addition.
(ii) How is minus sign used in different ways?
(1) It is used to mention negative integers.
(2) It is used to mean the operation of subtraction.

36
1.7.4 Multiplication of integers :
We know that multiplication is repeated addition.
Example 71 :
Multiply (a) 2 and 3 (b) ( 2) and 3
Solution :
By repeated addition we get the following :
(a) 23 = 2 + 2 + 2 = 6.
(b) ( 2) 3 = ( 2) + ( 2) + ( 2) = 6
Let us verify these on the number line.

6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Fig. 1.14
(+ 2) 3 = 2 + 2 + 2 = 6

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 O 1 2 3 4 5 6

Fig. 1.15
( 2) 3 = ( 2) + ( 2) + ( 2) = 6
From the above example we observe that
(a) the product of two positive integers is a positive integer.
(b) the product of a negative integer and a positive integer is a negative integer.
We have found the product of 2 3 and ( 2) 3 on numberline. But it is not possible to find
the product of 2 ( 3) and ( 2) ( 3) using number line.
Now observe the pattern in the following products.
(+ 3) (+ 3) = + 9
(+ 3) (+ 2) = + 6
(+ 3) (+ 1) = + 3
(+ 3) (0) = 0
What do you observe? In the above products, on the left hand side, the first number remains the
same. The second number goes on decreasing by one. On the right handside, the result goes on
decreasing by 3.
If we extend this process, what will we get?
We will get the following multiplication facts.
(+ 3) ( 1) = 3
(+ 3) ( 2) = 6
(+ 3) ( 3) = 9

37
Thus we see that by multiplying a positive number and a negative number the result will be a
negative number.
Now consider (+ 3) ( 3) = 9. On the left hand side keep the second number the same and go
on decreasing the first number by one. We get the following pattern.
(+ 3) ( 3) = 9
(+ 2) ( 3) = 6
(+ 1) ( 3) = 3
0 ( 3) = 0
We see that on the right hand side, the numbers go on increasing by 3.
( 1) ( 3) = +3
( 2) ( 3) = +6
Thus multiplication of two negative integers gives a positive integer.
Therefore we state the following rules about multiplication of integers.
The product of two positive integers is a positive integer.
The product of a positive integer and a negative integer is a negative integer.
The product of two negative integers is a positive integer.
This can also be written as follows :
Positive number positive number = positive number
Positive number negative number = negative number
Negative number positive number = negative number
Negative number negative number = positive number
Example 72 :
Find the product of
(a) (+ 6) ( 5) (b) ( 12) (+ 12) (c) ( 15) ( 4)
Solution :
(a) (+ 6) ( 5) = 30 (positive negative = negative)
(b) ( 12) (+ 12) = 144 (negative positive = negative)
(c) ( 15) ( 4) = + 60 (negative negative = positive)
Example 73 :
Find the product of
(a) ( 3) (+ 5) (+ 2) (b) ( 2) ( 5) (+ 10) (c) ( 4) ( 2) ( 6)
Solution :
(a) ( 3) (+ 5) (+ 2) (b) ( 2) ( 5) (+ 10) (c) ( 4) ( 2) ( 6)
= ( 15) (+ 2) = (+ 10) (+ 10) = (+ 8) ( 6)
= 30 = + 100 = 48

38
Exercise 1.12
1. Find the product :
(a) (+ 5) ( 3) (b) 20 ( 8) (c) 11 ( 7) (d) 0 ( 13)
2. Find the product :
(a) ( 6) 8 (b) ( 13) 6 (c) ( 15) 6 (d) ( 7) 9
3. Find the product :
(a) ( 15) ( 4) (b) ( 8) ( 4) (c) ( 25) ( 4) (d) ( 17) ( 17)
4. Find the product :
(a) ( 3) ( 5) (+ 4) (b) ( 12) ( 5) ( 10) (c) 8 ( 7) (+ 12)
(d) ( 4) (0) ( 28) (e) ( 4) ( 4) ( 4) (f) 14 ( 2) ( 2)
5. Complete the multiplication table given below :
X 2 1 0 1 2
2
1
0
1
2
6. In a quiz 50 questions were asked to each participant. 2 marks were awarded for each right
Salim answered 39 questions correctly, 6 questions wrongly and did not answer the
remaining questions. Find the marks obtained by him.
1.7.5 Division of integers :
We have studied already that from each multiplication fact we can get two division facts.
20 20
For example 5 4 = 20 gives two division facts 5 = 4 and 4 = 5.
Now consider the following examples
Example 74 :
Divide : + 21 by + 7
Solution :
+ 21
We know that (+ 7) (+ 3) = + 21, therefore the two division facts are + 7 = + 3
+ 21
and + 3 = + 7
+ 21
+7 = +3
Example 75 :
Divide : (+ 30) by ( 6)
Solution :
+ 30 + 30
We know that ( 6) ( 5) = + 30. The two division facts are 6 = 5 and 5 = 6

+ 30
6 = 5.

