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GEOMETRY

Geometry is one of the most important branches of Mathematics. Geometry gives the idea of

various geometrical shapes and figures in our daily life such as articles in the houses, wells, buildings,

bridges etc. Great Indian mathematicians such as Aryabhatta, Brahmagupta, Bhaskara wrote books on

Geometry. From this we learn that the concept of geometry have begun from ancient times. The term

Geometry means a study of properties of figures and shapes and the relationship between them.

5.2 Relationship between points and lines

5.3 Angles

5.4 Triangles

5.5 Special quadrilaterals

In the previous classes we have studied some basic geometrical concepts namely point, line, ray

and plane.

Let us recall what we have learnt about them.

5.1.1 Point

5.1.2 Line

5.1.3 Ray

5.1.4 Line segment

5.1.5 Plane

5.1.1 Point :

Place a dot with the sharp tip of your pencil or with a pin on a sheet of paper. This dot gives you

an idea of a point. This point represents a location.

B

A

Fig. 5.1.

Thus we say that a point has an exact position. A point has no length, breadth or thickness.

We use English alphabets in capital letters like A, B, C, D etc. to denote points.

5.1.2 Line :

Fold a piece of paper and unfold it. What do we see in the paper?

We find that a straight crease is formed.

151

The straight crease in the paper

(fig. 5.2) is an example of a line.

Fig. 5.2

Mark two points A and B on a sheet of paper. Join these two points and extend in both

directions. Represent the ends using arrow-heads on either side as shown in fig. 5.3.

A B

Fig. 5.3

This is a straight line and it is denoted by AB or line AB or line l .

AB means that

(a) the points A and B lie on the same line.

(b) the line passes through the points A and B.

Note : A line has no starting point and ending point. So we cannot draw a line fully in a sheet of

paper. We draw only a part of a line and mark arrow-heads at its two ends to show that it

extends endlessly in both directions.

Example 1 :

Write the names of the following lines.

Q M

(a) (c) N

(b)

Fig. 5.4

Solution :

(a) PQ or line PQ (b) line l (c) MN or line MN

5.1.3 Ray :

We have seen that the sun is emitting rays of light. We can also see the rays of light from the

torch light. These represent the idea of ray.

Fig. 5.5

A ray of light originates from a point in the sun or from the torch light (fig. 5.5) and extends

endlessly in one direction.

152

Thus we can say that

a ray starts from a fixed point and extends endlessly in one direction.

A B

Fig. 5.6

In the figure 5.6, A is called the starting point. This ray starts from A and goes without an end in

the direction AB. This is called a ray and it is written as AB. Read ABas ray AB.

In the following fig. 5.7 some rays are shown in different directions.

P

N

A AB B

MN

PQ

Q

A

M

BA B

Fig. 5.7

Note : Just as in the case of a line, a ray also cannot be drawn fully on a paper. We can draw only a

part of a ray with a starting point at one end and an arrow-head on the other end.

Example 2 :

Let AB be a ray.

(1) What is the starting point of the ray?

(2) Can B be the starting point of the ray?

(3) Where does the point B lie on the ray?

(4) Are the ray AB and the ray BA different?

Solution :

1) A is the starting point.

2) No.

3) B can be marked anywhere on the ray inorder to name the ray.

(4) AB and BA are different because they are in different directions.

5.1.4 Line segment :

A line segment is a part of a line consisting of two end points on it.

A B

l

Fig. 5.8

Consider the line l. Mark two points A and B on the line l (Fig. 5.8).

The portion of the line l from A to B is called the line segment AB. It is denoted by AB

or BA and it is read as line segment AB or line segment BA. The line segment AB and the line

segment BA are the same and they are equal in measure.

153

Example 3 :

Name the line segments from the following figure 5.9

A B C

(a) Q R

(b)

Fig. 5.9

Solution :

In Fig. 5.9 (a), the line segments are named as AB , AC , BC .

In Fig. 5.9 (b), the line segments are PQ , PR , QR .

5.1.5 Plane :

The floor, the walls, the top of a table and the black board in our class are all having flat

surfaces. These are examples for planes.

A plane is a flat surface which extends endlessly in all directions. It has no boundary. A plane

cannot be drawn. But a part of a plane can be drawn on any flat surface.

The diagrams (Fig. 5.10) represent planes.

