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Training Manual Night Rating (A)

Chapter 1
TRAINING PLAN
1.a. The aim of the course

The aim of the course is to enable the pilot to acquire the theoretical knowledge and
the practical skills required to operate an airplane safely and efficiently in VMC at
night in compliance with the EASA Part-ORA and Part-FCL regulations with regard to
VFR flying at night.

In order to achieve this goal, the ATO will provide a theoretical training course and a
practical flight training. The details of the theoretical training have been documented
in chapter 4 of this TM. The details of the practical flight training have been
documented in chapter 2 of this TM.

The syllabus of the theoretical training for Night Rating has been inspired by the
principles described in AMC1 FCL.810(b). The details of this syllabus can be found in
this TM under chapter 1 paragraph 1.d.

The syllabus of the practical training for Night Rating has been inspired by the
principles described in AMC1 FCL.810(b). The details of this syllabus can be found in
this TM under chapter 1 paragraph 1.d.

The theoretical and practical training will be given by qualified FIs and approved TKIs
under the supervision of the HT.

At the end of the theoretical training course, the pilot will have acquired the required
knowledge for starting the practical flight training.

At the end of the practical flight training, the pilot will have acquired the practical skills
to safely and efficiently operate an aircraft under VFR in VMC at night.

For license endorsement, a certificate of satisfactory completion of the course shall


be issued by the HT.

The HT will ensure both the combined theoretical knowledge progress and the
practical skill progress of the student.

Summarized information on the Night Rating


While the Night Rating training is described in detail in this TM, it is also important to
properly inform a pilot on the general requirements for all licenses contained in Part-
FCL, subpart A. Please find a summary of the rules a pilot should be aware of at the
start of his training:

FCL.001 Competent authority: It is important for a pilot to know that the


national aviation authorities, the BCAA in Belgium, will need to be
contacted for all transactions related to licenses.

FCL.015: Every license is valid for one aircraft category. This manual will
provide procedures for Night Rating training on single engine piston
aircraft.

FCL.020 Student pilot: During the entire training course the pilot will be
flying either with a FI on board or under the supervision of a FI.

FCL.025 and FCL.020: According to these rules, all pilot training shall be
conducted in an ATO.

FCL.035: The ATO can give credits for previous flying experience. See
paragraph 1.c. of this manual.

FCL.040: The privileges of a license shall only be granted if the pilot meets
all validity requirements for both his license and ratings, and if he/she is the
holder of a valid medical certificate.

FCL.045: This rule stipulates that a pilot should at all times have the
following documents on board: his license (except for students), his
medical certificate and an identification document with a picture. A student
shall have his pilot logbook on board, a pilot should be able to present it
without undue delay.

FCL.050: This rule describes the requirement for a pilot logbook.

FCL.055: Language proficiency is required for pilots, the ATO will


subcontract the English Language Proficiency test.

FCL.060 Recent experience: For the carriage of passengers, the 90-day


rule stipulates that 3 take-offs and landings shall have been made in an
aircraft of the same class within the last 90 days. For night operations, at
least 1 of these landings shall have been made at night.

The ATO considers it essential that pilots starting a Night Rating course be aware of
the FCL.810 describing the Night Rating:

For aeroplanes, TMGs, airships:


(1) If the privileges of an LAPL, an SPL or a PPL for aeroplanes, TMGs or
airships are to be exercised in VFR conditions at night, applicants shall have
completed a training course at an ATO. The course shall comprise:
(i) theoretical knowledge instruction;
(ii) at least 5 hours of flight time in the appropriate aircraft category at
night, including at least 3 hours of dual instruction, including at least 1
hour of cross-country navigation with at least one dual cross-country
flight of at least 50 km (27 NM) and 5 solo take-offs and 5 solo full-
stop landings.
(2) Before completing the training at night, LAPL holders shall have completed
the basic instrument flight training required for the issue of the PPL.
(3) When applicants hold both a single-engine piston aeroplane (land) and a
TMG class rating, they may complete the requirements in (1) above in either
class or both classes.