39
Example 76 :
Divide : ( 15) by (+ 3)
Solution :
15
+ 3 = 5 [because (+ 3) ( 5) = 15]
Example 77 :
Divide : ( 35) by 7
Solution :
We know that ( 7) (+ 5) = ( 35)
35
Therefore, 7 = + 5
Thus from the examples 74, 75, 76 and 77, we have
Positive number
Positive number = Positive number
Positive number
Negative number = Negative number
Negative number
Positive number = Negative number
Negative number
Negative number = Positive number
Example 78 :
Divide :
(a) (+ 200) (+ 25) (b) ( 144) (+ 12) (c) ( 75) ( 15) (d) (+ 96) ( 8)
Solution :
+ 200 144 75 + 96
(a) + 25 = + 8 (b) + 12 = 12 (c) 15 = + 5 (d) 8 = 12
Example 79 :
( 32) ( 2) ( 45) ( 2)2
Simplify : (a) (b)
( 8) ( 3)2
Solution :
( 32) ( 2) + 64
(a) ( 8) = 8 = 8
( 45) ( 2)2 ( 45) ( 2) ( 2)
(b) =
( 3) 2 ( 3) ( 3)
( 45) (+ 4) 180
= (+ 9) = +9
= 20
Exercise 1.13
1. Divide :
(a) (+ 100) (+ 25) (b) (+ 18) (+ 18) (c) 28 ( 4) (d) 441 ( 21)
(e) ( 156) 12 (f) ( 91) 7 (g) ( 108) ( 6) (h) ( 77) ( 11)
(i) ( 84) (+ 42) (j) 350 ( 70)
2. Fill up the place holders :
(a) ( 18) ( 3) = (b) ( 20) (+ 10) =

## (e) ( 56) =8 (f) ( 169) = 13

40
3. Simplify :
( 4) ( 8) ( 3) ( 12) ( 2) (+ 12) ( 2)2 32
(a) (+ 16) (b) (c) (d) ( 4)
( 9) (+ 4) ( 6)
THINGS TO REMEMBER
(1) Positive numbers, negative numbers and zero form integers.
Z = { 3, 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, 3, }
(2) To add a positive number and a negative number, subtract the smaller
number from the bigger number without taking the sign into account and to
the result give the sign of the bigger number.
(3) To subtract an integer from another integer it is enough to add the additive
inverse of the second number.
(4) (a) The product of two positive integers is a positive integer.
(b) The product of a positive integer and a negative integer is a negative
integer.
(c) The product of two negative integers is a positive integer.
Positive number
(5) Positive number = Positive number
Positive number
Negative number = Negative number
Negative number
Positive number = Negative number
Negative number
Negative number = Positive number

1.8 Fractions
We have learnt about fractional numbers in our previous classes. Let us recall certain facts about
fractions.
1.8.1 Fractions Revision
1.8.2 Addition and Subtraction on Fractions
1.8.3 Multiplication and Division on Fractions

## 1.8.1 Fraction Revision

A fraction is a part or parts of a whole.
Look at each one of the following figures. Express the shaded portions in the figure as a part of
the whole.

## (i) (ii) (iii)

Fig. 1.16
2
In fig. (i) out of 4 equal parts 2 parts are shaded. We denote this by 4 . Here 2 is called the
numerator and 4 is called the denominator.

41
1
Fig. (ii) represents the fraction 4 .
3
Fig. (iii) represents the fraction 5 .
In a fraction, if the numerator is less than its denominator, the fraction is called a proper
fraction.
2 3 5 19
For example 7 , 4 , 8 , 37 are all proper fractions.
In a fraction, if the numerator is greater than its denominator, the fraction is called an
improper fraction.
4 7 10 28
For example 3 , 2 , 4 , 5 are all improper fractions.
Discuss :
A proper fraction is always less than 1. An improper fraction is always greater than 1.
A number consisting of a natural number and a fraction is called a mixed fraction.
1 1 3 2
For example 2 2 , 3 4 , 10 4 , 4 7 are all mixed fractions.
Example 80 :
19
Convert the improper fraction 5 into mixed fraction.
Solution :
19
Find the quotient and remainder of 5 .
That is 3

5 ) 19
15 Here 3 is the quotient, 4 is the remainder and 5 is the divisor.
19
(or denominator of 5 )
4

19 remainder
5 = quotient + divisor
19 4 19 4
5 = 3 + 5 or 5 = 3 5

Example 81 :
3
Convert the mixed fraction 4 5 into an improper fraction.

Solution :
3 45+3 20 + 3 23
45 = 5 = 5 = 5
Fractions having the same denominator are called like fractions.
1 2 5 8 10
For example 7 , 7 , 7 , 7 , 7 are all like fractions.
Fractions having different denominators are called unlike fractions.
3 5 6 13 20
For example 4 , 8 , 7 , 14 , 11 are unlike fractions.
We can express a given fraction in different ways :

42
(a) (b) (c) (d)
Fig. 1.17
1
In the figure (a) 2 part is shaded.
2
In fig. (b) 4 part is shaded.
4
In fig. (c) 8 part is shaded.
8
In fig. (d) 16 part is shaded.
1 2 4 8
In all the figures, shaded portions are equal. Therefore 2 = 4 = 8 = 16 .
These fractions are called equivalent fractions.
When two or more fractions represent the same part of a whole, the fractions are called
equivalent fractions.
Note :
(a) A fraction remains unaltered in value if both the numerator and denominator are multiplied
by the same number.
(b) A fraction remains unaltered in value if both the numerator and denominator are divided
by the same number.
Example 82 :
5
Give any three equivalent fractions to 12 .
Solution :
5 52 10
= = 24
12 12 2
5 54 20
= = 48
12 12 4
5 57 35
= = 84
12 12 7
10 20 35 5
24 , 48 , 84 are some equivalent fractions to 12 .
Example 83 :
120
Express 280 in its lowest form .