B C

Fig. 5.10

Discuss :

Hold three pencils of different heights in 3 different places - not in a straight line. Now place a

cardboard touching the three tips of the pencils.

Does the cardboard lie exactly on the tip of the pencils?

Yes. Hence we infer that three points not lying on a line are needed to determine a plane.

THINGS TO REMEMBER

(1) A point represents a location.

(2) A line is straight and extends endlessly in both directions. A line AB is

denoted by AB .

(3) A ray starts from a fixed point and extends endlessly in one direction. A ray

AB is denoted by AB .

(4) A line segment is a portion of a line with two end points. A line segment AB

is denoted by AB .

(5) A plane is a flat surface which extends endlessly in all directions.

154

Exercise 5.1

1) Complete the statements :

(a)

The tip of a pin gives us an idea of a _______________ .

(b)

A blackboard gives us an idea of a ______________ .

(c)

A wall gives us an idea of a ____________ .

(d)

At least ____________ points not lying on the same line are needed to determine a

plane.

2) Mark two points A and B on a sheet of a paper. With the help of a ruler draw a line passing

through them.

(a) Can you draw any other line passing through them?

(b) How many such lines can you draw?

3) How many rays can be drawn from a starting point and passing through a given point?

4) Give two examples from your environment for planes.

5) Mark three points A, B, C not lying on the same line. Draw as many lines as possible

through any two points. Also name the lines.

C

D

B

6. How many rays are represented in the

O

figure? Name them.

E A

F

7. From the following figures, name the line, line segment and ray.

M

P Q

N R S

S R O

P Q M N

We shall study some of the relations between the points and lines in a plane.

5.2.2 Collinear points

5.2.3 Intersecting and Parallel lines

155

5.2.1 Concurrent lines :

Mark a point P on a paper. Draw a line l passing through the point P. Draw another line m

through the same point P. Continue this process.

How many lines can be drawn through this point P?

Many lines can be drawn through this point.

n

P

l

m

Fig. 5.11

Look at the fig. 5.11. Are these the only lines drawn through this point?

No. We can draw many more lines through P. Is it not so?

All these lines passing through the same point P are called concurrent lines. The point P is called the

point of concurrence.

Thus three or more lines passing through the same point are called concurrent lines. The point

is called the point of concurrence.

Example 4 :

In the fig.5.12 name the concurrent lines

and the point of concurrence. C

Solution : D

(a) The lines AD, BD, CD are

concurrent lines and the point of

concurrence is D.

B

(b) The lines BA, BD, BC are concurrent

and the point of concurrence is B. A

Fig. 5.12

5.2.2 Collinear points

We have seen that through one point many A

lines can be drawn. How many lines can be

drawn through two points? We can draw only B

one line through two points (fig. 5.13). However,

not only these two points are on this line, but we

can mark many points on this line. All these Fig. 5.13

points are called collinear points.

The word collinear means co-linear, lying on the same line.

F

E B

D

C

A G

Fig. 5.14

156

In the figure 5.14, A, C, D, B are collinear points. The points E, F, G are not collinear because

they do not lie on the same line. Thus three or more points lying on the same line are called collinear

points and points not lying on the same line are called non collinear points.

Example 5 :

In the figure 5.15 write (a) collinear T

points (b) non-collinear points

P Q R S

Solution :

(a) P, Q, R, S are collinear points. U V

Look at the figure 5.16.

How many lines are there?

A E B

Three. Is it not so?

What are they?

(1) AB F

C D

(2) CD

Fig. 5.16

(3) EF

In the figure, AB and EF are intersecting at E. So AB and EF are called intersecting lines.

Are there any other intersecting lines?

Do AB and CD intersect? (fig. 5.16)

No. They are not intersecting in the figure 5.16. These lines AB and CD are called parallel

lines. Therefore parallel lines do not intersect at any point.

Thus the non-intersecting lines are called parallel lines.

Railway tracks, opposite edges of blackboard etc. are few examples of parallel lines.

Example 6 :

From the figure 5.17

(a) write the intersecting lines and

L U

intersecting points. P Q

(b) Write a pair of parallel lines. A B

Solution :

(a) LM and PQintersect at A. C D

R S

PQand UV intersect at B. V

M

RS and LM intersect at C

Fig. 5.17

UV and RS intersect at D.

(b) PQ and RS are parallel lines.

157

Example 7 :

From the figure 5.18 write A

(a) collinear points.

