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1. What is Active Directory?

Active directory is a hierarchical database. A directory service stores information
about network resources and make the resources accessible to users to computers
helps to centrally manage, organize and control access to resources.
Purposes of Active Directory: provides a user login and authentication services,
improved security, remote installation, centralized software installation.

2. What are the features of Windows 2003 Active Directory?

1. Fully integrated security.
2. Easy administration using group policies.
3. Scalable to any sizable network.
4. flexible
5. Renaming a domain controller name and domain name.
6. Cross forest trust relationship.
7. site to site replication s faster.
8. active directory application mode

3. What is trust relationship?

It is a secure communication path which will allow the users to be authenticated and
accepted by other domains. Some trusts are automatically created parent and child domain trust
each other and tree root domains trust forest root domains.
Note: Forest to forest transitive relationship can be created windows server 2003 forest only.

4. What is Global catalog?

The global catalog authenticates network user logons and fields inquiries about objects
across a forest or tree. Every domain has at least one global catalog that is hosted on a domain

Domain Function levels: 1) mixed mode:- domain which is running windows NT,003,
2000 server operating systems this kind of mode called mixed mode.
2) Interim mode: - in this mode we can upgrade Win NT to win2003 operating system.
3) Native mode: - the domain which is running 2003, 2000 server operating systems.
4) 2003 mode: - the domain which is running all operating systems 2003 server
operating system.

5. What is the Forest?

The forest is a collection of domains having different namespace.

6. How can you authenticate between Forests?

Windows 2000 always uses NTLM for authentication between forests; 2003 will use
Kerberos if and only if dns used while setting up the domains. If the NetBIOS name is uses;
NTLM is used for 2003.

7. What is the Schema Master?

Schema is the design of Active Directory. It can be modified only on the forest root
domains or first domain controller.

8. What is RID Master?

SID----Security Identifier
RID----Relative Identifier
DID---- Domain Identifier
Security Principle objective ------ user, computer, groups,
SID is divided into RID, DID
DID will tell in which domain the user account has been created.
RID will tell you the uniqueness of the objects in the domain. RID is provided by RID master.
This role is common for every domain since it is called domain wide role.

9. What is Infrastructure Master?

For updating the information regarding the user accounts and group membership
information is maintained in Infrastructure Master. It is also responsible for password

10. What is Domain Naming Master?

It is one of the important role checks for the uniqueness for the Domains. It will not
allow creating one more domain with the same name.

X.500 and Directory Access protocol (DAP):-It is defines how global directories should be
structured. It specifies the use of DAP to provide communication between clients and directory
Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP):- The primary access protocol for active
directory. LDAP is an industry-standard protocol, established by the internet engineering task
force (IETF) that allows users to query and update information in a directory service. Active
Directory supports both LDAP version 2 and LDAP version 3.

11. What is DFS?

Distributed file system allows administrators to make it easier for users to access and
manage files that are physically distributed across a network. With DFS, you can make files
distributed across multiple servers.

12. What is Group Policy?

Group policies are set of rules. It is collection of settings, where you can apply for
computers, groups and users. Using group policies administrator can centrally manage the
network resources. Using group policies you can even deploy the softwares or applications.

13. What is DNS?

DNS is a Domain naming system. Used for naming resolution. It is one of the services
which will resolve ip address to names and names to IP address.

14. What is NetBIOS?

NetBIOS is not actually a naming system, but an application programming interface
(API) used in older Microsoft network, that allows the computers to connect and communicate.

15. Difference between NetBIOS and DNS?

NetBIOS type is flat. DNS type is Hierarchical.
NetBIOS Character restrictions are Unicode characters, numbers, white space, symbols.
DNS Character restrictions are A-Z, a-z, 0-9 and the hyphen (-), period (.) has special
reserved meaning.
NetBIOS maximum length is 15 characters. DNS maximum length is 63 bytes per
Label; 255 bytes per FQDN.
NetBIOS Name service is WINS, NetBIOS broadcast, and Lmhosts file.
DNS Name service is DNS, Hosts file.
16. What is Forward Lookup Zone?
Forward lookup zone is going to resolve namespace to ip address.

17. What is Reverse Lookup Zone?

Reverse lookup zone is going to resolve ip address to namespace.

18. What is WINS Server?

Windows Internet Naming Server. A software service that dynamically maps ip
addresses to computer names (Network Basic Input Output System (NetBIOS) names). This
enables users to access resources by name instead of requiring them to use ip addresses that are
difficult to recognize and remember.