Solution :
120 2 2 3 10 3
280 = 2 2 7 10
= 7 (Divide the numerator & denominator by 2, 2 and 10)

Example 84 :
85
Reduce the fraction 175 to its lowest form .

43
Solution :
5 85 175

## 17 35 The g.c.d. of 85 and 175 is 5.

85 5 17 17
Now 175 = = 35 .
5 35
Note : To reduce a fraction to its lowest form, both the numerator and denominator should be
either divided by all their factors in succession or divided by their g.c.d. once.
Example 85 :
5 6
Which is bigger? 7 or 7
Solution :
6
In like fractions, bigger the numerator, bigger the fraction. So 7 is the bigger fraction.
Example 86 :
2 3
Which is bigger? 5 or 7
Solution :
Here make these fractions to have the same denominator and then compare.
The l.c.m. of 5 and 7 is 35.
2 27 14
Now 5 = =
57 35
3 35 15
= =
7 75 35
15 14
35 is bigger than 35
3 2
So 7 is bigger than 5 .

Note : For comparison of two or more fractions, we convert them into like fractions and then the
fraction which has greater numerator is said to be greater than the others.
For that we follow the following steps :
(1) Find the l.c.m. of the denominators.
(2) Convert the fractions with l.c.m. as the common denominator.
(3) The greater fraction is that which has the greater numerator.
Example 87 :
There are 35 pupils in a class. Out of these 20 are girls. What is the fraction of the boys in the
class ? What is the fraction of girls in the class ?
Solution : Number of pupils in the class = 35
Number of girls = 20
Number of boys = 15
15 35 3
Fraction of boys in the class = 35 = =7
75
20 45 4
Fraction of girls in the class = 35 = = 7
75

44
Example 88 :
Arrange the following in ascending order and in descending order :
2 3 5 1
3 , 4 , 6 , 4
Solution :
2 3 5 1
Find the equivalent fractions for 3 , 4 , 6 , 4 by taking l.c.m. of the denominators.

l.c.m. = 12 3 3 4 6 4
2 1 4 2 4
2 1 2 1 2 3 2 2 = 12
1 1 1 1
2 2 4 8
3 = 3 4 = 12
3 3 3 9
4 = 4 3 = 12
5 5 2 10
6 = 6 2 = 12
1 1 3 3
4 = 4 3 = 12
3 8 9 10
Writing these fractions in ascending order. 12 , 12 , 12 , 12 .
1 2 3 5
Therefore 4 , 3 , 4 , 6 are in ascending order.
5 3 2 1
Similarly we can write these fractions in descending order as 6 , 4 , 3 , 4 (Why?)

Exercise 1.14
1. In each of the following figures, what fraction is the shaded portion to that of the whole
figure?

(d) (e)

## 2. Express the following improper fractions as mixed fractions.

10 25 138 100 235
(a) 3 (b) 4 (c) 11 (d) 9 (e) 8

45
3. Express the following mixed fractions as improper fractions :
2 8 1 1 3
(a) 3 5 (b) 2 12 (c) 14 3 (d) 13 9 (e) 25 4

## 4. Fill the place holder :

2  20 2 13 39  21
(a) 5 = 10 (b)  = 1 (c) 16 =  (d) 4 = 28

1 2 3 4  
(e) 5 = 10 = = = 25= 30

## 5. Give any three equivalent fractions to the following :

3 1 2 5
(a) 4 (b) 6 (c) 5 (d) 7

## 6. Reduce the following fractions to their lowest form.

36 60 144 432
(a) 48 (b) 48 (c) 180 (d) 576

## 7. Arrange the following in ascending order :

2 3 11 7 9 8 5 7
(a) 3 , 4 , 15 , 20 (b) 10 , 15 , 8 , 12

## 8. Arrange the following in descending order :

2 8 1 3 5 4 2 9
(a) 5 , 11 , 2 , 4 (b) 6 , 5 , 3 , 10

9. There are 150 fruits in a basket. 25 of them got spoiled. What fraction are good fruits?
10. Banu scored 18 marks out of 20 in Mathematics in the first test. She scored 41 marks out of
50 in the second test. In which test was her performance better?
1.8.2 Addition and Subtraction on fractions
1.8.2 (a) Addition on fractions :
(i) For addition of fractional numbers with the same denominator, all the numerators are
added and the sum is written as numerator in the result, keeping the denominator same.
Example 89 :
2 3 1 3 2
Add (a) 9 + 9 (b) 7 + 7 + 7

Solution :
2 3 2+3 5
(a) 9 + 9 = 9 = 9
1 3 2 1+3+2 6
(b) 7 + 7 + 7 = 7 = 7

For addition of fractional numbers with different denominators, follow the steps given below :
(i) Find l.c.m. of all the denominators.
(ii) Convert each of the given fractional number into an equivalent fraction with the same
l.c.m. as denominator.
(iii) Taking l.c.m. as the common denominator add all the numerators.

