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JIANGSU CHANGLONG TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD UPDATE:7/9/2010 Rev.

INSTALLATIONOPERATION and
MAINTENANCE MANUAL
FOR BL4 GANGWAY

Page 1 of 105
JIANGSU CHANGLONG TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD UPDATE:7/9/2010 Rev. 1

INTRODUCTION

This manual applied for:


This manual concern on Gangways installation, operation and maintenance, the


operator should have basically knowledge of: electrical, hydraulic and mechanical for
operating and maintenance
WARNING

Make sure follow this manual to check and maintenance the equipment.

Make sure the equipment is operated under the normal working condition which
according with the TECHNICAL DATASHEET.


It is forbidden that the operator change or reassemble the equipment without
supplier on site as supervisor. If find any problem when the equipment is in
progress, please contact with supplier or our local agency at once without
hesitation.

Make sure browse this manual before operating the gangway.

Please keep these manual and relevant drawings for looking for information at
necessary time in future.

WARNING

This manual right to CCL technologies, without agreement in written form, its not
allow to copy or forwarded.

We will not inform the end user the technical changes after contract completed.

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Because of technical improvement, responding to update, special order or other
requirements and that caused any actual discrepancies, the equipment comply with
the manufacturing.


This manual is responding gangway only which made by CCL technologies, if
used as other equipment guider specification, CCL will not response any result.


Not according to the using of safety procedures which required in manual, or not
notice relevant warning and caution documents, the company shall not be
responsible in the content of the consequences of negligence.

CCL TECHNOLOGIES responds to the final manual interpretation.
JIANGSU CHANGLONG TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD UPDATE:7/9/2010 Rev. 1

Safety mark

In order to better safe use this equipment, the safety attentions are marked as
following related symbol. Please make sure to keep the significance and
importance as below.


The sign between WARNING and CAUTION

WARNING Means if operating error, may cause the damage for personnel

CAUTION Means should pay emphatically attention here

WARNING


Do not open the current panel when the power is supplying. Do not remove the
electrical components and circuits without authorized and supervisor by CCL
technologies when the cabinet is galvanic. The above items may result
explode and shock.

Before maintenance, ensure cut down the power supply of equipment and
cabinet inside, the detail information please refer to manual electrical chapter.

Make sure the equipment works under the correct power range.

Make sure to follow the manual description to operate, maintenance the
equipment.

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Make sure the operator have normally operating certificates and have
training by supplier

Make sure the operator wear the safety helmet, jetty shoes and other
necessary labor protection.

Make sure the temporary workers and in training staffs are monitoring and
supervisory under the skilled personnel if any.

Do not enter the operating area without permission.


Make sure the operators maintain concentration and alertness during
working time, the following mentioned appearances are forbidden: fatigue,
taking drugs, drinking alcoholic beverages, any influence spirit medicine and
so on.

5
JIANGSU CHANGLONG TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD UPDATE:7/9/2010 Rev. 1


TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. .................................................................................................................... 7

Summarize.......................................................................................................... 7

2. ............................................................................................................. 7

Technical parameters.......................................................................................... 7

3. ............................................................................................................. 9

Structure description ........................................................................................... 9

4. ........................................................................................................ 19

Storage and installation..................................................................................... 19

5. ................................................................................................................... 29

Commissioning ................................................................................................. 29

6. ................................................................................................................... 33

Operating .......................................................................................................... 33

7. ........................................................................................................ 53

Care and maintenance ..................................................................................... 52

8. .......................................................................................... 64

Common faults and troubleshooting ................................................................. 63

9 ............................................................................... 84

List and drawings of wearing parts (to be determined) ..................................... 83

10. .......................................................................................... 85

Operation instructions of electrical control system............................................ 84

11. ....................................................................................... 93

Operation instructions of explosion proof hydraulic station ............................... 92

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JIANGSU CHANGLONG TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD UPDATE:7/9/2010 Rev. 1

1.

1. Summarize

The gangway is accessory equipment on the jetty for safety and convenience
boarding and un-boarding the seamen, operators and other relevant
personnel.

380V 50Hz

The gangway installs on the front of berth. The power supplied as 380v, 50Hz,
3 Phases (Power supply can reset as per customers country standard).

This manual is purposed for guiding of the gangways installation, operating
and maintenance.

This equipment and relevant documentations are possessed by JIANGSU


CHANGLONG TECHNOLOGES CO.LTD, can not use or copy part of them
unless permitted by written paper by CCL technologies.

2.

2. Technical parameters

Mainly technical data:


1 22.0m 5.0m
1) Working range: under jetty face 22m, below jetty face 5.0m

220m/s56m/s
2) The max. Wind speed when operating: 20mm/s, the max. Wind speed

Page 7 of 105
at storage position: 56m/s

3 10
3) Gangway design loads: limited 10 person total (1000kg)

Mainly device data:


1. 13.2m 4m/min
1) Lifter device: working length 13.2m, lifting speeding 4m/mim

2. -3545 68/min
2) Pitching device: pitching angle range: -3545 angular speed:
68/min

3. 90 90/min
3) Rotating device: slewing angle range 90rotating speed 90/min

4.22kW
4) Power supply: 22kw

5.16MPa
5) Hydraulic working pressure: 16Mpa

8
3.

3. Structure description


Model: Tower column structure


Operation method: Remote control



Configure: Tower, gangway, rotating device, lifting device, HPU, electrical
control cabinet and other accessories.

The gangway adopts well frame type which is composed of triangle ladder,
frontal ladder, main ladder, tower frame, elevating frame, turning platform,
standing post, hand rail and frontal ladder position adjustment, main ladder
position adjustment, rotating mechanism, elevating mechanism. The
suspended ladder adopts pitching type with step mechanism. The whole
suspended ladder and platform shall rotate to suit various service conditions.
Position of the sub-ladder may be adjusted to suit floating movement of ship
and improve self-height of suspended ladder. The whole suspended ladder
may rotate to appropriate to different arrangement of various ship decks and
placing of boarding ladder on wharf pavement under non-working status. One
end of suspended ladder is hinged with the rotating platform, during operation
the other end shall be lapped on deck.
When it is not in operation, the suspended ladder shall be lifted by the pitching
mechanism and hooked on safety hook, and then rotate 90to avoid collision of
the Boarding ladder with other facilities. When strong wind occurs or it is in
non-operation and maintenance for a long time, the suspended ladder shall be
lifted to rotate 90 to make the end of the suspended ladder lapped on platform
of wharf.

3.1
Tower frame

10

45m/s

20 m/s H
JOTUN
Tower frame is the main support of gangway to provide elevating track for
rotating platform with platform ladder inside the tower. It should meet the
requirements of overall rigidity, strength and stability as well. The load can be
divided into the following two working conditions: (I) the design wind speed
under off working status (i.e. retraction state) is 45m/s. (II) the design wind
speed under working status is 20m/s. The upright column of tower and
connecting components are made from seamless square steel tube and
H-type steel. JOTUN paint is used for anticorrosion so as to better prevent the
corrosion of sea salt mist.

The design of steel structure should meet the requirements of strength, rigidity
and stability, and take the optimized structure type of various load portfolios
including wind load into consideration so as to be convenient for installation,
transportation and maintenance; all positions of components should not have
accumulated water and that requiring check and maintenance need to be
configured with inspection hole; platform, walkway, step and railing should be
convenient for pass, safe and reliable and meet the safety requirements and
requirements of related standards. Static electricity grounding device should
be set up inside the tower and the grounding resistance should meet the
requirements of relating standards.

3.2
Platform ladder

11

1050 100 ,

Platform ladder is the safe passage inside the tower for boarding and
un-boarding the seamen. Tread has the non-skid property and railing is
designed with the standard height no less than 1050mm and can satisfy the
impact force of 100kg, and tread and railing are designed as per the principle
of human-based in ergonomics so as to bring convenience and comfort for the
seaman. The tread of platform ladder inside the tower is made of pot
galvanizing steel grating thus having excellent skidproof and corrosion
resistance performance.
3.3
Elevating Rotating device

()90

The rotating device with suspended ladder is composed of pivoting support,


bidirectional drive hydraulic cylinder and rotating platform. The pivoting support
of rotating device is driven by hydraulic motor(with floating function) for fulfilling
90 rotating function. The rotation is flexible and stable and such rotating
degree can withdraw the gangway in the jetty. There is rotating locking device
and safety limiter alarm device is set up at the rotating limit position.

Rotating device can be used for the elevating of suspended ladder and
boarding and un-boarding the ship.

90

12
Rotating function is fulfilled by rotating drive. Rotating dive is composed of
hydraulic motor, planetary reducer, rotating support and pinion. The hydraulic
motor is normal open and has floating function after jointing with ship so as to
meeting the floating of the ship. The rotating angle is 90. Once the
embarkation ladder stops working, the suspended ladder can be rotated to the
surface of the wharf to prevent the collision with traveling ships.

Elevating device is an important component of embarkation ladder and leads


the suspended ladder to the up-and-down movement. Elevating device is
composed of reducer, explosion proof motor, electro-hydraulic brake, rope
pulley group, hoisting frame and fixed parts. Elevating device has safe
auto-lock function and brake function and is equipped with stop block for the
lifting height.
GB/T8918 5

Wire rope for the gangway should meet the technical requirements in
GB/T8918 with the design safety factor more than 5. The whole wire rope shall
be adopted.

3.4
Suspended ladder
600

,,

13
Suspended ladder is the safety passage between elevating platform and ship
and can meet the uniform load of 600kg. Suspended ladder is composed of
main ladder, frontal ladder and triangle ladder. Main girder of main ladder is
made of low alloy material to strengthen the rigidity. The tread is mobile type
aluminium alloy antiskid plate with enough strength and inoxidizability after
anodic oxidation treatment. Derricking gear of main ladder is driven by
hydraulic pressure on both sides. Position of frontal ladder is adjusted by the
hydro cylinders on both sides. Triangle ladder should be equipped with
universal wheel with spring buffer gear at the bottom of the step to ensure the
suspended ladder safe when the ladder makes lateral and longitudinal drifts
with ship. Meanwhile, universal wheel is used to separate the stray current
between gangway and ship. The tread should remain level during the pitching
of suspended ladder to ensure boarding and un-boarding of seaman. Main
ladder has floating function that can compensate tide variation and change in
drift of ship caused by the change of load capacity within the specific limits.

90

When strong wind occurs or it is in non-operation and maintenance for a long


time, the suspended ladder shall be lifted by the pitching mechanism and
hooked on safety hook to prevent sliding of the ladder after pressure release of
oil passage. The suspended ladder also can be lifted to rotate 90 to make the
end of the suspended ladder lapped on platform of wharf.
3.5
Hydraulic system

304
Hydraulic system is composed of hydraulic main station and hydraulic power
line. Hydraulic system provide hydraulic power supply fro rotating device,
pitching device and position adjustment device of frontal ladder and triangle

14
ladder. Hydraulic station adopts double motor and double pump. Oil pipe main
adopts 304 stainless steel and high pressure rubber pipe.
2
()

304

Derricking of frontal ladder and pitching of main ladder are driven by two
double-acting hydraulic drive cylinders respectively and platform rotating is
driven by hydraulic motor (with floating function) to realize the conveyance of
ladders between two surfaces within the design range and fulfill the jointing of
ladders and ship; the hydraulic cylinder will be floating after jointing to ensure
main ladder and rotating platform to move together with ship. Oil pipe adopts
304 stainless steel; hydraulic system shall ensure to provide good power and
hydraulic main station is equipped with vibration-proof pressure gauge and
thermograph to ensure timely measurement of pressure and oil temperature of
hydraulic components; hydraulic system requires pressure testing running to
check the reliability and pressure-proof degree of return circuit.

Hydraulic system is composed of hydraulic main station and hydraulic power
line. Oil pipe adopts stainless steel. Please see the Hydraulic Schematic
Diagram.
3.6
Electric control system
PLC

PLC
IEC
IEC

15
IP55

Specialize operating system of gangway adopts control component PLC that is


generally used in large scale equipment to realize control on floor indicator and
spot light on gangway; rising and lowering of platform; pitch-up and pitch-down
of main ladder and frontal ladder; over limit alarm, etc. The result will be
displayed on the monitor. The system can mainly realize the drive of gangway
and control of movement range and ensure rapid and smooth jointing of
gangway and ship. It mainly includes electrical cabinet, PLC, stainless steel
junction box, alarm signal, illumination of passageway, aircraft obstruction
beacon and cable. The system complies with the requirements of IEC
Explosive Protected Electrical Apparatus Used in Explosive Environment
standard and the cable wiring is conducted in explosion proof flexible pipes as
per IEC standard; the protection grade is IP55; the electric control system has
both interior and exterior control of circuit detection function; the alarm system
adopts sound and light alarm method and all alarm messages can be
displayed on the display screen by means of character; the control cabinet is
type. Please see the Electric Schematic Diagram.
1 .
2 .
3 .