19. What is Stub Zone?

A copy of a zone that contains only the resource records required to identify the
authoritative dns server for that zone.

20. What are the benefits of stub zone?

Improve the name resolution, keep foreign zone information current, and simplify the
dns administration.

21. What are forwarders?

A dns server designated by other internal dns servers to be used to forward queries for
resolving external or offsite dns domain names.

22. What is the Primary Zone?

A copy of the zone that is administered locally.

23. What is the Secondary Zone?

A read-only copy of a dns zone that is transferred from an authoritative dns server to
another dns server to provide redundancy.

24. What is the Zone?

In a dns database, a manageable unit of the dns database that is administered by a dns
server. A zone stores the domain names and data of the domain with a corresponding name,
except for domain names stored in delegated sub domains.

25. What is Nslookup?

A command-line tool used to diagnose DNS infrastructure.

26. What is Name Server (NS) or resource record?

A resource record used in a zone to designate the DNS domain names for authoritative
DNS servers for the zone.
27. What is Pointer (PTR) resource record?
A DNS resource record used in a reverse lookup zone to map an IP address to a DNS

28. What is the Resource Record (RR)?

A standard DNS database structure containing information used to process DNS
queries. For example, an address (A) resource record contains an IP address corresponding to a
host name. Most of the basic resource record types are defined in RFC 1035, but additional RR
types have been defined in other RFCs and approved for use with DNS.

29. What is Service Resource record (SRV)?

A DNS resource record used to identify computers that host specific services, specified
in Request for Comments (RFC) 2782. SRV resource records are sued to locate domain
controllers for Active Directory.

30. What is Start-of-authority (SOA) resource record?

A record that indicates the starting point or original point of authority for information
stored in a zone. It also contains several parameters used by other computers that use DNS to
determine how long they will use information for the zone and how often updates are required.

31. What is Tree?

A Tree is the set of one or more domains with contiguous namespaces. If more than one
domain exists, you can combine the multiple domains into hierarchical tree structures.

32. What is Domain and Domain Controller?

In Active Directory, a collection of computers, users, and groups objects defined by the
administrator. These objects shares a common directory database, security policies, and
security relationship.

33. What are DNS Server and Client?

A server that maintains information about a portion of the DNS database and that
responds to and resolves DNS queries.
A client computer that queries DNS servers in an attempt to resolve DNS domain
names. DNS clients maintain a temporary cache of resolved DNS domain names.

34. What is Address (A) resource record?

A resource record (RR) used to map a DNS domain name to a host Internet Protocol
version 4 (IPV4) address on the network.

35. What is DHCP?

The DHCP is Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. It used to generate the
automatically ip address over a DHCP client.

36. What are DHCP Server and Client?

A computer running the Microsoft DHCP service that offers dynamic configuration of
IP addresses and related information to DHCP-enabled clients.
Any network-enabled device that supports the ability to communicate with a DHCP
server for the purpose of obtaining dynamic leased IP configuration and related optional
parameters information. An alternate static configuration option for TCP/IP network
connections that provides simplified computer migration between networks.

37. What is Automatic Private IP Addressing (APIPA)?

A TCP/IP feature in Microsoft windows XP, Windows 2000, and products in the
Windows Server 2003 family that automatically configures in IP address from the range through when the TCP/IP protocol is configured for dynamic
addressing and a DHCP server is not available. The APIPA range of IP addresses is reserved
by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA), and IP addresses within this range are
not used on the Internet.

38. What is DHCP Acknowledgment message (DHCP ACK)?

A message sent by the DHCP server to a client to acknowledge and complete a clients
request for leased configuration. This message contains a committed IP address for the client to
use for a stated period of time, along with other optional client parameters. The DHCP
acknowledgment message name is DHCPACK.

39. What is DHCP Offer message (DHCP OFFER)?

A message used by DHCP servers to offer the lease of an IP address to a DHCP client
when it starts on the network. When this message is used, a client can receive more than one
offer if multiple DHCP servers are contacted during the DHCP discovery phase, but the client
typically selects the first address it is offered. The DHCP offer message name is

40. What is DHCP Release message (DHCP RELEASE)?

A message sent by clients to the DHCP server to indicate release of its leased IP
address. The client uses this message to cancel its currently active lease. You can perform
address release manually by using the Ipconfig/release command at a command prompt. The
DHCP release message name is DHCPRELEASE.

