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1. (a) Derive a formula that transforms an inertia tensor given in some frame {C} into a new

frame {A}. The frame {A} can differ from frame {C} by both translation and rotation.

You may assume that frame {C} is located at the center of mass.

(b) Consider, for example, the uniform density box shown below. It has mass m = 12kg,

and dimensions 6 4 2:

YC

{C}

YA 6 XC

{A} ZC 2

ZA XA

Frame {C} lies at the center of mass of the box, and the coordinate axes are ligned up

with the principal axes of the box. In other words, YC is aligned with the long axis of

the box, and XC and ZC are aligned with the short axes of the box.

Compute the inertia tensor of the box in frame {C}.

Note: For a frame located at the center of mass and oriented along the principal axes,

the inertia tensor for the box of uniform density takes the form:

m 2

12 (sy + s2z ) 0 0

C m 2 2

I= 0 12 (sx + sz ) 0

m 2 2)

0 0 (s

12 x + s y

where sx , sy and sz are the dimensions of the box along the XC , YC and ZC axes,

respectively.

(c) Given the transformation matrix from {C} to {A}:

1 12 0 1

2

1 1 0 1

2 2

A

CT =

0 0 1 2

0 0 0 1

use your formula from part (a) and your inertia tensor from part (b) to compute the

inertia tensor of the box in frame {A}.

2. In the rest of this problem set, we will walk through the process of finding the equations of

motion for a simple manipulator from the Lagrange formulation. Consider the RP spatial

manipulator shown below. The links of this manipulator are modeled as bars of uniform

density, having square cross-sections of thickness h, lengths of L1 and L2 , and total masses

of m1 and m2 , with centers of mass shown. Assume that the joints themselves are massless.

From the derivation in the Lecture Notes, we know that the equations of motion have the

form:

where M is the mass matrix, C is the matrix of coefficients for centrifugal forces, B is the

matrix of coefficients for Coriolis forces, and G is the vector of gravity forces.

(a) For each link i, we have attached a frame {Ci } to the center of mass (in this case, frame

{2} is the same as {C2 }). Compute kinematics for these frames: that is, calculate the

matrices 0C1 T and 0C2 T .

where Jvi is the linear Jacobian of the center of mass of link i, Ji is the angular velocity of

link i, and Ci Ii is the inertia tensor of link i expressed in frame {Ci }.

(c) Calculate C1 J C2 J .

1 and 2

(d) Calculate C1 I and C2 I in

terms of the masses and dimensions of the links. You can

1 2

use the same formula that was given for a box of uniform density in Problem 2(b). Be

careful which measurements you use along the axes.

(e) Calculate the mass matrix, M (q). To make your algebra easier, leave the inertia tensors

in symbolic form until the end, i.e.

Ixx1 0 0

C1

I1 = 0 Iyy1 0

0 0 Izz1

Now we need to calculate the centrifugal and Coriolis forces. We will derive the form directly.

T M

1 q q q

v(q, q) = M q T M1 ,

2 q q q

2

where C and B are matrices in terms of the partial derivatives mijk of the mass matrix.

Dont actually substitute in your answer from part (e) into this equation yet: just leave

the elements of these matrices in mijk symbolic form.

(g) Using your answer to part (e), compute the matrices C(q) and B(q) in terms of the

masses, dimensions, and configuration q of the manipulator.

The last thing that remains is to derive the gravity vector G(q).

(h) Calculate, 0 G(q), the gravity vector in frame {0}, in terms of the masses, the configu-

ration q, and the gravity constant g (g is positive). Assume that gravity pulls things

along the Z0 direction. Be careful with your signs.

(i) As a final step, use your answers to parts (e), (h) and (i) to write out the equations of

motion as two great big equations:

1 = f1 (q, q, q)

2 = f2 (q, q, q)

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