The control system can be divided into three parts:


1 .rising and lowering part
of platform;
2 .movement part of ladders;
3 . sound and light alarm.

Rising and lowering control part of platform

The system is composed of explosion proof motor, worm reduction box (with
self-locking function), roller, explosion proof electric hydraulic block-type brake
and floor lead limit switch.
PLC

16

In the control part, rising and lowering of platform is controlled by PLC


interruption system. The part can automatically compare the target floor and
current floor, automatically control the positive and reverse rotation of motor
and conduct positioning control over platform via floor limit switch. The control
part does not conduct the incorrect command caused by incorrect choose of
floor when the plating is rising or lowering. To avoid the deviation of lowering
poisoning control because of deadweight during the rising and lowering
movement of platform, the part adopts grade II worm reduction box by the
advantage of self-locking performance of worm and gear.

Movements of ladder include left and right rotation of platform, pitch-up and
pitch-down control part of main ladder and frontal ladder.

The part is composed of hydraulic control system and electric control system.

Hydraulic control system is the executive system of left and right rotation of
platform, pitch-up and pitch-down of main ladder and frontal ladder. The
hydraulic system takes the impact of external factors and the floating of ship on
the ladder during movements and jointing of ship into consideration, and sets
up two status including drive and float for platform and main ladder.
PLC

In the electric control system, control over electromagnetic directional valve is


conducted by PLC to realize drive of platform and main and frontal ladders

17
through hydraulic cylinder.
PLC

PLC

In the electric control system, PLC conducts drive and float control over
platform and main ladder. When the ladder is moving, it is under drive status;
when the ladder is executing jointing operation, it is under float status. This
makes the ladder keep floating with ship when the ship is floating up and down.
In the system, PLC also monitors limit switch and conduct sound and light
alarm on transfinite movements with the result displayed on the display screen.

Sound and light alarm system
PLC

The system is composed of PLC and explosion proof sound and light alarm.
Sound and light alarm takes alarm on transfinite and has alarm test and alarm
cancel functions.
3.7
Safety protection device

Limit switch is set up at the limit position of pitching angle of pitching device of
main ladder; withdraw locking device; limit switches are set up at the limit
position of derricking gear of main ladder and rotating limit position of rotating
device respectively; protection device is set up for the hydraulic system and
electrical system; safety pliers are installed at the bottom of elevating rotation
platform to avoid unexpected rupture of wire rope.

18
4.
Storage and installation

Since the gangway has comparatively larger size and weight, it should be
divided into several parts including tower frame, suspended ladder, elevating
rotation platform, electric control cabinet and accessories to be packaged
respectively and delivered to the user. When the equipment is unloaded and
transported after arriving at the target place, special caution should be taken to
avoid incidents such as collision, and there must be no less than two hoisting
points with pads over the bundle position of hoisting points.

After the equipment is delivered to the site, all parts should be well stored.
They should be placed stably with sleepers padded. If there is long term to
install after delivery, the equipment should be stored in dry and clean
environment that can resist external impact and it requires regular check over
cleanness, damage and corrosion prevention. If the condition is limited, the
equipment should be stored in other environments without pollution and all
mobile parts should be painted with anticorrosion grease and with shadowing
protection. Regular check over cleanness, damage and corrosion prevention is
required.

19
After opening the package of basic embedded parts, it should carefully check
the quantity, quality and relating size of stone bolt, screw nut, positioning
module and washer as per basement diagram, and protect the screw thread
on the bolt and muff to avoid damage; positioning module should be protected
to avoid buckling deformation; during and after lying the stone bolt, the screw
thread should be protected to avoid damage or corrosion.

Installation

It should organize relating personnel to carefully research the


installation diagram and the manual before installation, and formulate the
installation procedure and requirements. The operator begins working
only after having a full understanding about following installation
requirements.

Installation procedure:
1.

Before the gangway is in place, it should remove the dirt including oil
stain and impurities as well as sundries around the stone bolt to ensure the tail
margin keep level and clean.
2.
Tower frame installation
A.
5

Check whether the size of stone bolt at the basement complies with
drawing, measure whether the levelness of base surface meets the
requirements, i.e. the allowable deviation of levelness at any direction no more
than 5mm; check whether the stone bolt meets the requirement of verticality

20
without tilt and check whether the power supply cable has been laid in order;
B.

Vertically Hoist the main body to the base by hoisting ring at the top of
tower frame as per Chart I and make the side with track towards the wharf;
C.

Align the installation hole of base with foundation bolt, slowly descend
the tower frame on the base. Do not make the housing shoe strike the
stone bolt;

21
Then hoist vertically
Firstly lift upright


Chart I

D. 1/1000

Adjust the column to be vertical (vertical degree 1/1000), evenly paint a


little grease at the screw thread part of stone bolt and then screw the nut.

22

CAUTION
1.
Check and test the hoisting capability of wire rope before
hoisting.
2.
Do not make the equipment collide with other on-site articles
during hoisting and installation.
3.
Notice the position of outgoing bushing of cable on site during
installation and do not strike the outgoing bushing of cable to be
damaged.
4.
Do not strike the stone bolt (especially screw tread part) to be
damaged during installation.

3.
Elevating frame installation
A.
Firstly fix the hydraulic station by bolt into the hydraulic station support at
the top of elevating frame;
B.
Hoist the elevating frame in the elevating track;
C..
Install trolley device and adjust the space between trolleys and track to
ensure even space from up and down;
D.
2#MoS2
Adjust the roll space and make it even with that between roll walls of
elevating frame, fully paint 2#MoS2 albany grease around the roll walls
without sliding and lowering of grease.

23
4.
Suspended ladder installation


CDL1PM5/160/90/1450D1XB1CFUM

Jointing the triangle ladder with suspended ladder by pin, then move the
well-joint ladder to elevating frame and joint the junction panel of ladder
with pin joint of rotary column by pin roll, and joint and fix the suspended
ladder with upper bracket of rotary column by pin roll through two hydraulic
cylinders with type of CDL1PM5/160/90/1450D1XB1CFUM.
5.
Hydraulic system installation

Install the hydraulic main station at the installation position of elevating rotation
platform, and then install the hydraulic power line as per the requirements of
drawings.

CAUTION
(1)

Since the hydraulic system has been commissioned before
ex-factory, generally do not adjust the throttle valve and spillover
valve, etc. at discretion.
(2)
Hydraulic power line must be cleaned by coal oil and be blown to
dry before installation.
(3)

24
R1DR6D
Hydraulic power line must be installed at horizontal or vertical
direction and the elbow should be smooth and evasive without
curving and uneven joint. The elbow part of metal hydraulic oil pipe
can be classified into inside and outside without wrinkle or uneven
and irregular shape. The bending radius of seamless steel tube can
not be too small with the recommended smallest bending radius
being R1D when the steel tube is hot bending and R6D when
the steel tube is cold bending.
(4) 12

Hydraulic power line must be installed stably and fixedly. 12mm
space must be reserved between parallel or crossing lines to avoid
interruption and vibration.
(5)
Installation requirements for rubble hose:

Far away from hot source;
10 6
Bending radius should be more than 10 times outside diameter
and curve at least 6 times away from the joint;


The hose must reserve certain surplus length to ensure lax
working state; extruding can appear between the joint and the
hose;

Turing round phenomenon can not appear in the hose.
(6)

It must ensure the conformity of axes of hydraulic cylinder to the

25
action line of load acting force when installing the hydraulic cylinder;
the installation direction of hydraulic cylinder (please ensure the
position of the end of cylinder lever to comply with the requirement
of drawings).
(7)

There must be exhaust device at the highest pat of system power
line to exhaust the air in the hydraulic power line.
6.
Elevating device installation

Place the elevating device at the drive level platform and joint and fix the base
of the elevating device with the platform by bolt.
7.
Suspended ladder counterweight installation


Install the suspended ladder weight as per the drawings; fix both ends of wire
rope with lifting eye and rope cappel for counterweight of suspended ladder.
Please see Chart II for the usage of rope cappel.


U
Ringer of hoisting cable U type screw of bolt



Weighted end of hoisting cable
Splint of hoisting cable

Chart II

26
3 (
) 0.14 U

1/3

Caution: When jointing the wire rope with rope cappel, the number of rope
cappel cannot be less than 3 and the last cappel (i.e. the farthest one from the
loop) cannot be less than 0.14m far away from the fag end. The splint of rope
cappel should be positioned at the weighted side and U type bolt should be
positioned at the tail end of wire rope without reversal. The farthest cappel
from the ringer cannot be firstly fastened separately and should be close to the
loop as soon as possible but the rope cappel should be correctly screwed. The
cappel should be screwed to the level that the diameter height of two ropes is
squashed by 1/3 while the external layer of steel wire of the wire rope cannot
be damaged. After the rope cappel is fixed, it should once again fasten the
wire rope after it is stressed. Please see the following matching table for rope
cappel:

dmm 19 1932 3238 38 4460


Diameter of wire 44
rope d (mm)
3 4 5 6 7
The least number
of rope cappel
(piece)
Amm A=(67)d
Space between
rope cappels A
(mm)

27
10.

When installing the counterweight of elevating part, please twine the
wire rope as per the method indicated in Chart III and fix the both ends of
the rope with rope cappel. Please see Chart II fro the usage of rope cappel.
11.
Installation of cable elevating device

Please install the cable elevating device as per the drawings and fix the
both ends of the ropes with rope cappel. Please see Chart II fro the usage
of rope cappel.
12.
Installation of floor illumination and electrical system

Electrical system is composed of device main circuit and control circuit. Please
refer to the accompanied Schematic Circuit Diagram and Wiring Diagram.

Caution:

It should connect as per the wiring requirements and explosion proof safety
regulations for electric device and it should be noticed that the positive and
reverse rotations of motor comply with the requirements of operation panel;

All executive components should be installed in the control cabinet and the
shell of all electric devices should be safely grounded with the complete
appliance well grounded with the wharf.

Explosion proof lighting lamp should be installed as per the floor illumination

28
wiring diagram. Wiring is required to be straight and even with firm jointing.

Fixed seat

Counterweight


Chart III Diagram for twining the wire rope

5.
Commissioning

1.
Commissioning of hydraulic system

Caution:


30u
In order to ensure the normal work and service life of the system, it
should clean the oil tank before oiling into the hydraulic station. The oil
must be filtered by oil-filter screen (the same as fresh oil) before oiling to
the tank with precision no lower than 30u.

29

Please carefully check the following items before commissioning:

Whether the pipe connection and electric circuit of all components are
correct, stable and reliable;

Whether the joint of oil suction tube is well screwed and whether oil leak
or sucked appear.

Whether the fluid in the tank meets the requirements and whether the
fuel head meets the requirements.

Whether impurities go into the tank and the tank should be equipped with
protection device.
2.

Idle load commissioning, to check whether the movements of all components,


accessories and basic circuit of hydraulic system are under normal condition.

Commissioning procedure:

1
Start the hydraulic pump, inch (with slight extent), and determine
whether the rotation of hydraulic pump is appropriate;

2
Adjust the spillover valve to make the pump intermittently run under
idle load;

Check whether the unloading pressure of pump is within the
allowable range;

Noise status;

30

Whether there is foam with air suctioned on the fluid surface;


Make several movements under low pressure of hydraulic cylinder
(can remove one connecting pin of hydraulic cylinder to test),
reciprocate several times at largest travel to exhaust the air in the
system;


Check whether the oil surface in the tank is too low after running for a
certain time (especially when the hydraulic cylinder at the largest
travel);

Check whether the safety valve and pressure relay are reliable;
30 3070

Check whether the oil temperature is within the allowable range 30
70 after the hydraulic system runs more than 30m;

Check whether the system is under normal condition;

Check whether the connection and junction surface of all joints have
leakage.

3.
Movements and alarm test of gangway
a.,, 45
45
Press Start button, oil pump begins to work, press pitch-up button of main
ladder to make the suspended ladder rise to about 45, observe the work

31
of alarm till alarm limit at 45is reliable.
b. 45
Commission the pitch-down of main ladder to 45as the same method.
c. 060
Press the extension button of frontal ladder, commission and make the
alarm limit reliable within the range of 060.
d. 90
Commission the upper platform to rotate 90and make the alarm limit
reliable.
e.
Adjust the track trolley spacing and make the elevating frame, rising and
lowering and rotation of suspended ladder do not have abnormal noise.
f.
Commission the elevating Rotating device to rising and lowering to the
floor (1/F to 4/F) and make the travel limit flexible and reliable.
g.
Adjust the spacing between friction plate of brake of elevating device and
brake pulley to make the brake of elevating platform reliable.
h.
Adjust the strength of wire rope in cable elevating device to make the
cable tensioned but unstressed.