(b) Concurrent lines and their point of

concurrence. B D

Solution :

(a) In the figure, points A, B, C are

collinear. C

(b) The lines AD, BD, CD are

concurrent lines. D is the point of Fig. 5.18

concurrence.

Example 8 :

From the figure 5.19 write

(a) Concurrent lines G

(b) Concurrent point

(c) Parallel lines D F

(d) Collinear points

(e) intersecting lines at B

C

Solution :

(a) AB, AC, AD are concurrent lines.

(b) A is the point of concurrence. A B E

(c) BDand EG are parallel lines.

(d) A, B, E ; A, C, F; A, D, G ; B, C, D Fig. 5.19

; E, F, G are collinear points.

(e) BA and BC are intersecting at B.

THINGS TO REMEMBER

(1) Three or more lines passing through the same point are called concurrent

lines. The point is called the point of concurrence.

(2) Three or more points lying on the same line are called collinear points.

(3) If two lines intersect at a point, these lines are called intersecting lines.

(4) The non-intersecting lines are called parallel lines.

Exercise 5.2

1) Fill in the blanks :

(a) Through a given point _____ lines can be drawn.

(b) ________ line(s) passes through two different given points.

(c) Three or more points are _________ if all of them lie on the same line.

(d) Three or more lines are _________ if all of them pass through the same point.

(e) Two lines in a plane either intersect or are ___________ .

2) Give any one example from your classroom (a) intersecting lines (b) parallel lines.

158

3) Give two examples of concurrent lines from your environment.

E D

(a) point of concurrence F C

(b) collinear points O

A B

(a) a pair of intersecting lines at E. D

(b) a pair of intersecting lines at A.

(c) the collinear points. F

A B C

D

6) From the figure, write

(a) the concurrent lines and point of

concurrence. C

B

F

7. From the figure, write

E D

(a) any two points of concurrence.

(b) intersecting lines at F.

A

(c) collinear points.

B

C

5.3 Angles

Observe the hands of the clock, the folded hand, corner of the paper and the blades of scissors.

All these have two arms joined together at one point and give us the idea of an angle.

12

11 1

10 2

9 3

8 4

7 5

6

Fig. 5.20

159

5.3.1 Angle and measure of an angle

5.3.2 Types of angles

5.3.3 Complementary and Supplementary angles

5.3.4 Bisector of an angle

side)

arm (

Mark a point O on a sheet of paper. Draw

angle

two rays OA and OB as shown in the figure 5.21. O A

Vertex arm (side)

Fig.5.21

The above figure consists of two rays with the same starting point O. Then at O an angle is

formed. The two rays OAand OB are called the arms or the sides of the angle. The common point O

is the vertex of the angle. The arms are often joined by a small circular arc near the vertex as shown in

the figure 5.21.

Then we can say

an angle is a figure formed by two rays with a common starting point. We represent the angle in

the figure 5.21 as AOB or BOA and we read angle AOB or angle BOA. The vertex is always

written in the middle. Sometimes vertex itself indicates the angle such as O .

Let us consider the following angle in the figure 5.22.

D

We know that a ray is named by its C

starting point and another point on it. So OA,

OB represent the same ray. Similarly OC, OD

represent the same ray. So the above angle can O A B

be denoted in the following different ways.

Fig.5.22

O , COA , DOA , COB , DOB , AOC , AOD , BOC , BOD

From the figure 5.23 the ray OArotates B

with O as centre on anticlockwise direction and

reaches OB. The rotation made by the ray is O A

called the measure of that angle.

Fig.5.23

5.3.2 Types of angles :

Fold a piece of paper as shown in the C

line segments. Name these as AB and CD. These

A B

line segments AB and CD making four angles at O

the point of intersection at O. We see that the

four angles AOC , BOC , AOD , BOD D

are equal. Fig.5.24

160

Each of them is called a right angle. A right angle is divided into 90 equal parts and each part is

called a degree. Degree is the unit for measuring angles. The degrees are denoted by the symbol

. For example if the measure of an angle is 60 degrees, it is denoted by 60.

Right angle :

An angle of measure 90 is called a right angle.

B

B

O A

O A

Fig.5.25

In figure 5.25 AOB is a right angle.

Perpendicular : If the two lines intersect at right angles, then the two lines are called

perpendicular to each other. In the figure 5.25, OA is perpendicular to OB. We write it as

OA OB.