41. What is DHCP Discover?

The client is going to broadcast for an IP address in the network, first time it will
contact DHCP server. So, this request is called DHCPDISCOVER.

42. What is the DHCP Request?

Again the client is going to contact the server to provide one IP address to it. This
process is DHCP REQUEST.

43. What is DHCP/BOOTP Relay Agent?

A relay agent is a small program that relays DHCP/BOOTP messages between clients
and servers on different subnets.

44. What is Second-level Domain?

A DNS domain name that is rooted hierarchically at the second tier of the domain
namespace, directly beneath the top-level domain names. Top level domain names include
.com and .org. When DNS is used on the Internet, second-level domains are usually names that
are registered and delegated to individual organizations and businesses.

45. What is Delegate Control?

Delegate control is used for giving the permissions for the users like creating, deleting
and managing user accounts.

46. What is Scope?

A range of IP addresses that is available to be leased or assigned to DHCP clients by
the DHCP service.

47. What is Super scope?

An administrative grouping feature that supports a DHCP servers ability to use more
than one scope for each physical interface and subnet. Super scopes are useful under the
following conditions: if more DHCP clients must be added to a network than were originally
planned, if an IP network is renumbered, or if two or more DHCP servers are configured to
provide scope redundancy and fault-tolerant design DHCP service for a single subnet. Each
super scope can contain one or more member scopes.

48. What are top-level domains?

Domain names that are rooted hierarchically at the first tier of the domain namespace
directly beneath the root (.) of the DNS namespace.

49. What is the address class?

A predefined grouping of Internet addresses that defines a network of a certain size.
The range of numbers that can be assigned for the first octet in the IP address is based on the
address class.

50. What is the address pool?

The addresses within a DHCP scope range of addresses that are available for leased
distribution to clients.

51. What is Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)?

In Transmission Control Protocol/Internet protocol (TCP/IP), a protocol that uses
broadcast traffic on the local network to resolve a logically assigned Internet Protocol version 4
(IPV4) address to its physical hardware or media Access Control (MAC) layer address.

52. What is authentication?

The process for verifying that an entity or object is who or what it claims to be.
Examples include confirming the source and integrity of information, such as verifying a
digital signature or verifying the identity of a user or computer.

53. What is authorization?

The process that determines what a user is permitted to do on a computer system or

54. What is Berkeley Internet Name Domain (BIND)?

An implementation of DNS written and ported to most available versions of the UNIX
operating system. The Internet Software Consortium maintains the BIND software.

55. What is broadcast?

The transmission of packets to all interfaces on the local area network (LAN).

56. What is classless inter domain routing (CIDR)?

An IP address and routing management method that allocates IP addresses in a way that
reduces the number of routes stored on any individual router, while also increasing the number
of available IP addresses. CIDR replaces class-based IP address allocation.

57. What is dial-up connection?

The connection to your network if you use a device that uses the telephone network.
This includes modems with a standard telephone line, Integrated Services Digital Network
(ISDN) cards with high-speed ISDN lines, or X.25 networks.

58. What is DNS Zone?

In a DNS database, a contiguous portion of the DNS tree that is administered as a
single, separate entity by a DNS server. The zone contains resource records for all the names
within the zone.

59. What is encapsulation?

The method used to pass data from one protocol over a network within a different
protocol. Data from one protocol is wrapped with the header of a different protocol.

60. What is encrypting File System (EFS)?

A feature of NTFS that enables users to encrypt files and folders on an NTFS volume
disk to keep them safe from access by intruders.

61. What is fault tolerance?

The ability of computer hardware or software to ensure data integrity when hardware
failures occur. Fault-tolerant features appear in many server operating systems and include
mirrored volumes, RAID-5 volumes, and server clusters.

62. What is File Transfer Protocol (FTP)?

A member of the TCP/IP suite of protocols used to copy files between two computers
on the Internet. Both computers must support their respective FTP roles: one must be an FTP
client and the other an FTP server.

63. What is Firewall?

A combination of hardware and software that provides a security system, usually to
prevent unauthorized access from outside to an internal network or intranet. A firewall
prevents direct communication between network and external computers by routing
communication through a proxy server outside the network. The proxy server determines
whether it is safe to let a file pass through to the network.

64. What is globally unique identifier (GUID)?

A 16-byte value generated from the unique identifier on a device, the current date and
time, and a sequence number. A GUID is used to identify a particular device or component.