Timely adjust the one-way throttle valve and travel switch during
commissioning to ensure the system running under normal procedure. In order
to control the movement speed, throttle valve and spillover valve can be
adjusted to ensure stable working without impact and vibration noise.

It should check the state of hydraulic pump and oil tank during commissioning
and ensure the temperature within the regulated range.

32

It should make assessment on the whole hydraulic system after end of


commissioning. If the system complies with requirements, it should release the
hydraulic oil in the tank, filter, clean the tank and oil regulated hydraulic oil, at
last the system can be delivered for use.

6.
Operating


The equipment should be operated by the special operator after training.

General requirements for safe operation
a

When the operator takes over shift, he should check the brake, wire rope and
safety device. In case of abnormal performance, it should be removed before
operation;
b

The power supply can be turned off after confirming that there is no person on
the suspended ladder or other working areas. If the shutdown device of power
supply is locked or labeled, one should turn off the main power supply after the
lock or the label is removed by relating personnel;

WARNING
c
It should ensure all handles of controllers are placed at neutral position before
turning off the main power supply;
d

33
In case of sudden blackout during working time, all controllers should be
operated to neutral position; check whether the movements of all mechanism
are under normal condition before restarting working;
e

The operator should cut off the main power supply and suspend the sign or
lock when conducting maintenance and care. It should inform the next
operator of unsolved trouble.

Safety technology requirements

The operator cannot go on operation in case of one of the following events:
a

The device or parts and components has defect or damage that may influence
the safe work. Such as malfunction of brake or safe device, damage of locking
device of screw nut, or the wire rope reaches discarding standards;
c

Bundle or hoisting is not firm or balanced that may cause sliding, or the space
between edge angle of load and wire rope is not padded;
d
There are people on the suspended ladder;
e. 20m/s
When wind speed exceeds 20m/s;
f
If the work site is too dark to clearly see the site, on-the-spot situation and
command signal, etc.
g. 2

When the bottom of frontal ladder is less than 2m from the ground, rotating

34
operation cannot be made to prevent colliding of suspended ladder with
ground of wharf or with other accessories.

3
When the elevating rotating platform is at the lowest working position, wire
rope of spool must be ensured regulated safe coils.

The smallest distance between suspended ladder, elevating rotating platform
and power line should be no less than the regulation in the following table.

Voltage of power line V 1 1-35 60


(kV)
Smallest distance (m) 1.5 3 0.01 (V-50) 3


Operations:

The operations of mechanisms should mainly conduct single action. It should


firstly turn on the general power supply switch before operation to energize all
control components, and then control the movements of all mechanisms.
1.
Operation of main control cabinet
a.
Turn the transfer switch to the target position.
b.
Control the power switch to ON, press Pump Start button and the oil
pump begins to work.

35

When the ship berths alongside, operate the elevating device and improve the
elevating rotating platform to appropriate working height. Then operate the
hydraulic system to make the suspended ladder separate from the safety hook,
adjust the elevating device and rotating device to descend and rotate the
suspended ladder, and to make the end of the triangle ladder lapped on the
vacant position of wharf.
2).
Lapping operation
a.

Press the operation button on the floor platform to make the platform rising
or lowering, operate the pitch-up or pitch-down of gangway at the elevating
platform and make it lapped on the platform of wharf. Press the float button.
b.

When the limit alarm of gangway works, it should rise or descend the
elevating platform as per the position of ship, repeat the last operation and
make it lapped on the platform of wharf.

In case of tide and ship up and down, it should timely adjust the elevating
device and adjust the height of elevating rotating platform if necessary.

Operating method of hydraulic system:
a.
Start hydraulic station, indicator of oil pump works and check whether
there is abnormal situation and sound;

36

WARNING
b. ///
//;
As per the operating requirements, make the elevating rotating platform
left/right rotate, main ladder and frontal ladder rising/lowering, triangle
ladder extend/contract and safety hook rising/lowering;
c.
Turn off the power supply of hydraulic station after the operation.

Operating method of safety hook:
a.
Start hydraulic station;
b.

Hook operation of safety hook: operate main ladder to pitch up, when
the main ladder is pitched to appropriate position, make the safety hook
extend and hook on to the main ladder;
c.

Unhook operation of safety hook: operate main ladder to pitch up, when
the main ladder is pitched to appropriate position, make the safety hook
pitch up and separate from main ladder, operate the main ladder pitch
down, complete unhook operation;

When it is not in operation, contract the hydraulic cylinder lever as soon as
possible to decrease the corrosion against the cylinder lever.
3).
Detailed operation
1
Energization check over electric control cabinet

37
1.1

Firstly confirm that all wirings have been connected well as per the
requirements of drawings, check whether the appearance of electric control
cabinet is well, whether there is damage on the body of explosion proof
tank, indicator, button, transfer switch, button box, limit switch and
emergency indicator.
1.2 01
Turn the main MCB from 0 to 1 (please see Picture I),

Picture I

Energize the electric control cabinet and the yellow power supply indicator
works (please see Picture II)

38

Picture II

Color display works (please see Picture III)

Picture III
1.3
Check whether the emergency stop button is under popping status
(please see Picture IV)

Picture IV
0
Turn the Control selection switch to Local status, the arrow indicates 0
(please see Picture V)

39

Picture V

Operate the direction button of gangway on the operation panel (main


ladder, frontal ladder, level and lock), check whether the corresponding
indicator works. Press Pump start button, check whether Pump On
indicator works (please see Picture VI)

Picture VI

Press Pump Off button, check whether Pump On indicator stops


working.

Turn Status Selection switch (please see Picture VII)

40

Picture VII

To Drive and Float respectively, observe whether the indicators match


with the operation. Press Floor Lamp button, check whether the indicator
works, once again press Floor Lamp button, check whether the indicator
stops working. Turn Function Selection switch (please see Picture VIII)

Picture VIII

To Alarm Test position, buzzer and alarm lamp work.


1.4

41
Turn Control Selection switch to Remote status (please see Picture
IX)

Picture IX
,

Insert the power supply plug of emitter, turn the international standard
Pressing in back-out intervention button. Press any movement key to
operate. (Please see Picture X)

42

Picture X

At present the remoter is available, operate the direction button (main


ladder, frontal ladder, level and lock) of gangway on the remoter (emitter)
and check whether the corresponding indicator on the panel works. Press
Drive and Float buttons on the remoter; observe whether the indicators
match with the operation.
1.5
Turn Control Selection switch to Remote status (please see Picture XI),

43

Picture XI

Check whether remote indicator on the remote button box (please see
Picture XI I) and remote indicator on the remote panel work,

Picture XI I

44

Operate the direction button (main ladder, frontal ladder, level, lock, drive
and float) on the remote panel to check whether the corresponding
indicators on the panel work. Press Drive and Float button on the
remoter; observe whether the indicators on the panel match with the
operation. Press Pump On button, check whether Pump On indicator
works. Press Pump Off button, check whether Pump Off indicator stops
working.
2
Preoperational check over hydraulic main station
2.1

Check whether outer housing, pressure gauge and explosion proof


breakout box are under normal condition, whether system pressure gauge
is placed at zero, whether the sealing faces of valve, manual pump,
retaining valve and pipe joints have oil leakage. Check whether the
hydraulic oil in the tank has exceeded the lowest oil level.
2.2
12~14MPa

16MPa
Press Pump On button, check whether the positive and reverse rotation of
motor and system pressure are under normal conditions, whether motor
and pump work well. We have commissioned the pressure within
12~14MPa when ex-factory. The pressure also can be adjusted through
spillover valve (turning inside indicating pressure increase and turning
outside indicating pressure decrease) with the maximum pressure no more
than 16MPa.
3

45
Even joint operation
3.1
Preoperational check
3.1.1

Check whether all functional switches on the electric control cabinet are
under original state (Function Selection switch should be at Alarm Wait
position, Control Method switch may at Remote of Local position,
Status Selection switch must be at Drive position).
3.1.2 01
Turn on the main power supply switch (turn the main power supply switch
from 0 to 1) and energize the control cabinet.
3.1.3 ,
.

Automatically check whether the floor limit switch and alarm limit switch are
under normal condition as per the data displayed on the color display
screen, check whether the door limit switch is positioned at OFF status,
whether ladder is under Drive status, and whether 1st floor lamp works
(please see Picture XIII). The platform must be at the corresponding floor
when operating.

46

Picture XIII

3.1.4
Check whether the main ladder is under locked status and keep main
ladder under locked status.
3.1.5

Check whether wire rope and cable are intertwined and keep them under
respective normal compact status.
3.2
Remote operation
3.2.1
,
4
4

After checking, choose the Control Selection to Remote status, insert


the power supply plug of emitter and turn the international standard
Pressing in back-out intervention button. At present the remoter is

47
available. Select the target floor via floor selection button on the remoter.
For example, if the target floor is 4/F, directly press Platform 4 button on
the remoter and the elevating platform will automatically rise to 4th floor.
Others are as same as the above. In the event that wire ropes intertwine
and the elevating platform is interrupted and rushes to summit, etc., press
Emergency Stop button on the remoter to realize emergency stop of the
elevating platform.
3.2.2




After arriving at the target floor, the operator may walk to the floor through
passageway of gangway. Operate the ladder through remoter. Slightly lift
the main ladder, open the safety hook. Operate the movements of main
ladder, platform and frontal ladder and make the ladder lapped on the
ship without interruption. Change the status of main ladder and platform
to float status through Float button on the remoter.
3.2.3
Loading and unloading operation
3.2. 4
Separating operation
3.2.5 .
Change Float into Drive though the button on the remoter.
3.2.6

Straighten the cylinder of frontal ladder and take back main ladder
through movements of main ladder, platform and frontal ladder. Once
main ladder is taken back to limit position, safety hook will automatically
extend and mount on to main ladder.
3.2.7

48
Close doors of all floors, press 1st floor button on the remoter and the
platform will automatically lower to 1/F.
3.2.8
After the platform lowers to 1/F, rotate the platform to the surface of wharf
and place it without interruption.
3.2.7

After operation, press international standard Pressing in back-out


intervention button of emitter. Pull out the power supply plug of the emitter
to cut off the power supply.
3.2.9 10
Turn off the main power supply switch (turn main power supply switch from
1 to 0) and disconnect the control cabinet.
3.3
Local operation
3.3.1
5
5

After checking, choose the Control Selection to Local status; select the
target floor via floor selection button on the remoter. For example, if the
target floor is 5/F, directly press Platform 5 button on the remoter and
the elevating platform will automatically rise to 5th floor. Others are as same
as the above. In the event that wire ropes intertwine and the elevating
platform is interrupted and rushes to summit, etc., press Emergency Stop
button on the remoter to realize emergency stop of the elevating platform.
3.3.2

49

After arriving at the target floor, the operator may walk to the floor through
passageway of gangway. Operate the ladder through remoter. Slightly lift
the main ladder, open the safety hook. Operate the movements of main
ladder, platform and frontal ladder and make the ladder lapped on the
ship without interruption. Turn the Status Selection switch on the
operating panel to Float position and the status of main ladder and
platform is changed to float status.
3.3.3
Loading and unloading operation
3.3.4
Separating operation
3.3.5

Change Drive to Float position through Status Selection switch on the


operating panel and change the status from Float to Drive..
3.3.6

Straighten the cylinder of frontal ladder and take back main ladder
through movements of main ladder, platform and frontal ladder. Once
main ladder is taken back to limit position, safety hook will automatically
extend and mount on to main ladder.
3.3.7

Close doors of all floors, press 1st floor button on the remoter and the
platform will automatically lower to 1/F.
3.3.8
After the platform lowers to 1/F, rotate the platform to the surface of wharf
and place it without interruption.
3.3.9 10

50
Turn off the main power supply switch (turn main power supply switch from
1 to 0) and disconnect the control cabinet.
4.
Cautions
4.1

Ensure the door limit switch is under close status during lifting and
descending of operating platform. There should be no people on the
platform and gangway during lifting and descending of operating platform.
4.2

In the event of emergency cases (such as rush to summit, damage and


interruption), press emergency stop button (remoter, platform button box
and operating panel) or turn off the main power supply.
4.3

After pressing the emergency stop button, the platform keeps still. Operate
the platform to any floor through emergency stop rising and descending
button. After arriving at any floor, turn on the emergency stop button; turn
off the main power supply. After the display lamp is put out, reenergize the
control system and automatic operation of elevating platform will be
fulfilled.
4.4

When operating the jointing of gangway, do not lay down the main ladder
through float status. Other it is dangerous. Only after jointing ladder with
ship, float status can be selected.
4.5 45
45

51
Under the float status during ship jointing, if the lifting of main ladder
exceeds 45, the platform will automatically rise one floor. Meanwhile,
main ladder will automatically contract and remove the alarm at 45.
(Except that the platform is at 6/F).