B

An angle whose measure is greater than

zero degree but less than 90 degrees is called an

acute angle. (See figure 5.26)

The angles 15, 30, 47, 65 and 88 are O A

some examples of acute angles.

Fig.5.26

B

Obtuse angle :

An angle whose measure is greater than

90 and less than 180 is called an obtuse angle.

(See figure 5.27)

The angles 95, 100, 130, 162 and 178

are some examples of obtuse angles.

O A

Fig.5.27

Zero angle : B

If the initial ray and final ray coincide, the O A

angle formed is the zero angle. (fig. 5.28) Fig.5.28

An angle whose measure is 180 is called

a straight angle. In the fig.5.29, AOB = 180 B O A

and OA and OB are opposite rays.

Fig.5.29

161

5.3.3 Complementary and Supplementary angles :

Complementary angles :

If the sum of the measures of two angles is 90, then they are called complementary angles.

Each angle is the complement of the other.

For example 25 are 65 are complementary angles (Fig.,5.30.) because the sum of the angles 25 and

65 (25 + 65) = 90

The complementary angle of 25 is 90 25 = 65

The complementary angle of 65 is 90 65 = 25.

Therefore 25 is the complement of 65 .

and 65 is the complement of 25.

65

25 65

25

Fig. 5.30

Example 9 :

What is the complementary angle of 37 ?

Solution :

The complementary angle of 37 = 90 37 = 53.

Supplementary angles :

If the sum of the measures of two angles is 180, then they are called supplementary angles.

Each angle is the supplement of the other.

For example 50 and 130 are supplementary angles (Fig. 5.31) because the sum of the

angles 130 and 50 = 130 + 50 = 180

The supplementary angle of 50 is 180 50 = 130.

The supplementary angle of 130 is 180 130 = 50.

50 is the supplement of 130 and 130 is the supplement of 50.

130

50

Fig. 5.31

Example 10 :

Find the supplementary angle of 75

Solution :

The supplementary angle of 75 = 180 75 = 105.

Note : The supplementary angle of 105 = 180 105 = 75.

The angles 75 and 105 are supplementary angles.

162

5.3.4 Bisector of an angle :

B

angles is called the bisector of the angle.

In fig.5.32, AOP and POB have the same P

measure. So they are equal. OP has divided AOB

x

into two equal angles.So OP is called the bisector of x

AOB . O A

Fig.5.32

Example 11 :

In fig.5.32 the measure of angle AOB is 80 and OP is the angular bisector. Find AOP .

Solution :

We know that the angular bisector divides the angle into two equal parts.

AOP is half of AOB .

80

AOP = 2 = 40

THINGS TO REMEMBER

(1) An angle is a figure formed by two rays with a common starting point.

(2) An angle of measure 90 is called a right-angle.

(3) An angle whose measure is greater than 0 and less than 90 is called an

acute angle.

(4) An angle whose measure is greater than 90 and less than 180 is called an

obtuse angle.

(5) Two angles whose sum is 90 are called complementary angles. One angle is

the complement of the other.

(6) Two angles whose sum is 180 are called supplementary angles. One angle is

the supplement of the other.

(7) A ray which divides an angle into two equal angles is called the bisector of

the angle.

Exercise 5.3

1) Fill in the blanks :

(a) The measure of the complement of an angle 50 is ___________ .

(b) If the measure of the angle between two lines is 90, the two lines are called _________

to each other.

(c) The supplementary angle of a right angle is __________ .

(d) The bisector of an angle divides the angle into __________ angles.

(e) The supplement of an acute angle is __________ .

(f) The supplement of an obtuse angle is _____________ .

(g) The complement of an acute angle is ___________ .

163

2) Classify each of the following angles by observation as acute, obtuse, right, straight.

(b)

(a)

(c)

(d) (e)

3) The measures of some angles are given below. What type of an angle it is?

(a) 75 (b) 35 (c) 90 (d) 142

(e) 89 (f) 180 (g) 0 (h) 127

4) Give two examples of right angle from your environment.

5) Answer the following :

(a) Through how many degrees does the minute-hand turn in fifteen minutes?

(b) Through how many degrees does the minute-hand turn in 30 minutes?

(c) Through how many degrees does the minute hand turn in one hour?

(d) Through how many degrees does the hour-hand turn in 3 hours?