65. What is handshake?

A series of signals acknowledging that communication can take place between
computers or other devices. A hardware handshake is an exchange of signals over specific
wires (other than the data wires), in which each device indicates its readiness to send or receive
data. A software handshake consists of signals transmitted over the same wires used to transfer
data, as in modem-to-modem communications over telephone lines.
66. What is Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)?
A required maintenance protocol in the TCP/IP suite that reports errors and allows
simple connectivity. ICMP is used by the Ping utility to perform TCP/IP troubleshooting.

66. What is Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP)?

A protocol used by Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) hosts to report their multicast
group memberships to any immediately neighboring multicast routers.

67. What is Internet Information Services (IIS)?

Software services that support Web site creation, configuration, and management, along
with other Internet functions. Internet Information services include Network News Transfer
Protocol (NNTP), File Transfer Protocol (FTP), and Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP).

68. What is Internet Protocol (IP)?

A routable protocol in the TCP/IP protocol suite that is responsible for IP addressing,
routing, and the fragmentation and reassembly of IP packets.

69. Describe about Internet Service Provider (ISP)?

A company that provides individuals or companies access to the Internet and the World
Wide Web. An ISP provides a telephone number, a user name, a password, and other
connection information so users can connect their computers to the ISPs computers. An ISP
typically charges a monthly or hourly connection fee.

70. What is Kerberos v5?

An Internet standard security protocol for handling authentication of user or system
identity. With Kerberos V5, passwords that are sent across network lines are encrypted not sent
as plaintext. Kerberos V5 includes other security features as well.

71. What is the lease?

The length of time for which a DHCP client can use a dynamically assigned IP address
configuration. Before the lease time expires, the client must either renew or obtain a new lease
with DHCP.

72. What is Media Access Control (MAC) address?

The address that is used for communication between network adapters on the same
subnet. Each network adapter has an associated MAC address.

73. What is Network Address Translation (NAT)?

An IP translation process that allows a network with private addresses to access
information on the Internet.

74. What are the roles of the Network Administrator?

A person responsible for planning, configuring, and managing the day-to-day operation
of the network. Also called a system administrator.

75. What is Network Bridge?

A device that connects networks by forwarding frames. A network bridge operates at
the network interface layer.

76. What is Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)?

A routing protocol used in medium-sized and large networks. This protocol is more
complex than Routing information protocol (RIP), but it allows better control and is more
efficient in propagation of routing information.

77. What is Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) reference model?

A networking model introduced by the International Organization for Standardization
(ISO) to promote multivendor interpretability. OSI is a seven-layered conceptual model
consisting of the application, presentation, session, transport, network, data link, and physical

78. What is Ping?

A utility that verifies connections to one or more remote hosts. The ping command uses
Internet Control message protocol (ICMP) echo request and echo reply packets to determine
whether a particular IP system on a network is functional. Ping is useful for diagnosing IP
network or router failures.

79. What is Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)?

An industry standard suite of protocols for the use of point-to-point links to transport
multi protocol data grams. PPP is documented in Request for Comments (RFC) 1661.

80. Describe about Port?

The method that Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol
(UDP) use to specify which program running on the system is sending or receiving the data.
Also known as a port number.

81. What is Protocol?

A set of rules and conventions for sending information over a network. These rules
govern the content, format, timing, sequencing, and error control of messages exchanged
among network devices.

82. What is Proxy Server?

A firewall component that manages internet traffic to and from a local area network
(LAN) and that can provide other features, such as document caching and access control. A
proxy server can improve performance by supplying frequently requested data, such as a
popular Web page, and it can filter and discard requests that the owner does not consider
appropriate, such as requests for unauthorized access to proprietary files.

83. How to install DHCP?

1. Open windows components wizard by clicking start, pointing to settings, and
clicking control panel.
2. When control panel opens, double-click Add/Remove programs, and then click
Add/remove windows components.
3. Under components, scroll to and click Networking Services.
4. Click Details.
5. Under subcomponents of Networking Services, select Dynamic Host Configuration
protocol (DHCP), click Ok, and then click next.
If prompted, type the full path to the windows 2003 distribution files and click
continue. Required files will be copied to your hard disk.
6. Click finish to close the windows components wizard.
84. How to configure DHCP Server?
1. After the Microsoft DHCP server service.
2. Authorize the DHCP server.
3. A scope or pool of valid IP addresses must be configured before a DHCP server can
lease IP addresses to DHCP clients.
4. Global scope and client scope options can be configured for a particular DHCP
5. The DHCP server can be configured to always assign the same IP address to the
same DHCP client.