Operation under alarm status

If the ship floats reaches certain range, relating system will issue Level I
alarm. Meanwhile, it should remind relating personnel (including personnel
around and at the suspended ladder) of safety. Personnel on the
suspended ladder nearby should rapidly walk to the internal part of tower
frame or ship, and other personnel cannot mount to the suspended ladder.
The operator should be ready for taking back the ladder.

If the ship floats reaches certain range, relating system will issue Level II
alarm. Meanwhile, all personnel cannot mount to the suspended ladder and
cannot stay at the elevating rotating platform and the bottom of the
suspended ladder. The operator operates the remoter or operating panel to
take back the suspended ladder or hoist the elevating rotating platform.

Warning:
1. 6
Overload shall be prohibited! Strictly prohibit more than 6 people on
the suspended ladder at the same time.

52
2.
Strictly prohibit hoisting and transporting the load via elevating
rotating platform!
3.
Strictly prohibit conducting elevating operation on the elevating
rotating platform with personnel on it.

7.
Care and maintenance




To ensure normal operation of the equipment in a good condition, daily care
and maintenance have to be performed. For this purpose, it is
recommended that individual regulations and systems for equipment
management shall be established and operators and maintenance and
inspection persons shall be educated and evaluated in the aspects of
safety and technology. The following maintenances and inspections shall
be periodically performed:
1).
Lubrication of individual rotating components and sliding components:
15
Individual hinge shafts of pitching mechanism shall be greased once
every 15 days;
15

Oil change and cleaning shall be performed on reduction gearbox of
rotating mechanism 15 days later after its first use. After that, oil
change and cleaning shall be performed once every half a year. The
oil contamination is prevented strictly;

53
Check the conditions of circuits and electrical equipments every day
to ensure reliable and safe operations;

Check hydraulic system (See the after-mentioned descriptions for
detailed requirements);


Before every use, the condition of hydraulic brake block shall be
checked (Pay attention to the conditions such as braking clearance
adjustment of braking block and wearing; perform replacement if
necessary). Check the condition of safety clamp;

Periodically check the condition of coupling fasteners and no loose
connection is allowed;

Check and repair major welding seams once every year;

The maintenance of individual supporting components shall be made
as per the operation and maintenance instructions of these products;

Keep the equipment in a clean condition and cleaning and wiping
shall be performed regularly.




After the gangway is completely installed and after it is used for a
period, the painting of all parts and components has to be checked.
If any damage or scaling is found, it needs to perform the paint
mending in time with the same brand of paint. Before paint mending,
the position requiring paint mending shall be cleaned up to the

54
specification requirement. Then, the painting shall be performed
according to the paint application specifications (For the application
specifications, please follow the paint instructions).
JOTUN
The paint brand selected for the equipment is JOTUN brand and the
coating and paint film thickness are shown as follow:
m
Layer Rust removal and Number Thickness of dry
number painting of layers film (m)
1 1 60
1st layer Hot-dip galvanizing
2 1 50
2nd Micaceous iron oxide
layer intermediate paint
3 1 50
3rd layer Micaceous iron oxide
intermediate paint
4 1 50
4th layer Polyurethane enamel
finish
1 50
Surface Polyurethane enamel
layer
RAL
Pantone number of surface paint: RAL (to be determined)
2).
Maintenance of hydraulic system
A.
Operational requirements of hydraulic system:

To disassemble, assemble and maintain it, the procedure shall be

55
followed to prevent contamination;


It is not allowed to adjust, increase or decrease the components of
hydraulic system without permission and it is forbidden to increase
or decrease the functions of system at random;

It is not allowed to adjust interlocking device of electrical system at
random;



Select a proper hydraulic oil as per technical requirements (See the
attached list), and it isnt allowed to mix and use hydraulic oils of
different types;

Properly adjust individual pressure valves and flow valves as per
design requirements, and tighten adjusting screw after completing
adjustment;
3070

The temperature of hydraulic system cannot exceed design
requirement and it is usually 30-70; if the temperature is too
high, the cause shall be found out as soon as possible;
15%
Maintain stable supply voltage with its fluctuation value not
exceeding 15% of rated voltage;


It isnt allowed to adjust pressure with no pressure meter or
damaged pressure meter; after pressure meter is damaged, it shall
be repaired or replaced in time;

56

Electrical control system shall be kept in a clean and dry state;

Handle internal and external leakages of system in time;

Prevent dust and foreign matters from contaminating hydraulic oil;


Periodically check physicochemical indices of hydraulic oil; if the
conditions such as emulsification of hydraulic oil not compliant with
the requirements are discovered, please replace it in time;

Periodically check the performance of individual components in
system, and repair and replace damaged components in time;

Operators and maintenance persons have to adhere to individual
operation procedures.
B.
Major operation procedures:

The operation procedures mostly include: contents and requirements of


on-duty daily maintenance; preparations before start-up; notices during
operation; jobs after shutdown; on-duty critical notices and daily record
card, etc. The specific requirements are shown as follow:
4 510min

If the machine is started up again after it is shut down for more than
4 hours, it shall be operated in the no-load state for 5-10 minutes
and then be loaded for operation;

57

When the temperature of hydraulic oil exceeds design requirement,
necessary measures shall be taken;

If a failure occurs to the hydraulic system, it shall be repaired in time
and its operation with failure shall be forbidden;

When a hydraulic component is removed and installed, it shall be
kept in a clean state.
C.
Contents of maintenance:
a.
Daily maintenance: It is performed once every shift by on-duty
persons and its contents are shown as follow:

Check oil level inside oil tank;


Check operating pressure. Check the pointer of pressure meter for
bounce (To protect pressure, the pressure meter switch shall be
turned off, except in the case of calibrating pressure meter);

Check the condition of hydraulic pump and pressure control valves
(mostly overflow valve), and adjust or replace them in time;


Check the oil leakage conditions in the connection positions such as
oil tank, hydraulic pump, valve, hydraulic cylinder, hydraulic motor,
pipe joint, pressure meter and etc. Perform maintenance and repair
in time and replace sealing element;

58
Check the working conditions of hydraulic cylinder and hydraulic
motor;

Remove dust and foreign matters on the equipment.
b.
Level I maintenance: three-month periodic inspection, including the
following contents:

The contents of above-mentioned daily maintenance;

Check the conditions of all fasteners;

Check and replace obviously damaged components and parts;

Dismount and clean oil filter;

Check the hydraulic cylinder rod for damages and clean the
hydraulic cylinder.
c.
Level II maintenance: six-month periodic inspection, including the
following contents:

The contents of above-mentioned level I maintenance;

Check and replace obviously damaged components and parts;

Check the connection conditions of hydraulic station motor and
hydraulic pump;

Check the conditions of hydraulic hose (for leakages, damages and
etc.).

59
c.
Level III maintenance: one-year periodic inspection, including the
following contents:

All contents of above-mentioned level II maintenance;

Clean oil tank and pipe and replace hydraulic oil and oil filter;

Replace damaged hydraulic components and parts as well as
sealing components;

Check the hydraulic cylinder rod for damages;

Check the overflow valves and safety valves.

Notices during equipment inspection:



The inspection shall have a clean working environment as well as
open and bright site. It is not allowed to perform inspections in the
windy and sandy or dusty environment;

For inspection, the hydraulic pressure shall be completely released
in the hydraulic system;



To dismount a hydraulic component, the surrounding in this
connecting position shall be cleaned at first; after removal, the oil
pipe, pipe joint, hydraulic component and etc. shall be wrapped with
clean plastic film or paraffin paper to prevent contaminants from
entering into oil pipe. It isnt allowed to use cotton yarn or rag to

60
block hydraulic oil port;


Sealing ring is a rubber article. It shall be shaken and cleaned in the
clean hydraulic oil and be taken out for drying in the air. It is not
allowed to immerse it in the solvents such as petrol and lacquer
thinner for cleaning;


To install hydraulic components, they have to be cleaned up. A low
amount of hydraulic oil can be applied onto their mating surface for
simple installation.
3).
Care and maintenance of wire rope:


()
(I) Before using a wire rope, it shall be checked. Scope of check:
Check the wearing, rust corrosion, tension, bending, deformation,
fatigue, broken wire and exposure extent of rope core, and
ascertain its safe lifting weight (including discarding).

(II) Notices for care:
(1)


The life time of wire rope depends on its usage method to a great
extent. Therefore, it shall be used as per the stipulations. Dragging
and throwing are forbidden. No overload is allowed during usage. It
is not allowed to cause warpage in a sharp angle to wire rope.
Sharp change in lifting speed is not allowed to avoid impact load;

61
(2)
When a wire rope has rust and dirt, it shall be scrubbed with wire
brush and be oiled;
(3) 4 (50)

Wire rope shall be oiled once every 4-month operation. For oiling, it
would be best to immerge rope core in hot oil (at about 50). Then
redundant grease shall be wiped off;
(4)
After a wire rope is wound, it shall be placed in a clean and dry
place. No overlapping piling is allowed to prevent distortion;
(5)

The end of wire rope is tied securely with steel wire or welded with
low melting-point alloy. It can also be banded with iron band to
prevent loose rope end;
(6)

During operation, if oil drop is forced out on the surface of wire rope,
it will indicate that the wire rope withstands a high force. In this
point, it shall stop to increase load and a check shall be performed.
If necessary, it shall be replaced with a new wire rope.

See the appendix for discarding standards for wire rope.


Warning
1.

Before electrical maintenance is performed, all power supply switches

62
in this equipment must be turned off and set with safety lock. Obvious
warning labels shall be set up in a remarkable position to warn other
persons not to switch on power supply without permission.
2.

When equipment maintenance and inspection are performed in the
height of gangway, individual maintenance and inspection persons must
wear safety helmet and safety belt. The safety helmet and safety belt
shall be used correctly!

63
JIANGSU CHANGLONG TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD UPDATE:7/9/2010 Rev. 1

8.
Common faults and troubleshooting

The failure conditions and repair conditions occurring during operation shall be
timely added into the equipment record in detail by related persons so that the
equipment performance can be understood and the equipment can be
operated and maintained in a better way.
1.
Mechanical failure and troubleshooting

Parts Failure conditions Causes or consequences Elimination measures
and
compon
ents
1. 1. 1. 2mm
Pulley Non-uniform Wearing of wire rope will
wearing of pulley speed up; When non-uniform wearing
groove 2. exceeds 2mm, it shall be out of
2. Mandrel is damaged; service and be replaced;
Wearing of pulley 3. 2.
mandrel Lubrication of bearing is
3. poor or it is damaged. Check lubrication condition and
Non-rotating of bearing conditions, and add
pulley lubricating grease or replace
bearing.

Spool Cracks in spool Spool is damaged. Replace spool.
1.
Levers act poorly and 1.
are seized; Lubricate turning joint of lever;
2. 2.
Incomplete braking Oil is present on braking Clean braking surface with
with sliding surface; kerosene;
3. 3.
Excessive wearing Replace braking block.
occurs to brake block.
1. 1.
Braking block is stuck; Clean braking surface with
2. kerosene;

Turning joint is seized; 2.
Failing to open
Brake 3. Eliminate seizing sign;
Spring tension is 3.
excessively high. Adjust spring.



Non-uniform braking of
Scorching smell
braking block or uneven Adjust brake (See the brake
generated from brake
action during opening causes instructions for the details).
block
excessively high sliding
friction.


Adjustment of brake is
Scraping noise Re-adjust the brake.
improper.

Page 64 of 105


1. Replace gear;

Damaged gear
Vibration is caused during
Gear 2. 20%
operation, leading to
Worn teeth Allowable wearing limit is 20% of
obstructed transmission.
original tooth thickness.
1.
1. Replace it;
Coupling is broken; 2.
1.
2. Machine hole and replace
Cracks in coupling
Bounce occurs during bolt;
2.
operation and bolt is 3.
Coupling Worn bolt hole
sheared off; 90
3.
3. Repair wearing position with
Worn key groove
Key slips off, leading to welding and machine key
disabled transmission. groove again in the position
with 90 to original key groove.
1. 1. 1.
Cracks Shaft is damaged; Replace it;

2. 2. 2.
Shaft
Excessive Shaft journal is damaged Correct or replace it after
deformation due to fatigue. heating.
1.
1.

1.
Heating occurring

in the enclosure,
Bearing is failed, shaft Replace (fill up) lubricating oil,
especially in the
journal is seized, gear is and check gear engagement
bearing installation
rapidly worn, and gear condition and bearing
position
and bearing lack of condition;
2.
Reductor lubrication; 2.