6) Write the measures of complementary angles of the following :

(a) 20 (b) 73 (c) 60 (d) 45 (e) 82 (f) 14

(g) 37 (h) 58 (i) 65 (j) 15

7) Write the measures of supplementary angles of the following :

(a) 120 (b) 165 (c) 30 (d) 110 (e) 15 (f) 75

(g) 96 (h) 63 (i) 122 (j) 47

8) From the following pairs of measures of angles pickout the complementary angles and

supplementary angles.

(a) 30, 60 (b) 85, 95 (c) 45, 45

(d) 68, 112 (e) 90, 90 (f) 36.5, 53.5

9) (a) If an angle and its complement are equal, find them.

(b) If an angle and its supplement are equal, find them.

10) The measure of angle AOB is 110. If OP is angular bisector then find angle AOP

5.4 Triangles :

We know that a triangle is a closed figure formed by three line segments.

In this lesson we shall study the parts of triangles, classification of triangles and some important

properties of triangles.

5.4.1 Parts of a triangle

5.4.2 Types of triangles

5.4.3 Important properties of triangles

164

5.4.1 Parts of a triangle :

A

Make three points A, B, C not on the

same line. Draw the line segments AB , BC

and AC

The figure formed is called triangle

ABC. The symbol is used to denote the B C

triangle. Thus ABC is read as triangle ABC.

Fig. 5.33

The points A, B, C are called the vertices of the triangle ABC. The line segments

AB, BC , CA are called the sides of ABC. The angles are represented by capital letters A, B, C.

Thus the triangle has mainly six parts namely three sides and three angles.

Triangles are classified according to the measures of their (a) sides (b) angles

(a) Classification of triangles on the basis of sides :

Triangles can be classified into three kinds according to the measures of their sides as follows :

D

A

P

3 5

4 4 2 2

B

7

C

(a) E 2 F Q 2 R

(b) (c)

(a) If all the three sides of a triangle are unequal then it is called a scalene triangle.

In the fig (a), ABC is a scalene triangle.

(b) If any two sides of a triangle are equal then it is called an isosceles triangle.

In the fig. (b) DEF is an isosceles triangle.

(c) If all the three sides of the triangle are equal then it is called an equilateral triangle.

In the fig. (c), PQR is an equilateral triangle

Example 12 :

Determine the kind of triangle if the measures of the sides are as follows :

(a) AB = 3cm ; BC = 4 cm ; AC = 6 cm

(b) AB = 4.5cm ; BC = 3cm ; AC = 4.5 cm

(c) AB = 5cm ; BC = 5 cm ; AC = 5 cm

Solution :

(a) All the sides are different. It is a scalene triangle.

(b) AB = AC = 4.5. Two sides are equal. It is an isosceles triangle.

(c) AB = BC = AC = 5. All the three sides are equal. It is an equilateral triangle.

165

(b) Classification of triangles on the basis of angles :

According to the angles, triangles are classified into three kinds as follows :

A

50 D

120

60 70

90 R

Q (c)

B (a) C E (b) F

Fig. 5.35

(a) If each angle of a triangle is an acute angle, that is, less than 90, it is called an acute

angled triangle [see fig. (a)]

(b) In a triangle, if any one angle is a right angle, that is equal to 90, then the triangle is

called a right angled triangle [see fig (b)].

(c) In a triangle if any one angle is an obtuse angle, that is, greater than 90, then the triangle

is called an obtuse angled triangle. [See fig (c)]

Activity 1 :

mark its angles as shown in the C

B

figure 5.36.

Fig. 5.36

Now arrange the angles as shown in the

A

figure 5.37. B C

Fig. 5.37

We see that these three angles lie on a straight line and hence form a straight angle. We know

that the measure of a straight angle is 180.

From this we can say

The sum of the measures of the angles of a triangle is 180.

Example 13 :

Can the following be the measure of the angles of a triangle?

(a) 40 , 80, 60 (b) 70, 80, 60

166

Solution :

(a) The sum of the measure of the three angles is

40 + 80 + 60 = 180

Therefore 40, 80, 60 can be the measure of the angles of a triangle.

(b) The sum of the measure of the three angles is

70 + 80 + 60 = 210.

But the sum of the measure of the angles of a triangle is 180.

Therefore 70, 80, 60 cannot be the measures of the angles of a triangle.

Example 14 :

In the fig. 5.38, find R .