46
Example 90 :
7 11
Solution :
The l.c.m. of 8 and 12 is 24
7 73 21
8 = = 24
83
11 11 2 22
= = 24
12 12 2
7 11 21 22 43 19
8 + 12 = 24 + 24 = 24 = 1 24
Exmple 91 :
1 1
Veni walked 2 2 km on first day, 3 4 km on the next day. How far did she walk on these two
days?
Solution :
1
Veni walked on the first day= 2 2 km
1
Veni walked on the second day = 3 4 km
1 1
Total distance walked by Veni = 2 2 + 3 4 (l.c.m. of 2 and 4 is 4)
5 13 52 13
= 2 + 4 = + 4
22
10 13
= 4 + 4
23
= 4
3
= 54
3
Veni walked on these two days was 5 4 km

## 1.8.2 (b) Subtraction on fractions :

For subtraction of fractions with same denominator, subtract the two numerators and the result
is written as numerator, keeping the denominator same.
For subtraction of fractions with different denominators follow these steps.
(a) Find the l.c.m. of denominators.
(b) Convert the fractions into like fractions and then subtract.
Example 92 :
4 7
Subtract 15 from 15
7 4 74 3 1
Solution : 15 15 = 15 = 15 = 5
Example 93 :
5 13
Subtract 12 from 24

47
Solution : l.c.m. of 12 and 24 is 24.
5 52 10
= = 24
12 12 2
13 5 13 10 3 1
24 12 = 24 24 = 24 = 8

Example 94 :
7 8
Subtract : 10 15

Solution :
l.c.m. of 10 and 15 is 30.
7 8 73 82
10 15 =
10 3

15 2
21 16
= 30 30

21 16 5
= 30 = 30

1
= 6

Example 95 :
3 4
Subtract 7 from 5

4 3 47 35
Solution : 5 7 = (l.c.m. of the denominators 5 and 7 is 35)
57 75
28 15
= 35 35

13
= 35

Example 96 :
2 3
Subtract 3 5 2 8
2 3 17 19
Solution : 35 28 = 5 8
17 8 19 5
= l.c.m. of 5 and 8 is 40
58 85
136 95
= 40 40
41
= 40
1
= 1 40
Example 97 :
1 1 1
Simplify : 3 + 2 2 1 6

48
Solution :
1 1 1 1 5 7
3 + 22 16 = 3 + 2 6

12 53 71
= + l.c.m. of 3, 2, 6 is 6
32 23 61
2 15 7
= 6 + 6 6

2 + 15 7
= 6
10 5 2
= 6 = 3 = 13

Exercise 1.15
5 7 5 11 4 18 17 13 7 11 4
(a) 16 + 16 (b) 15 + 15 + 15 (c) 20 + 20 (d) 17 + 17 + 17 + 17
1 3 2 4 4 5 11 13
(a) 2 + 4 (b) 5 + 9 (c) 9 + 18 (d) 12 + 14
1 3 8 1 1 14
(a) 2 4 + 1 4 (b) 2 9 +33 (c) 3 5 + 2 25
1 1 2 5 5 1
(d) 2 3 + 4 4 + 1 3 (e) 3 6 + 2 12 + 5 18
4. Subtract :
1 3 5 13 24 17 17 4
(a) 8 from 8 (b) 16 from 16 (c) 25 25 (d) 33 33
5. Simplify :
1 1 1 1 4 2 7 2
(a) 2 4 (b) 4 10 (c) 5 3 (d) 8 3
6. Simplify :
1 1 1 1 1
(a) 1 2 (b) 3 1 2 (c) 5 3 4 (d) 4 4 3 2
2 1 2 3
(e) 5 3 2 3 (f) 4 5 2 4
7. Simplify :
2 1 5 5 3 13 1 1 3 1 4 1
(a) 3 + 4 6 (b) 8 + 4 24 (c) 2 4 + 1 2 2 4 (d) 3 4 + 5 2 10

## 1.8.3 Multiplication and Division on fractions :

1.8.3 (a) Multiplication on fractions :
Now we can see the multiplication of a fractional number by a whole number on a number line.

0 1
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8
Fig. 1.18

49
1 1 1 1 1 1
Here 5 8 =
8 + 8 + 8 + 8 + 8
5
= 8
The same value can be obtained by this method also :
1 5 1 51 5
58 = 1 8 = = 8
18
Hence, when we multiply two fractional numbers, we should write the product of two
numerators as the numerator and the product of two denominators as the denominator.
Example 98 :
3 8
Multiply 5 and 6
Solution :
3 8 3 8 24
5 6 =
5 6
= 30
4
= 5
Example 99 :
1 1
Multiply 3 2 and 4 7

Solution :
1 1 7 29 29
32 47 = 2 7 = 2
1
= 14 2

Example 100 :
2 3 6 3
Find the product of : (a) 5 and 4 (b) 7 and 8
Solution :
2 3 23 6
(a) 5 4 =
54
= 20
3
= 10
6 3 63 18
(b) = =
7 8 78 56
9
= 28
Example 101 :
3 4 5 2
Find the product of : (a) 1 4 and 7 (b) 22 and 4 5
Solution :
3 4 7 4
(a) 14 7 = 4 7 = 1
5 2 5 22
(b) 22 4 5 = 22 5 = 1
Note : If the product of two numbers is one, then each of the two numbers is known as the
7 4 22 5
reciprocal of the other. 4 is the reciprocal of 7 and 5 is the reciprocal of 22 .

50
Discuss :
(1) The reciprocal of 1 is 1.
(2) 0 has no reciprocal.
Example 102 :
Find the reciprocals of the following :
3 3
(a) 5 (b) 5 7

Solution :
3 5 3 5
(a) The reciprocal of 5 is 3 , since 5 3 = 1.