2. Tighten bolt and replace
Lubricating oil
Mechanism is worn and sealant or sealing ring;
leaked from
bolt is loose; 3.
junction surface of
3. Tighten bolt and adjust
enclosure
Coupling or shaft journal mechanism.
3.
is damaged.
Vibration
1. 1.

Lack of lubrication; Provide proper lubrication;

2. 2.
Rolling Overheat of bearing
Foreign matter is present Clean bearing with petrol, and
bearing
in the bearing. fill up lubricating oil.
1. 1.

Improper assembling; Adjust;
High noise during
2. 2.
operation
Bearing is worn or broken. Replace.

2.
Failures and troubleshooting of operating system and electrical
equipment

Failure conditions Causes Elimination methods

Blown fuse Short circuit or grounded circuit Eliminate it after inspection.


Over-current relay acting
after turning controller
1. 1.
Grounding or short circuit Repair it after checking it with
No drop of contactor after occurs in the operating megameter;
cutting off current circuit; 2.
2. Eliminate it after checking

65
Contact finger of contactor is contactor.
molten and sintered.


Open circuit may occur to one
Check the circuit in the open phase.
phase.

Brake is locked. Conditions of brake.

Overload. Reduce loads.

Stalling of motor Ensure the voltage is supplied as per

the nameplate;
Too low voltage.

Check connection conditions.



Fuse is blown. Check the conditions
Open circuit.
of overload relay, stator and foot
switch.


Use a high voltage or transformer, or

reduce loads.
Due to the reason of line voltage

drop, terminal voltage of motor is
Motor fails to reach rated Check connection conditions. Check
too low.
rotating speed. whether conducting wire is proper.


Check whether starting load of motor
Starting load is too high.
is satisfied.

Overload Reduce loads.

Starting time of motor is Check whether high-resistance
too long and motor current
component is applied.
is too high. Voltage is too low during starting.

Use proper electric wires.

Overload Reduce loads.


Vent of frame or support is Keep unobstructed air flow in the vent
blocked with dirt to prevent position.
proper ventilation of motor.


Overheat occurs to motor
Check and confirm that all conducting
during loading operation.
Open-phase occurs to motor. wires are connected in a good
condition.

Ground wire Install and repair it.


Check conducting wire, connection
Terminal voltage is instable.
and transformer.

Bearing is damaged. Replace bearing.
Motor vibration
Balancing weight is displaced. Re-adjust the balance of motor.

Insufficient lubrication Provide good lubrication to bearing.

Overheat of motor bearing
Bearing trolley is damaged or has Replace bearing after completely
rough surface. cleaning frame.

66
JIANGSU CHANGLONG TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD UPDATE:7/9/2010 Rev. 1

3.
Diagnosis of common failures in hydraulic system

The fundamental circuits of hydraulic system in this gangway include: pressure


control circuit, speed control circuit, and direction control circuit. The typical
failure behavior is: no action, instable action, incorrect action direction,
creeping, noise and etc.

Diagnosis of common failures in pressure control circuit

The major failure behavior is that: no operating pressure is present, pressure
fails to reach design requirements, and pressure fails to fall down after rising
up.

Major reasons leading to abnormal operating pressure include: abnormal


motor speed, malfunction of control valve, leakage in system circuit and etc.

Specific diagnosis flowchart is shown as follow:

Page 67 of 105

Insufficient pressure in hydraulic system


Yes


No

Whether adjustment of Adjust pressure of overflow
overflow valve is correct valve


No


Yes


Whether liquid level in oil
Add up hydraulic oil to desired
tank is too low
height


No


Yes

Check for the reason in the aspects of
Whether rotating speed of
motor and power supply
pump is too low


No


No

Whether pump operation is Repair or replace hydraulic pump
normal


Yes


Yes

Replace sealing ring and repair
Whether internal and leaked element
external leakages are
present

68
JIANGSU CHANGLONG TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD UPDATE:7/9/2010 Rev. 1


Diagnosis of common failures in speed control circuit

The major failure behavior is: abnormal flow, and instable action of oil cylinder
and hydraulic motor (poor low-speed stability and creeping of oil cylinder).

Specific diagnosis flowchart is shown as follow:


Insufficient flow in hydraulic
system


Yes



No
Check for the reasons in the aspects
Whether hydraulic pump is of motor and power supply
normal
Check hydraulic pump


Yes


Yes

Add up hydraulic oil to desired
Whether liquid level in oil
tank is too low height


No


Yes


Whether stroking
Check for the reasons in the aspects
mechanism is normal
of motor and power supply


Yes


No

Whether operation of Check and adjust overflow valve
overflow valve is normal

Page 69 of 105

Diagnosis of common failures in direction control circuit

The major failure behavior is:

1
2
Action malfunction of reversing valve; major reasons include: Damaged
electromagnet; Broken spring;

1
2

Abnormal operation of hydraulic control check valve; major reasons include:


Poor leakage leads to leakages; Seized check valve cannot be opened.

70
JIANGSU CHANGLONG TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD UPDATE:7/9/2010 Rev. 1

5.
Common failures and troubleshooting of hydraulic system

Failure Failure conditions Causes Elimination methods
signs
1. 1.
Empty suction of hydraulic Oil-suction oil filter is Clean oil-suction oil filter;
pump blocked; 2.
2. Heat up to proper
Oil temperature is too low; temperature;
3. 3.
Viscosity of hydraulic oil is Use proper hydraulic oil.
too low.
1. 1.
Generating excessive Liquid level in oil tank is Add oil;
foam too low; 2.
2. Fasten joints, and replace
Air leakage in oil suction sealing ring;
pipe; 3.
3. Remove air in whole
Obstructed air removal. equipment.
1. 1.
Mechanical vibration Adjust and tighten it;
Assembling of hydraulic 2.
station motor and Tighten it and add pipe clips.
hydraulic pump is poor
and coupling is loose;
2.
Vibration of pipeline.
Severe 1. 1.
noise Hydraulic pump generates Replace coupling;
noises. The coupling connecting
hydraulic pump to motor is 2.
worn; Clean oil suction pipe or filter
2. screen.
Oil suction pipe or filter
screen is blocked.
1. 1.
Oil suction pipe or filter Clean oil suction pipe or filter
Abnormal noise occurs to screen; screen;
output pipeline of 2. 2.
hydraulic pump during the Air is present in hydraulic Remove air;
action of hydraulic pump; 3.
cylinder. 3. Tighten bolts;
Connection of hydraulic 4.
pump is loose; Repair or replace hydraulic
4. pump.
Internal parts of hydraulic
pump are damaged.



Hydraulic pump generates
Overflow valve is damaged. Repair or replace overflow valve.
whistles during startup of
hydraulic system.


Wrong rotating direction of
Wrong electrical connection Inspect and correct connection.
hydraulic pump
Insufficient 1.
1.
pressure Worn or damaged
Repair or replace hydraulic
or no hydraulic pump;
presence Overheat of hydraulic pump;
2.
of pump 2.
Too low viscosity of
Use proper hydraulic oil.
pressure hydraulic oil
1. 1.
Leakage loss from Wrong pressure Properly adjust it;
high-pressure side to adjustment; 2.

Page 71 of 105
return side 2. Clean, repair or replace it;
3.
Overflow valve isnt closed Clean, repair or replace it;
tightly, foreign matter is 4.
existent or parts are worn; Repair or replace it.
3.

Operating valves or other
valve pieces are opened,
foreign matter is existent
or parts are damaged;
4.
Sealing ring of hydraulic
cylinder is damaged.
1.
1.
Valve seat is worn;
Repair or replace;
2.
Bounce of overflow valve 2.
Foreign matter is present
Clean.
in valve.


Abnormal

pressure
Adhesion of valve parts Hydraulic oil isnt clean. Drain hydraulic oil, clean system
and replace hydraulic oil.


Air isnt completely removed in Remove air in equipment and
Air presence in equipment
equipment. check air leakage condition.


Empty suction of hydraulic
See the above descriptions. See the above descriptions.
pump


See the above descriptions. See the above descriptions.
Generating excessive

Insufficient foam
See the above descriptions. See the above descriptions.
oil supply

Leakage loss from
high-pressure side to See the above descriptions. See the above descriptions.
low-pressure side
1.
Too high Pressure adjustment of
1.
oil safety valve is too high;
Adjust properly;
temperatur 2.
2.
e Too high temperature of Safety valve doesnt
Clean and repair;
hydraulic pipe function;
3.
3.
Use proper hydraulic oil.
Viscosity of hydraulic oil is
too low.
1.
Too high Parts of hydraulic pump 1.

oil are worn; Repair or replace;
Overheat of hydraulic
temperatur 2. 2.
pump
e Viscosity of hydraulic oil is Use proper hydraulic oil.
improper.
1.
Oil filter is blocked;
1.
2.
Clean oil filter;
Leakage occurs to
2.
hydraulic pump;
1. Repair or replace hydraulic
3.
All actions become pump;
Pressure of overflow valve
Abnormal slow; 3.
is too low;
action of 2. Adjust setting pressure;
4.
hydraulic A single action 4.
Leakage occurs to
cylinder becomes slow. Repair or replace reversing
reversing valve;
valve;
5.
5.
Sealing component of
Replace sealing element.
hydraulic cylinder is
damaged.

72
1.
1.
One-way throttle valve is
Repair or replace one-way
damaged;
Return speed becomes throttle valve;
2.
slow. 2.
Spring of reversing valve
Repair or replace spring.
is damaged.
1.
Air is present in system;
2.

Flow of return throttle
valve is too high and oil
1.
return cavity of hydraulic
Find out the causes and
cylinder has no backing
remove air;
pressure;
2.
3.
Adjust throttle valve;
Flow and pressure
3.
fluctuate during failure of
Repair or replace hydraulic
hydraulic pump;
pump;
4.
4.
Hydraulic control check
Creeping of hydraulic Repair or replace check
valve is failed;
cylinder valve;
5.
5.
Internal and external
Replace sealing element;
leakages occur to
6.
hydraulic cylinder;
Repair or replace;
6.
7.
Leakage occurs inside
Repair or replace;
reversing valve;
8.
7.
Repair or replace.
Leakage occurs inside
overflow valve;
8.
Deformation of hydraulic
cylinder mechanism
occurs.
1.
Leakage of hydraulic
1.
pump;
Repair or replace hydraulic
2.
pump;
Internal leakage of
2.
hydraulic cylinder;
Replace sealing element;
Failing to increase speed 3.
3.

Adjust pressure, and check
Overflowing occurs at
mechanical structure.
overflow valve at a higher
pressure in hydraulic
system.
1. 1.
Overflow valve doesnt Repair or replace overflow

work; valve;
No action and no pressure
2. 2.
in hydraulic cylinder
Hydraulic pump is Repair or replace hydraulic
damaged. pump.
1. 1.

Electrical failure; Repair electrical system;

2. 2.
No action of hydraulic
Electromagnet is Repair or replace
cylinder and no direction
damaged; electromagnet;
change of electromagnetic
3. 3.
valve
Adhesion of slide valve. Clean valve spool.
1. 1.

Electrical failure; Repair electrical system;


Hydraulic cylinder cannot
2. 2.
stop.
Malfunction of reversing Repair or replace reversing
valve. valve.

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JIANGSU CHANGLONG TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD UPDATE:7/9/2010 Rev. 1

6.
Common failures and troubleshooting of hydraulic components
A.
Common failures and troubleshooting of hydraulic cylinder

Failures Causes Elimination methods
1. 1.
Air is present inside hydraulic cylinder or
inside hydraulic system; Start up hydraulic system to reciprocate in
2. maximum stroke for several cycles to
Negative-pressure air-breathing is remove air; seal system and pipe;
formed in a position in hydraulic 2.
cylinder; Find out the position forming negative
3. pressure in hydraulic cylinder and remove
Creeping Sealing ring is pressed too tightly; air;
4. 3.
Hydraulic cylinder rod isnt straight; Adjust sealing ring;
5. 4.
Straighten hydraulic cylinder rod or
Inner wall of hydraulic cylinder or rod replace hydraulic cylinder;
surface has scratches, severe partial 5.
wearing or corrosion. Repair or replace hydraulic cylinder.
0.2


Operating speed of hydraulic cylinder is too Adjust direction change time (>0.2 second),
Impact
high. and reduce operating speed of hydraulic
cylinder.
1.
Hydraulic cylinder rod has surface
scratches, severe wearing or corrosion;
1.
2.
Repair or replace hydraulic cylinder;
Sealing ring is damaged or aging;
2.
3.
Replace sealing element;
Sealing of pipe joint isnt tight;
3.
External 4.
Repair or replace pipe joint;
leakage Sealing of cylinder head isnt tight;
4.
5.
Replace sealing element;

5.
Due to poor ventilation, air is
Timely vent air, and replace sealing ring.
compressed and it leads to local high
temperature and consequent damages
of sealing ring.
1.