Solution :

R

P + Q = 90 + 30 = 120 ?

But P + Q + R = 180

R = 180 120

90

R = 60 30 Q

P

Fig. 5.38

Activity 2 :

Draw different triangles as you like in a sheet of paper and measure the lengths of the sides of

all the triangles.

Add any two measures of the sides of each triangle and compare with the third side of the same

triangle.

What do you observe?

From this experiment we observe that

The sum of the measures of any two sides is always greater

than the third side.

Consider the triangle ABC (fig. 5.39).

C

or BC + AC is always greater than AB

or AB + AC is always greater than BC.

A B

Fig. 5.39

Example 15 :

Can the following measures be the lengths of the sides of a triangle?

(a) 8, 7, 13 (b) 6, 3, 2

167

Solution :

(a) In the given measures 8, 7, 13

8 + 7 = 15 is greater than 13.

7 + 13 = 20 is greater than 8

8 + 13 = 21 is greater than 7.

Here sum of any two sides is greater than the third side.

We can draw the triangle.

(b) In the given measures 6, 3, 2

6 + 3 = 9 is greater than 2.

3 + 2 = 5 is not greater than 6.

These are not the measures of the lengths of the sides of a triangle.

THINGS TO REMEMBER

(1) A triangle is a closed figure formed by three line segments.

(2) A triangle has mainly six parts namely three sides and three angles.

(3) Triangle can be classified into three kinds acccording to their sides as scalene

triangle, isosceles triangle and equilateral triangle.

(4) According to angles, triangles are classified into three kinds as acute angled

triangle, right angled triangle and obtuse angled triangle.

(5) The sum of the measure of the angles of a triangle is 180.

(6) In a triangle, the sum of the measures of any two sides is always greater than

the third side.

Exercise 5.4

1) Fill in the blanks :

(a) The sum of the three angles of a triangle is _________ .

(b) In an equilateral triangle, the three sides are __________ .

(c) The triangle in which two sides are equal is called an ________ triangle.

(d) If a triangle has one right angle, it is called a _________ triangle.

(e) In a triangle the sum of the measure of any two sides is _______ than the third side.

2) What are the six parts of a triangle?

3) The three angles of a triangle are equal. What is the measure of each of the angle?

4) One of the angles of a triangle is 100 and the other two angles are equal. What is the

measure of each of these equal angles.

5) Determine the kind of triangle if the measures of sides are

(a) 3, 4, 5 (b) 1.5, 2.5, 2.5 (c) 7.5, 7.5, 7.5 (d) 8, 7, 10

6) Can we have a triangle whose degree measures as :

(a) 25, 75, 80 (b) 10, 70, 80 (c) 110, 40, 30

(d) 60, 90, 100 (e) 70, 70, 70 (f) 2 right angles

7) Determine the kind of triangle if the three angles are

(a) 60, 60, 60 (b) 65, 55, 60 (c) 40, 50, 90

(d) 105, 35, 40 (e) 90, 27, 63 (f) 35, 52, 93

8) State if these three measures could be the possible lengths of the sides of a triangle.

(a) 4, 5, 6 (b) 3, 6, 9 (c) 5, 9, 2 (d) 12, 13, 18

(e) 10, 20, 30 (f) 8, 15, 17

168

5.5 Special Quadrilaterals :

5.5.1 Quadrilateral and its parts

5.5.2 Special type of quadrilaterals

A quadrilateral is a closed figure in a plane C

formed by four line segments.

D

In the figure 5.40, we have a quadrilateral

ABCD.

(1) Points A, B, C, D are the vertices of

the quadrilateral.

(2) AB, BC, CD, DA are the sides. A

(4) AC and BD are called the diagonals Fig. 5.40

(5) In quadrilateral ABCD, ABand DC are opposite sides and AD and BC are also opposite

sides.

(6) The sum of the measures of all angles is 360.

That is, A + B + C + D = 360.

We have seen the quadrilateral and its parts. Now we shall see the special types of

quadrilaterals.

5.5.2 Special types of quadrilaterals :

The family chart of quadrilateral

Quadrilateral

Trapezium

Parallelogram

rectangle Rhombus

Square

Fig. 5.41.

(1) Trapezium D C

In a quadrilateral if a pair of opposite sides

are parallel then the quadrilateral is known as a

O

Trapezium (See fig.5.42). In this figure the sides

AB and DC are parallel. Further AC and BD are

called diagonals.