3 38
(b) 5 7 is equal to 7

38 7
The reciprocal of 7 is 38 .

## 1.8.3 (b) Division on fractions :

To divide a fraction by another fraction follow the steps.
(1) Find the reciprocal of second fraction.
(2) Find the product of the first fraction and reciprocal of second fraction.
Example 103 :
5 5 3
(a) Divide 8 by 7 (b) Divide 6 by 9
Solution :
(a)
5

5
=
5
reciprocal of 5
8 7 8 7
5 7
= 8 5
7
= 8

6 4
3 3
(b)
= 6 reciprocal of 4
= 1 3 = 3
6 4 24

= 8
Example 104 :
6 3
Divide 2 11 by 1 11
6 3 28 14
Solution : 2 11 1 11 = 11 11
28 11 14 11
= 11 14 reciprocal of 11 is 14
= 2.
Example 105 :
2
Find the distance travelled in 1 hour if a person covers 42km in 4 3 hours.
Solution :
51
2
In 4 3 hours the person covers 42 km.
2
In 1 hour the person covers 42 4 3 km
42 14
= 1 3
42 3 126
= 1 14 = 14 .
= 9
In 1 hour the person covers 9 km.

Exercise 1.16
1. Simplify the products :
3 7 5 2 5 3 22
(a) 14 10 (b) 8 5 (c) 21 7 (d) 11 39
1 1 2 5 1 5 1
(e) 2 5 (10) (f) 7 2 1 3 (g) 2 8 1 2 (h) 5 9 7 5
12 9 5 1 1 5
(i) 18 10 6 (j) 4 2 1 3 2 6
2. Simplify the divisions :
2 5 5 10 3 5 5 5
(a) 3 7 (b) 6 11 (c) 10 6 (d) 22 33
3 4 2 5 1
(e) 7 5 (f) 10 3 (g) (5) 6 (h) 21 1 2
16 3 1
(i) 21 8 (j) 15 4 4 4
1
3. A tailor had 19 5 metre of cloth. He cut out 16 baby frocks out of it. How much material
was used for each frock?
1
4. One kg. of sweet costs Rs. 85 . What is the cost of 2 4 kg of sweets?
2
5. A rope 16 3 metres in length was cut into 10 equal pieces. What is the length of 1 piece?
1
6. A man distributed Rs. 802 2 to three of his sons. How much did each son get?
1 1
7. The product of two numbers is 11 3 . If one number is 4 4 , find the other number.

THINGS TO REMEMBER
(1) Fraction indicates a part or parts of a whole.
(2) If the numerator is less than its denominator the fraction is called a proper fraction.
(3) If the numerator is greater than its denominator the fraction is called an improper
fraction.
(4) A number consisting of the sum of a natural number and a fraction is called a
mixed fraction.
(5) Fractions having the same denominator are called like fractions.
(6) Fractions having different denominators are called unlike fractions.

52
(7) Two or more fractions which represent the same value are called equivalent
fractions.
(8) A fraction remains unaltered in value if both its numerator and denominator are
multiplied by the same number.
(9) To convert the unlike fractions into like fractions, we use the following steps:
(a) Find l.c.m. of all the denominators.
(b) Bring each of the given fractions into equivalent fractions with l.c.m. as
denominator.
(10) For comparison of two or more fractions, convert them into like fractions and the
one which has greater numerator is called the greater than other fractions.
(11) For the addition of like fractions, all the numerators are added, the sum is written
as numerator keeping the denominator same.
(12) For the addition of unlike fractions, first convert them into like fractions using
(13) For the subtraction of two like fractions, we subtract their numerators and write
the difference as numerator and keep its denominator same.
(14) For the subtraction of two unlike fractions, change the fractions to like fractions
using l.c.m. and do the subtraction.
(15) To find the product of two fractions, multiply their numerators and their
denominators separately and put them as a new fraction. Simplify the new fraction
into its lowest form.
(16) To divide a fraction by another fraction, multiply the first fraction by the
reciprocal of the second fraction.

## 1.9 Decimal Numbers

1.9.1 Decimal form of fractions
1.9.2 Four fundamental operations on decimals

## 1.9.1 Decimal form of fractions :

Decimals revision :
We have learnt about fractions in the previous classes. Now we shall learn about special
fractions whose denominators are 10,100,1000 etc. These fractions are called decimal fractions. Let us
use these fractions in a new way. That is
1
10 is read as one-tenth and is represented in decimal fraction as 0.1
1
100 is read as one-hundredth and is represented in decimal fraction as 0.01
1
1000 is read as one-thousandth and is represented in decimal fraction as 0.001

## Expressing the decimal numbers in place value form :

Our number system is developed with ten as the base. The place value of a number increases in
powers of ten from right to left and decreases in powers of 10 from left to right.
Let us study about the place value of digits in decimal numbers.