1.
If piston wearing is severe, the cylinder

shall be bored. Machine piston to make it
Fit clearance between cylinder barrel
smaller. Machine sealing ring groove.
and piston increases due to wearing or
Install sealing ring or replace hydraulic
corrosion and exceeds tolerance;
cylinder.
2.
Internal 2.
Wearing or aging of sealing ring;
leakage Replace sealing element.
3.
3.
Withstand radial load, leading to inclined

wearing of piston;
Check, re-adjust and install hydraulic
4.
cylinder or eliminate the effect of radial
Local wearing.
load;
4.
Repair or replace hydraulic cylinder.


Abnormal
Internal air of hydraulic cylinder is thermally
sound and Vent the air.
insulated and compressed.
noise

Page 74 of 105
B.
Common failures and troubleshooting of vane pump

Wearing of vane pump is relatively low and service time of parts and
components is relatively long. The reasons causing failures of vane pump
mostly include contamination of hydraulic oil. As some moving parts in vane
pump have a precision mating, abnormal wearing or seizing will be easily
caused after contaminants enter. Therefore the assurance of clean hydraulic
oil and unobstructed oil suction is essential to ensure normal operation of vane
pump.

Causes of failures Elimination methods
Failures

1. 1.
Incorrect rotating direction of pump; Adjust electrical system to have
2. proper rotating direction of pump;
Poor sealing of oil suction side in pump and oil 2.
No oil output of pump or insufficient displacement and pressure

suction pipe end leads to continuous air inflow in Tighten related thread connecting
pump; pieces or replace sealing
3. components;
Parts are worn, clearance increases and leakage 3.
is relatively high; Repair or replace related worn parts;
4. 4.
Rotating speed of pump is relatively low; Check loading conditions of motor

5. and check for slipping signs;


Screws of assembled pump cover are loose, 5.
leading to mutual connection between high- and Tighten it;
low-pressure cavity; 6.
6. Check and adjust it;
Mating clearance of vane and groove is too 7.
close; Repair or replace vane;
7. 8.
Mating clearance of vane and groove is too high; Repair it;
8. 9.
Radial or axial clearance of mating parts is too Single-groove running-in shall be
high; performed on inflexible vane;
9. 10.
Movement of vane isnt flexible; Repair or replace worn mechanism;
10. 11.
Internal mechanism is worn;
11. Disassemble hydraulic pump, remove
Vane cannot extend out of vane groove of rotor; dirt in the groove or replace vane;
12. 12.
No sealing between oil distribution plate of vane Disassemble it for cleaning and
pump and pump body is made. re-assemble it.

75
1. 1.

Too high temperature rise



Poor assembling and excessively low axial Check assembling quality and adjust
clearance lead to dry friction; clearance;
2. 2.
Hydraulic pump has severe wearing, excessively Repair parts with grinding to make
high clearance and increased leakage; them reach proper clearance;
3. 3.
Pump continuous inhales air and liquid is Check air inlet position of hydraulic
thermally insulated and compressed in pump, pump and timely handle it;
leading to high temperature; 4.
4. Adjust clearance to prevent
Port plate has deformation or excessively low deformation of port plate;
rotor clearance; 5.
5. Correct curved face of stator;
Curved face of stator has large scars and bounce 6.
of vane is severe; Adjust or replace sealing element.
6.
Sealing of main shaft is too tight or single side of
bearing is heated up.
1. 1.
rotation
Inflexible or seized pump

Axial or radial clearance is too low; Repair or replace related parts;


2. 2.
Adjust it;
Poor assembling leads to improper coaxiality 3.
between bearing hole of cover plate and main Clean, and replace hydraulic oil;
shaft and between pump and motor coupling; 4.
3. Repair and clean.
Kinematic pair is seized by foreign matter inhaled
into pump;
4.
Slide part in pump is seized.
1. 1.
is pushed out.
Framework oil seal of rotating shaft or gland

Reassemble gland to prevent oil


Gland blocks oil return passage of front and rear return passage from being blocked;
cover plates, leading to obstructed oil return and 2.
occurrence of high pressure; Adjust assembling or replace oil seal;
2. 3.
The mating between framework oil seal and front Reassemble it;
cover of pump is too loose; 4.
3. Clean, and replace hydraulic oil;
5.
Pump body is assembled in a reverse direction to Check the mating, or replace oil seal.
connect oil outlet and load relief groove, so that
high-pressure oil impacts on framework oil seal;
4.
Internal leakage return passage is blocked by
contaminants;
5.
The mating between oil seal and pump end cover
is too loose.
1. 1.
Internal leakage

Wearing of cylinder body and port plate makes Correct sealing face;
their clearance become larger; 2.
2. Check the mating or replace it;
Central spring is damaged, leading to poor 3.
sealing performance between cylinder body and Adjust it;
port plate; 4.
3. Use proper hydraulic oil.
Axial clearance is excessively high;
4.
Viscosity of hydraulic oil is too low.
1. 1.
leakage
External

Sealing on drive shaft is damaged; Replace sealing element;


2. 2.
Bolts and nuts of individual junction surfaces and Tighten bolts and nuts and check
pipe joints are loose, and sealing is disturbed. sealing performance.

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JIANGSU CHANGLONG TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD UPDATE:7/9/2010 Rev. 1

C.
Common failures and troubleshooting of hydraulic motor

Failures Causes of failures Elimination methods
1. 1.
Tighten fasteners, check sealing
Junction surface of hydraulic motor isnt conditions or replace sealing element;
Low tightened or sealed in a good condition 2.
rotating and leakage occurs to it; Eliminate internal leakage (see the
speed 2. below descriptions);
and Hydraulic motor has internal leakage; 3.
insufficie 3. Repair or replace support spring.
nt output Support bearing of port plate is in a
power fatigue state and loses its function.
1. 1.
Internal Port plate is worn severely; Repair contact face of port plate;
leakage 2. 2.
Axial clearance is too high; Check and adjust axial clearance;
3. 3.
Cylinder body and end face of port plate Repair and adjust cylinder body and
are worn and axial clearance is too end face of port plate;
high; 4.
4. Replace spring;
Fatigue of spring; 5.
5. Inspect operating hydraulic oil and
reduce oil temperature.
Cycloid rotor engagement pair is worn
and occluded in operation, hydraulic oil
is contaminated and oil temperature is
excessively high.
1. 1.
External Shaft end seal is worn; Replace sealing ring, and check for
leakage 2. wearing causes;
Sealing ring in the cover plate is 2.
damaged; Replace sealing ring;
3. 3.
Junction surface has foreign matter or Check and remove foreign matter, and
bolts are not tightened; tighten bolts;
4. 4.
Sealing of pipe joint isnt tight. Tighten pipe joint.

Heating Bearing is broken, different shaft is installed Improve installation, replace damaged parts,
of motor and backing pressure is high. and reduce backing pressure.

Improve installation, replace damaged parts,
Bearing is damaged or pulsates, bearing and increase rotating speed.
Instable withstands too high external force,
rotating installation is poor or rotating speed is too
speed, low.
or
creeping
sign
occurrin
g

Oil Oil seal is broken and backing pressure is Install oil drain pipe and reduce backing
leakage high. pressure.
at oil
seal
1. 1.
Abnorm Sealing isnt tight and air enters; Check and tighten pipe joint;
al sound 2. 2.
Oil inlet is blocked; Clean it;
3. 3.
Coupling is installed onto different shaft; Adjust installation;
4. 4.

Page 77 of 105
Bearing is worn; Replace bearing;
5. 5.
Hydraulic motor is severely worn; Replace it;
6. 6.
Repair it. Prevent the occurrence of
Partial spot corrosion occurs to cycloid spot corrosion and cavitation condition.
rotor engagement pair and port plate
and cavitation is generated.

D.
Common failures and troubleshooting of reversing valve

Failures Causes Elimination methods
1. 1.
No Check clearance conditions, and repair
direction Mating clearance of slide valve (valve or replace valve spool;
change spool) and valve body is too low, and 2.
valve spool tends to be seized in hole to Repair valve spool;
fail to act or act insufficiently; 3.
2. Check and clean it, and replace
Valve spool or valve body is damaged; hydraulic oil;
3. 4.
Hydraulic oil is contaminated and Re-assemble it, or replace related parts;
mechanism is jammed by foreign 5.
matter; Re-install and tighten it, and repair valve
4. body and valve spool;
6.
Valve spool and valve opening are Check and adjust electrical system;
assembled in a disalignment way, 7.
leading to axial hydraulic seizing Repair and replace electromagnet;
phenomenon; 8.
5. Check for reasons, and replace
electromagnet;
Valve body installation is deformed or 9.
valve spool is bent and deformed, Check and re-install it.
resulting in seized valve spool;
6.

Voltage is too low, leading to insufficient
thrust force of electromagnet and failing
to drive valve spool;
7.
Electromagnet is burnt out due to
seized valve;
8.

Thrust force is insufficient due to
magnetic leakage of electromagnet and
it fails to drive valve spool;
9.
Connection of electromagnet is in a
poor contact.

Reduce Replace push rod or electromagnet.
d flow Push rod of reversing valve become shorter
due to long-term impact and wearing,
contact point of armature is worn, and spool
stroke is insufficient, leading to reduced
opening and flow.
1. 1.
Sealing ring is worn; Replace sealing ring;
Oil 2. 2.
leakage Installing bolts are loose; Re-tighten;
at 3. 3.
electrom Installing bolts have deformation. Replace bolts.
agnet

78


Slow For initial use, loosen sealing screw at fist.
action of After hydraulic oil is filled up, then tighten
electrom There is a sealing screw in the back of screw to ensure sealing.
agnet electromagnet. For initial installation, air
exists in back cavity. When hydraulic oil
enters into armature cavity, if air in back
cavity isnt removed, air will be compressed
and damping will be formed, leading to slow
action.
1. 1.
Installing screw is loose; Re-tighten it;
Oil 2. 2.
leakage Bottom face sealing ring is aging or has Replace sealing ring;
at no sealing function; 3.
junction 3. Replace screw.
surface Deformation of screw.
of
reversin
g valve
1. 1.
Too high voltage; Check and adjust electrical system;
Overhea 2. 2.
t or Poor insulation performance of Replace electromagnet;
burnout electromagnetic coil; 3.
of 3. Reduce direction change frequency, or
electrom Direction change is too frequent; change to wet-type DC electromagnet;
agnet 4. 4.
Iron core of electromagnet isnt Find out the reasons, eliminate them,
attracted to its limit and consequently and replace electromagnet;
burnt out; 5.
5. Check and re-connect it in a good
Joint of electric wire isnt connected in a condition;
good condition; 6.
6. Check and adjust assembling;
Iron core of electromagnet and axis of 7.
slide valve are not coaxial; Check and correct push rod.
7.

Push rod and electromagnet have a
poor stroke match, and iron core cannot
be closed, leading to excessively high
current and heating of coil.
1. 1.
Direction Contaminant is mixed in hydraulic oil Clean, and replace hydraulic oil;
change and slide valve is seized; 2.
malfunct 2. Replace with proper spring;
ion Spring force is too low or high; 3.
3. Clean;
Contaminant is present in the contact 4.
position of electromagnet iron core; Repair or replace slide valve;
4. 5.
Clearance of slide valve and valve body Repair or replace push rod.
is too low or too high;
5.


After wearing of push rod in
electromagnetic valve, its length isnt
sufficient or its stroke is incorrect, so
that the movement of valve spool is too
low or high, resulting in failed or
inadequate direction change.
1. 1.
Iron core of electromagnet has a rough Clean and correct it;
Impact contact surface or poor contact; 2.
and 2. Control pressure difference between
noise of two circuits;

79
direction 3.
change Hydraulic impulsive sound (due to Repair or replace slide valve;
transient connection of two circuits with 4.
a very high pressure difference) causes Tighten bolts, and take measures for
vibration of piping and other anti-loosing of bolts;
components to form noises; 5.
3. Repair or replace push rod;
Slide valve is seized sometimes or 6.
moved, or local friction is too high; Repair or replace electromagnet.
4.
Bolts fixing electromagnet are loose and
consequently vibration is caused;
5.
Push rod of electromagnetic reversing
valve is too long or short;
6.
Electromagnet has a too high attraction
or fails to be attracted.