The complete training programme must be completed in a period of six months


maximum.

1.b. Pre-entry requirements

Applicants for a Night Rating (A) shall:

be at least 17 years old;

hold at least a LAPL, a SPL(A) or a PPL(A);

Note: before completing the training at night, LAPL holders shall have
completed the basic instrument flight training required for the issue of the
PPL

hold a valid class 1 medical certificate or class 2 with no restriction for flying
at night;

hold a valid ELP certificate according to FCL.055.

The registration procedure of the applicant in the ATO has been detailed in this TM,
chapter 1, paragraph 1.g.

1.c. Credits for previous experience

The ATO will give no credits to pilots who have started a training course for the issue
of a Night Rating in another ATO.

1.d. Training syllabi

Both a flight training syllabus and a theoretical knowledge training syllabus are part of
the course.

The integration of these syllabi into the theoretical and practical training is described
in detail in chapters 2 and 4.

The syllabi used by the ATO:

1/ Flight training syllabus:

The exercises of the Night Rating flight training syllabus should be repeated as
necessary until the pilot achieves a safe and competent standard.

The flying exercises should comprise:


- Exercise 1 (repeat as necessary until the pilot achieves a safe and competent
standard)
o revise basic manoeuvres when flying by sole reference to instruments
o explain and demonstrate transition to instrument flight from visual flight
o explain and revise recovery from unusual attitudes by sole reference to
instruments
- Exercise 2 (repeat as necessary until the pilot achieves a safe and competent
standard)
o explain and demonstrate use of radio navigation aids when flying by
sole reference to instruments, to include position finding and tracking
- Exercise 3 (repeat as necessary until the student achieves a safe and
competent standard)
o explain and demonstrate the use of Radar Assistance *
- Exercise 4 (repeat as necessary until the student achieves a safe and
competent standard)
o explain and demonstrate night take-off techniques
o explain and demonstrate night circuit technique
o explain and demonstrate night approaches (constant angle) with or
without visual approach aids
o practise take-offs, circuits and approaches
o explain and demonstrate night Emergency procedures to include:

simulated engine failure (to be terminated with power recovery at a
safe altitude),

simulated engine failure including single engine approach and

landing, (multi-engine only)
simulated inadvertent entry to IMC (not on base leg or final)

internal and external lighting failure

other Malfunctions and Emergency procedures as required by the
Aircraft Flight Manual
- Exercise 5
o solo night circuits
- Exercise 6
o explain and demonstrate night cross country techniques
o practise night cross country dual and as SPIC to a satisfactory standard

Reference books used:

- The Air Pilot's Manual, volume 5 Radio Navigation & Instrument Flying.
Author: Trevor Thom. Editor: Air Pilot Publishing.

- Sunset to Sunrise Night Flight Techniques by David Robson. Editor: Aviation


Supplies & Academics, Inc.

2/ Theoretical knowledge training syllabus:

The theoretical knowledge syllabus should cover the revision or explanation of:
(1) night VMC minima;
(2) rules about airspace control at night and facilities available;
(3) rules about aerodrome ground, runway, landing site and obstruction
lighting;
(4) aircraft navigation lights and collision avoidance rules;
(5) physiological aspects of night vision and orientation;
(6) dangers of disorientation at night;
(7) dangers of weather deterioration at night;
(8) instrument systems or functions and errors;
(9) instrument lighting and emergency cockpit lighting systems;
(10) map marking for use under cockpit lighting;
(11) practical navigation principles;
(12) radio navigation principles;
(13) planning and use of safety altitude;
(14) danger from icing conditions, avoidance and escape manoeuvres.

Reference book used:

- Sunset to Sunrise Night Flight Techniques by David Robson. Editor: Aviation


Supplies & Academics, Inc.

1.e. Time scale and scale in weeks, for each syllabus

Not applicable

1.f. Training program

Not applicable

1.g. Training records

Brussels Aviation School will make sure it keeps track of the pilots records (i.e.,
mandatory documents such as ID, medical certificate, ELP certificate, pilot license,
BCAA forms and flight debriefing sheets).