53
Example 106 :
Express 2843.654 in the place value table and in expanded notation.
Solution :
Hundredths Thousandths
Thousands Hundreds Tens Ones Tenths 1
1
103 102 101 1 1
103
10 102
2 8 4 3 6 5 4
Two thousand eight hundred forty three point six five four.
We can write this number in expanded form as :
2843.654 = 2 1000 + 8 100 + 4 10 + 3 1
1 1 1
+ 6 10 + 5 100 + 4 1000
1 1 1
2843.654 = 2 103 + 8 102 + 4 101 + 3 1 + 6 1 +5 2 +4
10 10 103
Note : The numbers to the left of the decimal point are whole numbers and the numbers to the
right of the decimal point are fractions.
Representation of decimal numbers on the number line :
We know how to represent numbers on the number line. In a similar way we can represent the
decimal numbers on the number line.
Example 107 :
Represent 0.3, 0.5, 0.8 on the number line.
Solution :
P Q R

0 .1 .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 1
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
Fig. 1.20
Diivide the segment joining the points corresponding to 0 and 1 into 10 equal parts.
In this number line P represents 0.3, Q represents 0.5 and R represents 0.8.
Converting the fractions into decimals :
Usually three methods are used to convert a fractional number into a decimal number.
Method 1 :
When the denominator of a fractional number is 10 or a power of 10, the method of converting
it into a decimal is as follows :
3 37 376 3768
For example 10 , 100 , 1000 , 1000 are written in decimals as
3 37 376 3768
10 = 0.3 ; 100 = 0.37 ; 1000 = 0.376 ; 1000 = 3.768
Method 2 :
If the denominator of a fractional number is other than 10 or its powers, then it can be expressed
in a form whose denominator is 10 or a power of 10.

54
Now we can follow the previous method to get the decimal form. Even we can get the decimal
form by actual division method.
Example 108 :
3
Convert 8 into decimal form.

Solution :
(a) Converting the fraction into a form having denominator 10 or its power, we have
3 3 125 375
8 = 8 125 = 1000 = 0.375
(b) By division method, 0.375

8 3.000
24

60
56

40
40

0

3
8 = 0.375
Note : There are fractional numbers whose denominators cannot be expressed as 10 or powers of
10.
1
For example, consider the fraction 3 . This cannot be expressed in the decimal form (See the
division)
0.33333

3 1.00000000
9

10
9

10
9

10
9

10
9

55
Discuss :
1) Give any two fractions which cannot be expressed as decimal.
(2) Do 0.5, 0.50, 0.500, 0.5000 have the same value?
(3) Do 0.3, 0.03 have the same value ?
Example 109 :
Convert 8.37 into an ordinary fraction.
1 1
Solution : 8.37 = 8 1 + 3 10 + 7 100
3 7
= 8 + 10 + 100

8 100 3 10 7
= + + 100
1 100 10 10
800 30 7
= 100 + 100 + 100
837
= 100
Example 110 :
Which is bigger ? 0.2 or 0.09
2 20
Solution : 0.2 = 10 = 100
9
0.09 = 100
20 9
100 is bigger than 100
Therefore 0.2 is bigger than 0.09

Exercise 1.17
1. Find the place value of 5 in the following numbers :
(a) 413.258 (b) 4.31524 (c) 503.826 (d) 216.9253
(e) 5216.293 (f) 385.432
2. Write the following numbers in the expanded form :
(a) 2458.615 (b) 405.008 (c) 11.111 (d) 0.0005
3. Express the following as decimals :
5 3 6
(a) 6000 + 200 + 40 + 8 + 10 + 100 + 1000
2 8 9
(b) 2 103 + 7 102 + 3 101 + 4 + 10 + 2 + 3
10 10
4 8 9 5
(c) 10 + 100 + 1000 + 10000
1 1 1
(d) 5 100 + 4 10 + 3 1 + 2 10 + 4 100 + 5 1000

## 4. Convert the following into decimals :

3 5 7 9 5
(a) 5 (b) 8 (c) 25 (d) 125 (e) 3

56
5. Which is bigger in each of the given pairs of numbers?
(a) 0.3, 0.03 (b) 0.4, 0.08 (c) 0.6, 0.06 (d) 1.09, 1.90
6. Convert the following decimals into simple fractional form :
(a) 0.4 (b) 0.8 (c) 0.66 (d) 0.25
(e) 0.75 (f) 0.08 (g) 1.250 (h) 2.125
7. Arrange the following decimals in ascending order :
(a) 10.271, 10.207, 10.272, 10.222, 10.277
(b) 0.9876, 0.9918, 0.9753, 0.9873, 0.9921
8. Arrange the following decimals in descending order :
(a) 5.81, 5.08, 5.88, 5.85, 5.87, 5.82
(b) 3.301, 3.031, 3.310, 3.290, 3.931, 3.321
1.9.2 Four fundamental operations on Decimals
1.9.2 (a) Addition and subtraction of decimal numbers :
For addition and subtraction of decimal fractions, it is important that the terms should be
arranged one below the other according to their place values.
Example 111 :
Add 16.302, 3.672, 145.07, 76.3, 2
Solution :
Among the five numbers, one or more numbers are having maximum of 3 decimal places.
Convert all the numbers with three decimal places without affecting the values.
That is 145.07 = 145.070
76.3 = 76.300
2 = 2.000
Now write the numbers in the following form and add.
16.302
3.672
145.070
76.300
2.000

243.344

Example 112 :
Subtract : 362.725 from 573.863.
Solution :
573.863
362.725

211.138

Example 113 :
Simplify : 37.62 14.05 + 15.467 27.108

57
Solution :
To simplify do the following steps :
(iii) Find the difference. (iv) Put the sign of the greater number
Add : 37.62 + 15.467 = 53.087 37.620
15.467