A B

Fig. 5.42

169

(2) Parallelogram : D C

In a quadrilateral if the opposite sides are

parallel then it is known as Parallelogram. (See

fig.5.43) Here the sides AB and DC are parallel

and the sides AD and BC are parallel. Futher AC O

and BD are diagonals.

A B

Fig. 5.43

The properties of a parallelogram ABCD are listed below :

(a) AB = DC and AD= BC

(b) A = C and B = D

(3) Rhombus : D C

In a parallelogram if all the four sides are

equal then it is called a Rhombus.

(See fig.5.44)

In Rhombus all the sides are equal in

length and the diagonals are perpendicular to

each other.

A B

Fig. 5.44

(4) Rectangle : D C

In a quadrilateral, if opposite sides are

equal and all the four angles are equal to right

angle then it is called a rectangle. ( fig.5.45)

Here diagonals AC and BD are equal.

A = B = C = D = 90 A B

Fig. 5.45

(5) Square D C

In a quadrilateral if all the four sides are

equal and if all the angles are right angle then the

quadrilateral is called a square. ( fig.5.46)

Here AC= BD

A = B = C = D = 90

A B

Fig. 5.46

Discuss :

(a) A square is a quadrilateral

(b) A square is a rectangle

(c) A rectangle is a parallelogram

170

THINGS TO REMEMBER

(1) A quadrilateral is a closed figure formed by four line segments in a plane.

(2) In a quadrilateral if a pair of opposite sides are parallel then the

quadrilateral is known as a Trapezium.

(3) In a quadrilateral if the opposite sides are parallel then it is known as

parallelogram.

(4) In a quadrilateral if all the four sides are equal then it is called a Rhombus.

(5) In a quadrilateral, if opposite sides are equal and all the four angles are

equal to right angle then it is called a rectangle.

(6) In a quadrilateral if all the four sides are equal and if all angles are right

angles then it is called a square.

Exercise 5.5

1. State true or false

(a) In a square, all angles are right angles.

(b) In a rhombus, all angles are equal.

(c) In a Trapezium a pair of opposite sides are parallel.

(d) In a parallelogram ABCD, A = C .

(e) In a rectangle the diagonals are not equal.

2. State any three properties of a quadrilateral.

3. State the properties of a parallelogram.

4. State the properties of rhombus.

5. State the properties of a rectangle.

6. State the properties of a square.

UNIT TEST 5

Part I 10 1 = 10

Choose the corrct answer of the following :

(1) The number of points are needed to determine a line is

(a) 1 (b) 2 (c) 3 (d) 4

(2) Among the following, obtuse angle is

(a) 38 (b) 90 (c) 108(d) 300

(3) The complementary angle of 65 is

(a) 25 (b) 35 (c) 90 (d) 115

(4) Supplementary angle of a right angle is

(a) zero angle (b) acute angle (c) obtuse angle (d) right angle

(5) In the following, the diagonals of equal length is

(a) Trapezium (b) Parallelogram (c) Rhombus (d) rectangle

Fill in the blanks :

(6) At least _______ points not lying on the same line and needed to determine a plane.

(7) The two non-intersecting lines in a plane are called __________ .

(8) If the measure of the angle between two lines is 90, the two lines are called ______ to

each other.

(9) The measures of two angles of a triangle are 60 and 40 then the third angle is ____.

(10) In rhombus all the sides are _________ .

Part II 5 2 = 10

Answer the following :

(11) What are the complement and supplement of the angle 47?

171

(12) How many rays are represented in the figure? Name them.

13) How many line segments are there in the following figure? Name them.

M

N P

14) The measures of some angles are given below. Say what kind of angle it is

(a) 49 (b) 90 (c) 125(d) 180

15) Give the angle properties of a rectangle.

Part III 5 6 = 30

IV. Answer the following in detail :

16) In the following figure name

(a) a pair of parallel lines E

(c) the lines intersecting at C

D

A B C

(a) How many line segments are

shown in the figure ? U

V

Name any six line segments.

O

(b) Name any three lines having a R

point of concurrence.

P Q

E

C

18) In the following figure find EOC

and give reasons for your answer. O 30

A B

120

D

19) Classify the triangles on the basis of (a) sides (b) angles.

20) State any five properties of a quadrilateral.

172

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