Brussels Aviation School uses an online e-Learning Platform which allows it to store
all the pilot records in an electronic version and keep a precise track of the pilot
progress. Thanks to this e-Learning Platform, the pilot can access his/her training file
through the pilot profile page at any time and follow his/her personal progression
closely. Also, flight instructors can access any pilot profile on the Platform and know
precisely what has been done and what remains to do for each pilot.

The HT will ensure all the flight debriefing sheets have been completed by the FI on
the pilot profile. These sheets should reflect the progress the pilot has made during
his/her flight training. The HT will also ensure that any entry in the logbook of the pilot
has been signed by the FI.

Registration of a pilot in the ATO

When a new pilot enters the ATO, a new account will be created on the ATO e-
Learning Platform (see appendix 1 to this chapter) as well as on the ATO Pilot e-
Lounge. Once created, the pilot will receive a briefing on the content and purpose of
the ATO e-Learning Platform. The pilot shall further complete his/her profile
him/herself and upload any mandatory documents such as the medical certificate
under the Documents tab of his online profile (see appendix 2 to this chapter). The
pilot will be informed that he/she shall keep his/her online profile up-to-date.

The paragraph standardization of entries in training records below, lists the


documents which should as a minimum be inserted into the pilots online records.

Standardization of entries in training records


All FIs and the HT will use the same standard documents, added in appendix to
chapters 2 and 4, for:

Debriefing a pilot (Chapter 2, Appendix 3 Standard debriefing sheet)

Documenting the progress of a pilot: which flight training exercises have


been started or completed (Chapter 2, Appendix 2 - Pilot progress page).

Rules concerning log book entries

Please refer to OM, Part A, paragraph A.18.

Rules for security of records and documents

Please refer to OM, Part A, paragraph A.11

1.h. Safety training

One of the main aims of the ATO is to insure the safety of aviation activities as far as
possible. This goal includes the introduction and the correct application of a SMS.

Safety training is described in the OMM, Part 2, paragraph 2.14.

Emergency drills

Emergency drills are integrated in the flight training. Please refer to chapter 2,
paragraph 2.a. of this manual for further details.

Essential exercises

The essential skills a pilot must develop before completing the Night Rating course
are described in chapter 2, paragraph 2.a. on the student pilot progress.

Assessment of pilot proficiency

Pilot proficiency is regularly assessed during the flight training. The content of this
continuous assessment process is described in chapter 2, paragraph 2.g.

1.i. Tests and examinations

1.i.1 Theoretical knowledge

The theoretical knowledge will be tested verbally by the FI during the practical flight
training sessions to determine whether or not a satisfactory level of knowledge has
been achieved.

1.i.2. Practical examination or skill test

No practical examination is required to validate the proficiency of a pilot who has


completed the training. However, as all exercises (except exercise 5: solo circuits)
must be repeated until the pilot achieves a safe and competent standard, the HT
assumes the pilot is proficient based on the recommendation of the FI who has
carried the training.

Only the HT has the authority to complete the BCAA form testifying the satisfactory
completion of the Night Rating course for license endorsement.
1.j. Training effectiveness

Since achieving training effectiveness is essential to any flight school, the HT


encourages an open debate between all ATO FIs, TKIs and students.

This should involve other users of the airfield, the ATO Board of Directors, the airfield
director, the Air Traffic Controllers or other stakeholders.

The purpose is to identify any deficiencies in the training effectiveness.

These deficiencies will then be discussed by the HT with all FIs and TKIs and will be
remedied as much as possible.

Disciplinary action

The policy with regard to taking disciplinary action against pilots is described in the
OM Part A, paragraph A.4.

Procedure if a pilot silently interrupts training

A specific situation the HT may be confronted with is a pilot who abruptly stops
showing up for training without any communication. This can be for professional,
personal or even medical reasons.

In this specific situation, the HT, either personally or via the team of FIs/TKIs, will try
to contact the pilot. If over a period of 3 months or more all attempts are
unsuccessful, he/she will insert a memo into the pilot records stating that the training
is considered to be interrupted until further notice.