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JIANGSU CHANGLONG TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD UPDATE:7/9/2010 Rev. 1

E.
Common failures and troubleshooting of hydraulic control check valve

Failures Causes Elimination methods
1. 1.
Noise Maximum flow through check valve Adjust and decrease flow;
exceeds rated flow; 2.
2. Properly change rated pressure of
Resonance vibration occurs to check valve;
valve and other components; 3.
3. Adjust check throttle valve and reduce
Action speed of hydraulic cylinder is action speed of hydraulic cylinder.
too fast.
1. 1.
Leakage Sealing of valve seat isnt tight; Refit it to ensure sealing;
2. 2.
Steel ball or conical surface is out of Replace steel ball or valve seat;
round or worn; 3.
3. Clean it, change hydraulic oil, and
Impurity in hydraulic oil damages replace steel ball or valve seat;
steel ball or conical surface; 4.
4. Refit it;
After operating, surface roughness of 5.
valve spool or valve seat become Repair or replace it;
poor; 6.
5. Retighten it, and replace bolts if
The mating tendency is damaged; necessary.
6.
Junction part of connection isnt
tightened or has improper sealing.
1. 1.
Deformation of valve body; Repair it;
Malfunctio 2. 2.
n of check Burr is present in valve spool; De-burr and polish it ;
valve 3. 3.
Deformation of valve spool; Repair it;
4. 4.
Hydraulic oil is contaminated; Replace hydraulic oil;
5. 5.
Spring is broken or missed during Replace or fix it;
installation; 6.
6. Repair, adjust or replace it.


Sealing effect is lost between cone
valve or steel ball and valve seat. For
example, coaxiality between cone
valve and valve seat exceeds
tolerance, rust corrosion of sealing
surface results in poor contact and
severe wearing and etc.
1. 1.
Poor Hydraulic control pressure is too low. Adjust it.
hydraulic
control

F.
Common failures and troubleshooting of overflow valve

Failures Causes Elimination methods
1. 1.
Fluid noise Check and handle it.

Page 81 of 105
Vibration a. a.
and noise High speed flow sound of overflow Select proper main valve spring;
in overflow valve; b.
b. Remove air and ensure sealing;
c.
Cavitation erosion noise as well as
eddy current and shearing fluid Increase load releasing time, and
noise after overflow; slowly open or close control
c. load-releasing reversing valve;
Impulsive sound during load d.
releasing;
d.
Repair pilot valve and main valve,
High-frequency noise caused due improve accuracy, increase
to uneven pressure withstood by diameter of oil return pipe, select
pilot valve and main slide valve; proper main valve spring and use
e. hydraulic oil with proper viscosity;
Presence of air in oil return pipeline; e.
f. Vent air and seal it;
Air enters into pressure control f.
zone in overflow valve. Vent air and seal it.
2. 2.
Mechanical noise Check and handle it.
a. a.
Adjust it;
Noise resulting from excessively b.
tight or loose mating of slide valve Replace spring;
and valve opening; c.
b. Fasten it;
Noise caused due to excessive d.
softness or bending deformation of Repair or replace it;
pressure-regulating spring; e.
c. Eliminate it after checking.
Loose pressure-regulating nut;
d.
Worn cone valve;
e.
Noise caused due to resonance
vibration with other components in
system.
1. 1.
Install plug for load-releasing opening
Plug for load-releasing opening of pilot and seal it;
Pressure overflow valve isnt installed securely 2.
is and control has no pressure; Clean it and replace hydraulic oil;
excessivel 2. 3.
y low or Load-releasing opening of pilot Cleaning it and replace hydraulic oil;
fails to overflow valve is blocked and overflow 4.
reach valve releases loads; Check, repair or replace it.
design 3.
requireme Slide valve is seized in the fully open
nts. position by contaminants;
4.
Component or pipe of system is broken
and oil is leaked in a high amount.
1. 1.
Clean it.
Pressure Internal oil drainage opening of pilot 2.
is overflow valve is blocked and pilot valve
excessivel cannot control pressure; Press stainless steel sheet into damping
y high and 2. hole and insert fine and soft metal wire into
cannot be hole, in order to block partial damping
reduced. Damping hole is worn excessively, hole;
pressure difference between both ends 3.
of main valve spool isnt high, and slide Clean it and replace hydraulic oil.
valve cannot be opened;
3.
Slide valve is seized in the closing
position by contaminants.

82
1. 1.
Pressure Repair hydraulic pump;
fluctuation Flow or pressure of hydraulic pump has 2.
an excessive high pulsation to disable Repair it and vent air;
balance of valve; 3.
2. Replace with proper spring;
Air is mixed into hydraulic system, 4.
leading to sometimes high and
sometimes low pressure; Run in cone valve and valve seat,
3. replace cone valve or steel ball, clean it,
make close mating between cone valve
Control valve spool spring for pressure or steel ball and valve seat;
regulating is too soft or has bending 5.
deformation, failing to maintain stable Clean damping hole of main valve, and
pressure; replace hydraulic oil if necessary;
4. 6.
Repair or replace slide valve.

Poor mating between cone valve or
steel ball and valve seat, contaminant
jamming or wearing causes fluctuating
internal leakage, leading to sometimes
high and sometimes low pressure;
5.

Action of slide valve is inflexible, slide
valve has excessive extending or
bending deformation or is seized by
contaminants, or slide valve has
deformation, or valve body opening is
damaged.
1. 1.
Internal Clean, repair or replace it;
leakage 2.
Cone valve or steel ball and valve Repair or replace slide valve spool.
seat have poor contact, wearing and
contaminant jamming, so that system
pressure becomes excessively low or
cannot be raised;
2.
Mating clearance between slide valve
and valve body is too high.
1. 1.
External Poor sealing of pipe joint; Tighten pipe joint or replace sealing
leakage 2. ring;
Poor or failed sealing on related 2.
junction surface. Correct junction surface and replace
sealing element.

83
JIANGSU CHANGLONG TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD UPDATE:7/9/2010 Rev. 1

9
List and drawings of wearing parts (to be determined)



Model number Qua
No. Name Unit Remarks
(drawing number) ntity
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

Page 84 of 105
JIANGSU CHANGLONG TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD UPDATE:7/9/2010 Rev. 1

10.
Operation instructions of electrical control system

1.
System description
EXDCT-02

EXDCT-02 model electrical control system is a specialized control system for


the gangway. After this system is supported with hydraulic system, it can
control the operation of gangway to realize rising and lowering of gangway, left
and right rotating of platform and up and down pitching of main ladder and
frontal ladder and to ensure proper connection of gangway and tanker.
1
1 1
The system has: out-of-range alarm function and alarm message character
display function. It is equipped with: 1 set of central control cabinet, 1 set of
button control box, and 1 sound and light alarm device.
EXDCT-02 S7-224
TD200
The control core component of EXDCT-02 model electrical control system is
S7-224 model programmable controller from Germany Siemens Company. Its
information display panel adopts TD200-model text display from Germany
Siemens Company.
EXDCT-02 1.2.
3.4.

EXDCT-02 model gangway can be divided into four parts in the aspect of
electrical control: 1. Rising and lowering of platform; 2. Left- and right-rotating
of ladder body and up- and down-pitching of main ladder and frontal ladder; 3.
Position limit, positioning and alarm; 4. Floor lamp.

Page 85 of 105

TD200

The gangway is controlled and operated with panel buttons, while control unit
collects position limit and positioning signals. With position limit signal, safety
position limit control is performed on left- and right-rotating of ladder body and
up- and down-pitching of main ladder and frontal ladder and it is output in the
form of sound and light alarm, while alarm message is shown on TD200 model
text display in the text form; with positioning signal, positioning control is
performed on rising and lowering of ladder platform, so that the platform can
accurately rise or lower to destination floor.

1 GB 3836.1-2000 2
dGB 3836.2-2000
This control system is designed and manufactured strictly as per the national
standards of P.R.C including Electrical Apparatus for Explosive Gas
Atmospheres, Part 1: General Requirements (GB 3836.1-2000) and Electrical
Apparatus for Explosive Gas Atmospheres, Part 2: Flameproof Enclosure d
(GB 3836.2-2000).

Parameters of system:
EXDCT-01
Specification and model number: EXDCT-01 model
dIIBT4
Explosion proof grade: dIIBT4
IP56
Protection level: IP56
-10 60
Operating environment: -10 - 60

86
35A
Rated current: 35A
380VAC50Hz
Rated voltage: 380V, AC, 50Hz
2.
Rising and lowering of platform
a.
Composition of mechanism
PLC
PLC

This mechanism mostly consists of explosion proof motor, planetary reduction


gearbox, hydraulic brake and drive pulley. The forward and reverse rotation
control of lifting braking motor is performed with PLC to complete rising and
lowering of platform; the collected positioning signal is logically analyzed with
PLC to control the stalling of lifting motor and the action of hydraulic brake to
ensure dwelling of platform at the specified floor.
b.
Parameters of components
1.
Explosion proof motor
MZJA-180-6A 15kW
Model number of motor: MZJA-180-6A Power of motor: 15kW
380V : 50Hz
Voltage: 380V Frequency: 50Hz
ExdIIBT4 IP55
Explosion proof grade: ExdIIBT4 Protection level: IP55
6
Number of poles: 6 poles
2.

87
Reduction gearbox
GCWU250-250-
Model number of reduction gearbox: GCWU250-250-I
250
Reduction ratio: 250
3.
Hydraulic brake
YWZB-300/45
Model number of hydraulic brake: YWZB-300/45
ExdIIBT4 IP55
Explosion proof grade: ExdIIBT4 Protection level: IP55
4.
Positioning travel switch

Please refer to the List of Major Accessories.
3.
Left- and right-rotating of ladder body and up- and
down-pitching of main ladder and frontal ladder
1.
Composition of mechanism
PLC
PLC

This mechanism mostly consists of hydraulic drive (Please refer to operation


instructions of hydraulic system). The control of electromagnetic reversing
valve is performed with PLC to drive left- and right-rotating of ladder body and
up- and down-pitching of main ladder and frontal ladder. The collected position
limit signal is logically analyzed with PLC to ensure the safety of ladder actions
and provide sound and light alarm for limit-exceeding actions.
2.

88
Parameters of components

Hydraulic control system

Please refer to the operation instructions of hydraulic system.

Position limit travel switch

Please refer to the position limit, positioning and alarm.
4.
Position limit, positioning and alarm
1.
Composition of mechanism
8 6
1 1 PLC

This mechanism mostly consists of 8 travel switches and one set of sound
and light alarm system. 6 travel switches are used for floor positioning, 1
travel switch is used for pitching positioning of ladder and 1 switch is used
for rotating position limit of ladder. The sound and light alarm is output by
sound and light alarm system, with the alarm output control of PLC.
2.
Parameters of components

Travel switch
LX5001
Model number: LX5001
24VDC : 7A
Rated voltage: 24VDC Rated current: 7A
ExdeIIBT4 IP56
Explosion proof grade: ExdeIIBT4 Protection level: IP56

89

Sound and light alarm system
BBJ51-24LWF2
Model number: BBJ51-24LWF2
24VDC : 90dB
Rated voltage: 24VDC Sound intensity: 90dB
ExdIIBT4 IP65
Explosion proof grade: ExdIIBT4 Protection level: IP65
5.
Control system and floor lamp
1.
Composition of mechanism
6
This mechanism mostly consists of one set of electrical control system and 6
explosion proof floor lamps.
2.
Parameters of components

Explosion proof lamp
BbD55-200B1SWF2
Model number: BbD55-200B1SWF2
220VAC
Rated voltage: 220VAC
ExdIIBT4 IP55
Explosion proof grade: ExdIIBT4 Protection level: IP55

90
6.
Electrical diagram

Hydraulic power unit motor


Traction

Traction

Hydraulic brake motor

Platform left-rotating
Platform right-rotating

Main ladder rising

Main ladder lowering


Travel switches for platform
and main ladder

Floor 6 Floor 5 Floor 4

Floor lamp
motor

motor

Drive

Float

Alarm

Spare

Spare

Main ladder pitching

Left- and right-rotating

Lowering

Lowering

Rising

Lowering

Rising

Lowering
Expansion unit 1 Expansion unit 2 Expansion unit 3
8 inputs/8 outputs 16? 8?