53.087

## Add : 14.05 + 27.108 = 41.158

The difference = 53.087 14.050
41.158 27.108

11.929 41.158

The sign of greater number is positive
37.62 14.05 + 15.467 27.108 = 11.929
Example 114 :
A cloth merchant had 235.5 metres of cloth. He sold 32.25 m, 105.5 m, 83.75 m on three
successive days respectively. How much cloth is unsold?
Solution :
First day sales = 32.25 m
Second day sales = 105.50 m
Third day sales = 83.75 m

Total sales = 221.50 m

The length of the cloth = 235.50 m
Total sales = 221.50 m

The unsold cloth = 14.00 m

Exercise 1.18
(a) 4.7 + 0.47 (b) 3.002 + 2.030 (c) 38.102 + 6.138
2. Subtract :
(a) 175.562 43.84 (b) 325.042 119.072 (c) 100 13.452
3. Find the sum of the following :
(a) 19.465 + 10.201 + 32.457 + 13.0583
(b) 137.291 + 118.321 + 108.005 + 0.927
4. Simplify :
(a) 45.743 25.06 + 12.345 11.214
(b) 345.421 131.140 421.263 + 507.215
58
5. The amount of rainfall recorded on four days in a place are given below :
7.52cm, 4.05 cm, 6.15 cm and 5 cm. Find the total amount of rainfall on all four days.
6. Anbuselvi saved Rs. 105.50, Rs. 84.25, Rs. 38.75, Rs. 110.75 in four successive months.
What is her total savings?
7. The sum of two numbers is 74.65. If one number is 39.28, find the other number.
8. 0.875 part of a water tank is filled with water. How much part is yet to be filled?
9. Kanimozhi took Rs. 100 to the market. She purchased tea for Rs. 8.25, rice for Rs. 43.50,
vegetables for Rs. 23.25 and fruits for Rs. 15.75. How much money is left with her?
1.9.2 (b) Multiplication and division of decimal numbers :
Multiplication of decimal numbers by 10
Observe the following multiplications.
12345 12345
12.345 10 = 1000 10 = 100 = 123.45
12345 12345
12.345 100 = 1000 100 = 10 = 1234.5
12345
12.345 1000 = 1000 1000 = 12345 = 12345.0

Note : From the above examples we observe, multiplying by 10 makes the decimal point move 1
place from left to right.
Multiplying by 100 makes the decimal point move 2 places from left to right.
Multiplying by 1000 makes the decimal point move 3 places from left to right.
Division of decimal numbers by 10
Now observe the following divisions :
123.45 12345 12345
= = = 12.345
10 100 10 1000
123.45 12345 12345
= = = 1.2345
100 100 100 10000
123.45 12345 12345
= = = 0.12345
1000 100 1000 100000
From the above examples we get the following results :
On dividing by 10, the decimal point moves 1 place from right to left.
On dividing by 100, the decimal point moves 2 places from right to left.
On dividing by 1000, the decimal point moves 3 places from right to left.
For example,
85.6 10 = 856
3.48 10 = 34.8
0.032 10 = 0.32
0.124 100 = 12.4
7.325 100 = 732.5
43.6 100 = 4360
0.2934 1000 = 293.4

59
For example
531.4 10 = 53.14
8.9242 10 = 0.89242
2.574 100 = 0.02574
54.32 100 = 0.5432
7 1000 = 0.007
25 1000 = 0.025

Discuss :
1 1 1
10 10 = 100 . Thefefore .1 .1 = 0.01
1 1 1
10 100 = 1000 . Therefore .1 .01 = 0.001
1 1 1
10 1000 = 10000 . Thefore .1 .001 = 0.0001
1 1 1
100 100 = 10000 . Therefore .01 .01 = 0.0001

## Multiplication of Decimal numbers :

Example 115 :
Multiply (a) 15.4 1.2 (b) 6.43 0.22
Solution :
154 12 154 12 1848
(a) 15.4 1.2 = 10 10 = 100 = 100 = 18.48

## 643 22 643 22 14146

(b) 6.43 0.22 = 100 100 = 10000 = 10000 = 1.4146

## What do these examples tell us?

In multiplication of decimal numbers, first without considering the decimal points multiply the
numbers. Then in the result, place the decimal point as many places from the right as the total number
of decimal places in both the numbers.
Example 116 :
Multiply : 14.2 2.13
Solution :
First multiply : 142 213 142 213

426
142
142 213 = 30246. 284
Total number of decimal places in both the numbers is 3
30246
14.2 2.13 = 30.246

60
Example 117 :
Multiply : 2.1 1.3 1.2
Solution :
First multiply : 21 13 12 21 13

63
21

273

273 12

We have, 21 13 12 = 3276. 546
Total number of decimal places in all the 273
three numbers is 3.
2.1 1.3 1.2 = 3.276 3276

Example 118 :
The cost of 1 kg sugar is Rs. 14.70. Find the cost of 6.5 kg of sugar ?
Solution :
The cost of 1 kg sugar = Rs. 14.70.
The cost of 6.5 kg of sugar = 14.70 6.5 1470 65
= 95550
= 95.550 7350
= 95.55 8820

95550
The cost of 6.5 kg of sugar is Rs. 95.55
Division of decimal numbers :
To divide a decimal or a whole number by a decimal, convert the divisor into a whole number
by multiplying by 10 or powers of 10 suitably. Multiply the dividend also by the same number and
then divide it.
Example 119 :
Divide : 8.4 1.4
8.4 8.4 10 84
Solution : = = 14 = 6.
1.4 1.4 10
8.4
1.4 = 6