Upon return of the pilot, a new memo will be written allowing the pilot to continue
training at the ATO. However, the whole progamme (theory and practice) has to be
completed in a period of six months maximum. The HT will hence assess the
possibility to continue the training or not, depending on what remains to cover and on
the time available until the end of the six months period.

If theoretical courses have been missed, the HT will proceed as described in


paragraph 4.d. under What will the ATO do if a student pilot needs to interrupt
training.

Procedure in the case of a change of instructor

A change of instructor is not critical during the Night Rating course since:

each flight exercise to be covered is clearly detailed in the training


programme;

each training session covered will be reported in the ATOs e-Learning


Platform;

on the e-Learning Platform, the FI will evaluate the level of completion of each
specific air exercise and add any consistent remarks;

every FI has access to the pilots training file and can hence monitor any
pilots progress.
Nonetheless, the HT will always assess the opportunity to assign a new instructor to
a pilot, based on the reasons for the change and the feedback from both the FI and
the pilot him/herself. In order to guarantee the highest level of training efficiency, the
HT will make sure that a change of FI remains exceptional. The maximum number of
FIs per pilot is limited to 4 during the flight training phase of the Night Rating course.

1.k. Standards and level of performances at various stages

Not Applicable

1.l. Appendices

Please find in appendix to this chapter:

Appendix 1 Pilot online profile page

Appendix 2 Pilot online documents page

Training Manual Night Rating (A)


Chapter 2
BRIEFINGS AND AIR EXERCISES
2.a. Air exercises

The details regarding the flight training of the Night Rating can be found in this
paragraph.

For each exercise, the following information is given:


Reference is made to the relevant chapter in the syllabus. The suggested pre-
flight briefing for each exercise can be found in the related chapter.
The list of topics to be included in each exercise has been extracted from the
AMC1 FCL.210.A PPL(A) and AMC1 FCL.810(b) Night rating.

Night VFR Exercise 1:

o basic manoeuvres when flying by sole reference to instruments


o transition to instrument flight from visual flight
o recovery from unusual attitudes by sole reference to

instruments This exercise includes:

(A) physiological sensations;


(B) instrument appreciation; attitude instrument flight;
(C) instrument limitations;
(D) basic manoeuvres:
(a) straight and level at various air speeds and configurations;
(b) climbing and descending;
(c) standard rate turns, climbing and descending, onto
selected headings;
(d) recoveries from climbing and descending turns.
(E) transition to instrument flight from visual flight
(F) recovery from unusual attitudes by sole reference to instruments

Details of the air exercises can be found in the Air Pilots Manual Volume 5, Section
1.

Night VFR Exercise 2:

o use of radio navigation aids when flying by sole reference to


instruments, to include position finding and tracking

This exercise includes:


(A) use of GNSS*:
(a) selection of waypoints;
(b) to or from indications and orientation;
(c) error messages.
(B) use of VHF omni range:
(a) availability, AIP and frequencies;
(b) selection and identification;
(c) OBS;
(d) to or from indications and orientation;
(e) CDI;
(f) determination of radial;
(g) intercepting and maintaining a radial;
(h) VOR passage;
(i) obtaining a fix from two VORs.
(C) use of ADF equipment*: NDBs:
(a) availability, AIP and frequencies;
(b) selection and identification;
(c) orientation relative to the beacon;
(d) homing.
(D) use of VHF/DF:
(a) availability, AIP, frequencies;
(b) R/T procedures and ATC liaison;
(c) obtaining a QDM and homing.
(E) use of en-route or terminal radar:
(a) availability and AIP;
(b) procedures and ATC liaison;
(c) pilots responsibilities;
(d) secondary surveillance radar:
(1) transponders;
(2) code selection;
(3) interrogation and reply.
(F) use of DME*:
(a) station selection and identification;
(b) modes of operation: distance, groundspeed and
time to run.
Items marked with a * will depend on the equipment of the aircraft used for the
practical flight training.

Details of the air exercises can be found in the Air Pilots Manual Volume 5, Section
2.