Alarm cancel
Floor 1

Floor 2

Floor 3

Floor 4

Floor 5

Floor 6

Left-rotating

Right-rotating

Up-pitching

Down-pitchin

Alarm wait

Alarm test

Floor 1

Floor 2

Floor 3

Floor 4

Floor 5

Floor 6

Floor lamp
Drive

Float

Rising

Pump on

Pump off

Rising

Lowering

Rising

Lowering
Control box at
platform

Floor selection Platform Main ladder

Travel switches for floors Rising and lowering Rising and lowering
at floor 2 at floor 3
1. SB14 and SB26 buttons in red dotted line are
external and placed in control box at platform.
2. SB17-SB25 buttons in red dotted line are the
buttons for each floor. Revised
document
Signed COSCO LIANYUNGANG LIQUID LOADING &
number
by UNLOADING EQUIPMENT CO., LTD.
Mark Points Date

Designed by Standardized by Drawing label Weight Scale PLC system diagram


Approved by
Process Date Total pages Page

7.
List of major electrical components (to be determined)



Specification and Quant
No. Name Remarks
model number ity
CPU224

1 Programmable 6ES7 214-1BD22-0XB0 1 Germany

controller CPU224 Siemens

EM223

2 Expansion unit 6ES7 223-1PH22-0XA0 1 Germany

EM223 Siemens

3 EM221 6ES7 221-1BF20-0XA0 1

91
Expansion unit Germany

EM221 Siemens

EM221

4 Expansion unit 6ES7 221-1BH20-0XA0 1 Germany

EM221 Siemens

TD200

5 TD200 Operator 6ES7 272-0AA20-0YA0 1 Germany

interface Siemens


6 220VAC/24VDC 1
Switch power supply

20A
7 1
Power supply switch 20A Three-pole

10A1 6A2

10A6A 1 10A fuse


8 3
Fuse 10A, 6A and 2 6A

fuses


9 3
AC contactor


10 3
Thermal relay


11 19
Indicating light


12 24
Button


13 5
Control switch

24VDC



14 ORMON 15 24VDC with
Micro relay
reversal

protection

92
11.
Operation instructions of explosion proof hydraulic
station

1.
System description
LYGDCT-02

LYGDCT-02 model hydraulic control system is a specialized control system for


the gangway to realize left- and right-rotating of gangway platform and up- and
down-pitching of main ladder and frontal ladder and to ensure proper
connection of gangway and tanker.
LYGDCT-02 1.
2.3. PLC

LYGDCT-02 model hydraulic system can be divided into three parts in the
aspect of hydraulic control: 1. Left- and right-rotating of ladder body; 2. Up- and
down-pitching of main ladder; 3. Up- and down-pitching of frontal ladder. The
explosion proof electromagnetic reversing valve is controlled with PLC to
realize the actions of ladder.

Parameters of system:
LYGDCT-02
Specification and model number: LYGDCT-02 model
12Mpa
Design pressure of system: 12Mpa
9L/min
Design flow of system: 9L/min
-10 60
Operating environment: -10 - 60

93
2.
Left- and right-rotating of ladder body and up- and down-pitching of main
ladder and frontal ladder

During operation, the direction change of electromagnetic reversing valve is


controlled. The action of ladder is driven by hydraulic cylinder and
limit-exceeding protection is provided to ladder by position limit mechanism.

Notices:

Before the adjustment of hydraulic control system, please read schematic


diagram and general diagram to understand the function and location of
individual hydraulic components.
3min

Start up oil pump motor unit. Check whether rotation direction of motor is
correct. After 3min operation at no load, adjust the pressure to the specified
value. Check whether the action of individual electromagnetic reversing
valves is correct and whether a leakage occurs to individual junction surfaces
and pipe joints.
3 6
12
In principle, oil change shall be performed with new oil after the first 3-month
operation of hydraulic station. After that, oil change shall be performed once
every 6 or 12 months, depending on the operation conditions. If the condition
for oil inspection is prepared, the oil change can be performed depending on
the inspection result.

94
,
During the operation, if a malfunction of hydraulic system or an operation
failure occurs, the operation of oil pump motor shall be stopped immediately.
Then find out the cause for failure and eliminate it.

Rust-preventative oil shall be additionally applied to the surface of individual
components in hydraulic station periodically to ensure the general appearance
of hydraulic system in a good condition.

3.
Hydraulic diagram

95
Serial No. Model No. Name Quantity Remarks

Specialized Oil tank Meide company


Air filter Wenzhou
group
Hand pump Meide company Oil pump: PV2R1-6
Pump device Motor:YB112M-4B,
Pressure meter
4kW, 1440r/min

Check valve Pressure regulating 12MPa


Return oil filter
Specialized part Overflow valve Pressure regulating 14MPa
Base block Meide company
Double sequence valve Meide company
Double one-way throttle valve Meide company
Electromagnetic reversing vale Meide company
Specialized assembly Hydraulic control check valve Meide company
Specialized part Electromagnetic reversing vale Meide company
One-way throttle valve Meide company
Semi-bridge type backing plate Meide company
Base block Shanghai Lixin (carried with box)
Electromagnetic reversing vale System pressure: 1.2 MPa
System flow: 9L/min
One-way throttle valve

Forward

Extend
upwards

Dalian Meide Hydraulic and


Pneumatic Engineering Co., Ltd.
Backward Mark Qty. Doc. Revise Gangway
No. d by
Inner arm Retract Date Hydraulic
Horizontal backwards drive device
Drawn by Drawing Scale
label
Designed by Gangway Total Page
pages
Checked by Hydraulic Drawing
diagram number
Reviewed by Name
Approved by

4.
List of major hydraulic components (to be determined)

96
JIANGSU CHANGLONG TECHNOLOGIES CO. LTD UPDATE:7/9/2010 Rev. 1

Appendix

Discarding standards for wire rope
1
Property and number of broken wires

The general design of lifting machinery doesnt allow infinitely long life time
of wire rope.
6 8
()

For 6-strand and 8-strand wire rope, broken wire mostly occurs to the
external surface. However, it is different for the wire rope with multi-layer
rope strand (typical multi-strand structure). Broken wire mostly occurs to the
interior of such a wire rope. Therefore, it is an invisible breakage.
2
Broken wire at rope end



If broken wire occurs to the rope end or its surrounding, it will indicate a high
stress in this position even when the number of broken wires is very low. It
may be caused due to improper installation of rope end. The reason for
damage shall be found out. If the length of rope is allowed, the position with
broken wire shall be cut off and it shall be properly installed again.
3
Local accumulation of broken wire

6d

Page 97 of 105
If broken wires are close to each other and their local accumulation is
formed, then the wire rope shall be discarded. If these broken wires are
accumulated within the range of rope length less than 6d or are centralized
in any rope strand, the wire rope shall be discarded even when the number
of broken wires is less than the listed value.
4
Increasing rate of broken wires

In some operational case, fatigue is the major reason leading to the damage
of wire rope. The occurrence of broken wires starts after a period of
operation. However, with gradual increase in the number of broken wires,
the time interval becomes shorter. In such a case, to determine the
increasing rate of broken wires, the increase condition of broken wires shall
be carefully inspected and recorded. Ascertaining this rule will contribute to
determining the date for discarding the wire rope in future.
5
Breakage of rope strand

If a breakage of whole rope strand occurs, the wire rope shall be discarded.
6
Reduced rope diameter caused due to damaged rope core
()

If a significant reduction in the rope diameter is caused due to the breakage


of fiber core or steel core (or internal rope strand in multi-layer structure) in a
wire rope, the wire rope shall be discarded.

98

Small damage maybe not obvious in the normal inspection method,


especially when all stresses in individual rope strands are in a good balance.
However, such a case will lead to a significant reduction in the strength of
wire rope. Therefore, if any tiny internal damage sign is found, the interior of
wire rope shall be inspected for clarification. Once it is verified that it is
damaged, this wire rope shall be discarded.
7
Reduced elasticity
()

In some case (usually related to the operating environment) the elasticity of


wire rope will be significantly reduced. If its operation is continued, it will be
unsafe.

The elasticity reduction of wire rope is hard to be discovered. If the


inspection person has any suspicion, the expert for wire rope shall be
consulted for opinions. However, the elasticity reduction is usually
accompanied with the following signs:
a.
Reduced rope diameter;
b.
The wire rope has extended lay length;
c.
Due to mutual pressing of individual parts, clearance is in shortage between
wires and between rope strands;
d.
Tiny brown powder appears in the recess of rope strand;

99
e.

Although no broken wire occurs, the occurrence of significant bending


resistance and diameter reduction in the wire rope is faster than the case
caused due to simply wire wearing. Such a case will lead to sudden
breakage under the effect of dynamic load. Therefore, it shall be discarded
immediately.
8
External and internal wearing

Two cases leading to wearing:
a.
Internal wearing and indentation

Such a case is caused due to the friction between individual rope strands
and wires in the rope, especially when the wire rope withstands the bending.
b.
External wearing

The wearing in the wire surface of rope strand in the external layer of wire
rope is caused due to the contact and friction between it and rope groove in
pulley and spool under the effect of pressure. This phenomenon is
especially obvious in the contact position between wire rope and pulley
during lifting acceleration and deceleration movement and it is represented
as flat shape of worn external wires.

100

Insufficient lubrication or incorrect lubrication and the presence of dust and
sand particle will speed up the wearing.

40
The wearing results in the reduced cross-section area of wire rope and
consequently the strength reduction. If the wearing of wire in the external
layer reaches 40% of its diameter, the wire rope shall be discarded.
7

If the diameter of wire rope is reduced by 7% or more relative to nominal


diameter, the wire rope shall be discarded even when no broken wire is
found.
9
External and internal corrosion

Corrosion occurs very easily in the oceanic or industrial pollution


atmosphere. It not only reduces the metal area of wire rope and
consequently the breaking strength, but also leads to the rough surface and
consequently starting the development of cracks and speeding up fatigue.
Severe corrosion will additionally results in the elasticity reduction of wire
rope.
9.1
External corrosion

The corrosion of external wire can be observed with eyes. If a deep recess
occurs to the surface and the wires are very slack, it shall be discarded.
9.2
Internal corrosion

101

It is more difficult to discover internal corrosion, relative to the external
corrosion accompanying its appearance. However, the following signs can
be available for identification:
a.

Change in the diameter of wire rope. The diameter of bending part of wire
rope round the pulley usually becomes smaller. However, for the wire rope
in the static section, the increase in the diameter of wire rope will be usually
caused due to the rust accumulation occurring to the rope strand in the
external layer.
b.

The clearance between rope strands in the external layer of wire rope is
reduced and it is usually accompanied with the occurrence of broken wires
between rope strands in the external layer. If any sign of internal corrosion is
present, the internal inspection of wire rope shall be performed by a
supervisor. If it is confirmed that severe internal corrosion is existent, the
wire rope shall be discarded immediately.
10
Deformation
(
)
The case that a wire rope loses its normal shape and a visible malformation
is generated is called as the deformation. This deformation position (or
malformation position) may lead to a change and it will result in non-uniform
stress distribution inside the wire rope.

The deformation of wire rope can be classified by its appearance into mostly
the following types:

102
10.1
Wave

A wave deformation means that: the longitudinal axis of wire rope becomes
a spiral line shape. This deformation may not lead to any loss of strength.
However, if the deformation is severe, it will result in bounce which leads to
irregular transmission. After a long period, it will cause wearing and broken
wires.
25d d14d/3

When a wave deformation appears within the range of wire rope length not
exceeding 25d, the wire rope shall be discarded if d1 4d/3.
d d1
Wherein, d is the nominal diameter of wire rope; d1 is the envelope diameter
of wire rope after deformation.
10.2
Cage-shape distortion

This deformation occurs to a wire rope with steel core. If a disjunction occurs
to the rope strand in the external layer of it becomes longer than internal
rope strand, this deformation will occur. The wire rope to which a
cage-shape distortion occurs shall be discarded immediately.
10.3
Rope strand extruding

This condition is usually generated with the cage-shape distortion. The

103
extruded rope strand indicates unbalance of wire rope. The wire rope with
rope strand extruding shall be immediately discarded.
10.4
Wire extruding

This deformation is that a part of wires or wire bundles hunch up to form a


ring shape in the side of wire rope opposite to pulley groove. This
deformation is usually caused due to impact load. If this deformation is
severe, the wire rope shall be discarded.
10.5
Local increase of rope diameter

()

Local increase may occur to the diameter of wire rope and a significantly
long section of wire rope can be influenced. The increase of rope diameter is
usually related to the distortion of rope core (for example, the fiber core is
expanded due to moisture in a special environment). The inevitable
consequence is unbalance occurring to rope strand in the external layer,
consequently leading to incorrect positioning.

The wire rope with severe local increase of rope diameter shall be
discarded.
10.6
Kinking

The kinking is a deformation caused when a wire rope in a ring shape is


tensioned in the case that it cannot be turned round its axis. Its consequence

104
is the occurrence of extra wearing caused due to non-uniform lay length. If it
is severe, the wire rope will be warped so that only a very low amount of
strength remains in the wire rope.

The wire rope with severe kinking shall be immediately discarded.
10.7
Local decrease of rope diameter

The local decrease in the diameter of wire rope is usually related to the
breakage of rope core. The position adjacent to the rope end shall be
specially inspected for such deformation.

The wire rope whose rope diameter is severely decreased in a local position
shall be discarded.
10.8
Partial flattening

The partial flattening of wire rope is caused due to a mechanical accident. If
it is severe, the wire rope shall be discarded.
10.9
Buckling

Buckling is an angular deformation caused to a wire rope under the external
effect.

The wire rope with this deformation shall be immediately discarded.

105