61
Example 120 :
Divide 66.65 0.215
66.65 66.65 1000 66650
Solution : 0.215 = 0.215 1000 = 215
= 310
310

215 ) 66650
645

215
215

0

66.65
0.215 = 310
Example 121 :
Divide : 37.5 1.5
37.5 37.5 10 375
Solution : 1.5 = 1.5 10 = 15
25

15 ) 375
30

75
75

0

37.5
1.5 = 25
Example 122 : The price of 30 pens is Rs. 172.50. Find the price of one pen.
Solution :
Price of 30 pens = Rs. 172.50
Price of 1 pen = 172.50 30
= Rs. 5.75
5.75

30 ) 172.50
150

225
210

150
150

0
The price of 1 pen is Rs. 5.75

62
Exercise 1.19
1. Multiply :
(a) 12.15 23 (b) 3.562 47 (c) 0.625 12 (d) 4.5 2.8
(e) 34.3 5.3 (f) 0.4 0.4 (g) 0.25 0.25 (h) 0.007 0.2
(i) 0.09 0.08
2. Find the product of the following by using the product 132 214 = 28248
(a) 1.32 2.14 (b) 13.2 21.4 (c) 0.132 21.4 (d) 132 0.214
(e) 013.2 0.0214 (f) 0.132 0.214
3. Find the product of the following :
(a) 1.2 1.1 0.2 (b) 3 4 1.3 (c) 12 0.25 2.5 (d) 0.5 0.4 8.0
4. Divide :
(a) 96.85 5 (b) 4.5 3 (c) 7.91 7 (d) 0.144 12
(e) 24.8 0.4 (f) 3.42 0.02 (g) 0.168 0.8 (h) 0.0064 0.008
5. A van can run 8.75 km using 1 litre of diesel. How far can it go using 3.5 litres of diesel?
6. Cost of 1 kg of rice is Rs. 23.75. Find the cost of 25 kg of rice.
THINGS TO REMEMBER
(1) Decimals are fractions having their denominators as 10 or powers of 10.
(2) Equivalent forms of decimal can be obtained easily by including zero to the
right of the decimal as follows : 0.5, 0.50, 0.500, 0.5000 are equivalent
decimals.
(3) To add two more more decimals arrange the numbers in such a way that the
decimal points of the numbers are in the same column and the digits of the
same place value are in the same column. Then add the numbers and put the
decimal point directly under the decimal points of the numbers.
(4) To subtract the decimals we arrange the decimals in such a way that the
decimal points are in the same column and the digits having the same place
value are in the same column. Then we subtract them and put the decimal
directly under the decimal point of the numbers.
(5) To multiply a decimal by another decimal, first remove the decimal point
and do the ordinary multiplication. In the result, place the decimal point as
many places from the right as the total number of decimal places in the
numbers.
(6) To divide a decimal by another decimal, first we convert the denominator
(divisor) into a whole number by multiplying by 10, 100 or 1000 etc.
whatever is suitable. We multiply the numerator (dividend) also by the same
number and then divide it.
UNIT TEST 1
Part I 20 1 = 20
(1) The predecessor of the whole number 1 is
(a) 0 (b) 1 (c) 2 (d) 3
(2) The prime number among the following is
(a) 93 (b) 95 (c) 97 (d) 99
(3) The number divisible by 3 is
(a) 215 (b) 138 (c) 209 (d) 200
(4) The number divisible by 4 is
(a) 114 (b) 202 (c) 512 (d) 126
(5) The g.c.d. of 5 and 7 is
(a) 1 (b) 5 (c) 7 (d) 12
(6) Additive inverse of 6 is
(a) 0 (b) 6 (c) + 6 (d) 1

63
(7) ( 6) + ( 2) is
(a) 4 (b) + 4 (c) + 8 (d) 8
15
(8) The simplest form of the fraction 60 is
1 1 1
(a) 4 (b) 5 (c) 6 (d) 4
(9) The place value of 5 in 123.456 is
1 1
(a) 100 (b) 10 (c) 10 (d) 100
(10) The value of 5 0.2 is
(a) 0.1 (b) 1.0 (c) 10 (d) .01
Complete the following :
(11) The number of thousands in the number 215083 is ____________ .
(12) The prime number between 21 and 25 is ____________ .
(13) The l.c.m. of 12 and 18 is ___________ .
(14) The bigger among 23, 32 is ___________ .
(15) ( 15) ( 5) = __________ .
(16) ( 20) ( 5) = ____________ .
1 1
(17) 3 + 5 = _________ .
(18) The reciprocal (multiplicative inverse) of 3/7 is _________ .
(19) 0.0123 1000 = __________ .
1.25
(20) 0.25 = __________ .
Part II (10 2 = 20)
Answer the following in one or two steps :
(21) There are 144 biscuits in one box. How many biscuits are there in 348 boxes?
(22) The product of two numbers is 45355. If one number is 235 find the other number.
(23) Find whether the number 31526 is divisible by 11.
(24) Find the g.c.d. of 15, 20, 30.
( 8) (+ 3)
(25) Simplify : .
(+ 6) ( 4)
5 7
(26) Which is bigger? 6 or 8
3 9 17
(27) Write in ascending order : 4 , 16 , 48 .
1 1
(28) Subtract : 1 2 from 3 4 .
(29) Add : 4.312 + 9.26 + 7.18 .
(30) Multiply : 18.46 1.2
Part III (4 5 = 20)