Night VFR Exercise 3:

o use of Radar Assistance

This exercise includes:

(A) use of en-route or terminal radar:


(a) availability and AIP;
(b) procedures and ATC liaison;
(c) pilots responsibilities;
(d) secondary surveillance radar:
(1) transponders;
(2) code selection;
(3) interrogation and reply.

Details of the air exercises can be found in the Air Pilots Manual Volume 5, Section
2, paragraph 9.

Night VFR Exercise 4:

o night take-off techniques


o night circuit technique
o night approaches (constant angle) with or without visual approach aids
o night Emergency procedures to include:

simulated engine failure (to be terminated with power recovery at a
safe altitude),

simulated engine failure including single engine approach and

landing, (multi-engine only)
simulated inadvertent entry to IMC (not on base leg or final)

internal and external lighting failure

other Malfunctions and Emergency procedures as required by the
Aircraft Flight Manual

Details of the air exercises can be found in the Air Pilots Manual Volume 5, Section
4, paragraph 25 and 26.

Night VFR Exercise 5 :

o solo night circuits

This exercise includes at least one hour of solo flight time during which 5 solo take-
offs and 5 solo full-stop landings are made.

Details of the air exercises can be found in the Air Pilots Manual Volume 5, Section
4, paragraph 25 and 26.

Night VFR Exercise 6 :


o night cross country techniques

This exercise includes at least 1 hour of cross-country navigation with at least one
dual cross-country flight of at least 50 km (27 NM).

Details of the air exercises can be found in the Air Pilots Manual Volume 5, Section
4, paragraph 27.

These 6 exercises shall comprise at least 5 hours of flight time in the appropriate
aircraft category at night, including at least 3 hours of dual instruction.

2.b. Air exercise reference list

For quick reference by FIs, the following air exercise reference list can be consulted.
Further details with regard to each exercise are available in paragraph 2.a.
NVFR ex.1: Basic instrument flying
NVFR ex.2: Use of navaids
NVFR ex.3: Use of radar
NVFR ex.4: Circuits and emergencies
NVFR ex.5: Solo circuits
NVFR ex.6: Cross-country navigation

2.c. Course structure Phases of training

The Night Rating course will be organized to ensure the most efficient learning curve
for the pilot, and to make sure that all fundamental skills (including emergencies) are
trained to achieve the desired proficiency.

The Night Rating course shall always start with theoretical knowledge instruction.
Under no circumstances can a pilot start the practical phase of the training without
having attended the theoretical part. Once the theoretical phase is completed, the
pilot can start the flight training programme.

The ideal course structure is the following:


Flight Session 1: Dual
Exercises covered: NVFR ex.1, NVFR ex.2, and NVFR ex.3
Recommended duration of the flight training session: 1,3 hours
Flight Session 2: Dual
Exercises covered: NVFR ex.4
Recommended duration of the flight training session: 1,2 hours
Flight Session 3: Solo
Exercises covered: NVFR ex.5
Recommended duration of the flight training session: 1 hour
Flight Session 4: Dual
Exercises covered: NVFR ex.6
Recommended duration of the flight training session: 1,5 hours

Total minimum flight time: 5 hours

As described in paragraph 1.d of Chapter 1 of this TM, all the flight exercises
included in the Night Rating course except NVFR ex.5 should be repeated and
practiced as necessary until the pilot achieves a safe and competent standard. The
time recommendation given here above may be extended or shortened if the FI
deems it necessary. However, a minimum of 5 hours of flight training at night under
VFR including at least 3 hours of dual controls flying must be completed according to
FCL810.

The first flight training session shall always be done under dual controls with a FI and
should ideally cover NVFR exercises 1, 2 and 3 as described here above. However,
depending on the weather conditions, radar service and navaid availability, the FI can
decide to start the flight training progamme with NVFR exercise 4 (circuits and
emergencies). Exercises 1 to 3 should then be covered as soon as practical during
the next training sessions.

NVFR exercises 5 (solo circuits) and 6 (cross-country navigation) require the


completion of exercises 1, 2 and 4 at least, so these two exercises can never be
covered during the first flight training session.
2.d. Course structure - Integration of syllabi

As a guide to the exact content of the flight training exercises, the ATO uses the
following syllabi:

- The Air Pilot's Manual, volume 5 Radio Navigation & Instrument Flying.
Author: Trevor Thom. Editor: Air Pilot Publishing.

- Sunset to Sunrise Night Flight Techniques by David Robson. Editor: Aviation


Supplies & Academics, Inc.

- Annex to ED Decision 2011/016/R - Acceptable Means of Compliance and


Guidance Material to Part-FCL published by the EASA, and more particularly
AMC1 FCL.810(b) Night Rating

2.e. Student progress

Not applicable

2.f. Instructional methods

Not applicable
2.g. Student Continuous Progress Monitoring

FIs can easily track student progress and assess student proficiency at different
stages of the training by analysing the student online records. Brussels Aviation
School has developed an e-Learning Platform that includes a very elaborate
monitoring system detailing the student progress throughout the training. Thanks to
this online Platform, FIs have access to any student training file at any moment. Each
and every exercise that the student has covered is precisely indicated on the student
flight practice page. Exercises and related topics are marked by the FIs according to
the student level of proficiency. After each flight, the FI grades the performance of the
student with different colours (grey = not covered; orange = started; light green = in
progress; dark green = completed). The FI can also downgrade the performance of
the student, if necessary.

It is the responsibility of the FI to make sure that the relevant exercises included in
the different phases of training have been covered and completed before allowing the
student to fly solo or to move to another flight exercise.

The following items have to be carefully respected by each FI:

1) Before starting the flight training

The theoretical knowledge instruction must be completed and reported as such on


the pilots profile page (e-Learning Platform)

2) Before being released for solo circuits at night

NVFR exercises 1, 2 and 4 have been completed to a satisfactory level of


2.h. Glossary of terms

All abbreviations and definitions used in this TM have been included in chapter 0,
paragraphs 0.4 and 0.5.

2.i. Appendices

The standard ATO forms have been included here for reference purposes only.

Where a standard BCAA form is provided, please use the original document from the
BCAA website www.mobilit.belgium.be. This will ensure use of the latest available
version.

Please find in appendix to this chapter the following documents:

Appendix 1 BCAA forms

Reference to the BCAA forms to be used upon completion of the training.

Appendix 2 Pilot progress page. This page is automatically updated


when a new debriefing sheet is filled by the FI at the end of a training flight.
This pilot progress page gives a complete overview of the state of
advancement of the pilot training. Exercises and detailed items appear in
different colours according to their status. Colours are derived from the last
mark given for each particular item by the FI during the post-flight briefing.

Appendix 3 Standard debriefing sheet. Point 1 shows general information


about the flight and the FI remarks; Point 2 shows the detailed list of items
included in the exercises that have been practiced during the flight session.
The FI can grade the performance of the pilot with different colours (grey =
not covered; orange = started; light green = in progress; dark green =
completed). The FI can also downgrade the performance of the pilot, if
necessary.
Appendix 1 BCAA forms

Use of the following BCAA standard ATO forms is mandatory upon completion of the
Night Rating course. Please always download the latest version of the documents
from the website:

http://www.mobilit.belgium.be/fr/transport_aerien/licences/formation/partora/procedures/

Please make use of all relevant forms published by the BCAA, not only those directly
related to flight training.

Brussels Aviation School Original 29 October 2015


Part ORA BRIEFINGS AND AIR Chapter 2
TM NVFR(A) EXERCISES Page 11

Appendix 2 - Pilot progress page

Brussels Aviation School Original 29 October 2015


Part ORA BRIEFINGS AND AIR Chapter 2
TM NVFR(A) EXERCISES Page 12

Appendix 3 Standard debriefing sheet

1. General pilot flight report

Brussels Aviation School Original 29 October 2015


Part ORA BRIEFINGS AND AIR Chapter 2
TM NVFR(A) EXERCISES Page 13

2. Detail of items covered during training flight