85. How to add the DHCP Relay Agent?

1. Click Start, point to programs, point to Administrative Tools, and then click
Routing and Remote Access.
2. In the console tree, click Server name\IP Routing\General.
3. Right-click General, then click New Routing Protocol.
4. In the select Routing Protocol dialog box, click DHCP Relay Agent, and then click

86. What are the Minimum required for the Installing DHCP Server?
Before you install a DHCP server, you should identify the following:
1. The hardware and storage requirements for the DHCP server.
2. Which computers you can immediately configure as DHCP clients for dynamic
TCP/IP configuration and which computers you should manually configure with
static TCP/IP configuration parameters, including static IP addresses.

87. Will all of the computers become DHCP clients?

If not, consider that non-DHCP clients have static IP addresses, and static IP
addresses must be excluded from the DHCP server configuration. If a client requires a specific
address, the IP address needs to be reserved.

88. Will a DHCP server supply IP addresses to multiple subnets?

If so, consider that may routers connecting subnets act as DHCP relay agents. If
your routers are not acting as DHCP relay agents, at least one DHCP server is required on each
subnet that has DHCP clients. The DHCP server could be a DHCP relay agent or a router that
has BOOTP enabled.

89. How many DHCP servers are required?

Consider that a DHCP server does not share information with other DHCP servers.
Therefore, it is necessary to create unique IP addresses for each server to assign to clients.

90. How to move the DHCP server database one computer to another computer?
1. Stop the Microsoft DHCP service on the current computer.
2. Copy the \system32\dhcp directory to the new computer that has been configured as
a DHCP server.
Make sure the new directory is under exactly is under the same drive letter and path
as on the old computer. If you must copy the files to a different directory, copy
DHCP.MDB, but do not copy the .log or .chk files.
3. Start the Microsoft DHCP service on the new computer. The service automatically
starts using the .mdb and. log files copied from the old computer.
91. Describe the integration of DHCP and DNS?
A DHCP server can enable dynamic updates in DNS name space for any DHCP
clients that support these updates. Scope clients can then use DNS with dynamic updates.
Scope clients can then use DNS with dynamic updates to update their computer name-to-IP
address mapping information whenever changes occur to their DHCP- assigned address.

92. Why is it important to plan an implementation of DHCP for a network?

Either WINS or DNS (or possibly both) is used for registering dynamic name-to-
address mappings on your network.

93. What tool do you use to manage DHCP servers in Windows 2003?
The primary tool that you use to manage DHCP servers is DHCP Manager, which is
a Microsoft Management Console (MMC) component.

94. What is the symptom of most DHCP-related problems?

Most DHCP-related problems are identified as a client IP configuration failure.
These failures are most often discovered by clients in one of the following ways:
1. The client might be configured to use an IP address not provided by the server.
2. The server sends a negative response back to the client, and the client displays an
error message or popup indicating that a DHCP server could not be found.
3. The server leases the client an address but the client appears to have other network
configuration-based problems, such as the inability to register or resolve DNS or
NetBIOS names, or to perceive computers beyond its same subnet.

95. Name the three components of the DNS?

Resolver, name servers, and domain name space.

96. Describe the differences among primary, secondary, and master name servers?
A primary name server has zone information in locally maintained zone files. A
secondary name server downloads zone information. A maser name server is the source of the
downloads for a secondary name server (which could be a primary or secondary name server).

97. List three reasons to have a secondary name server?

1. It operates as a redundant name server (you should have at least one redundant
name server for each zone).
2. If you have clients in remote locations, you should have a secondary name server to
avoid communicating across slow links.
3. A secondary name server reduces the load on the primary name server.

98. Describe the difference between a domain and zone?

A domain is a branch of the DNS name space. A zone is portion of a domain that
exists as a separate file on the disk storing resource records.

99. Describe the difference between recursive and iterative queries?

In a recursive query, the client instructs the DNS server to respond with either the
requested information or an error that the information was not found. In an iterative query, the
DNS server responds with the best answer it has, typically a referral to another name server
that can help resolve the request.

100. List the files required for a windows 2000 DNS implementation?
Database file, cache file, and reverse lookup file.

100. Describe the purpose of the boot file?

The boot file is used in the Berkeley Internet Name Daemon implementation to
startup and configures the DNS server.

101. How many zones can a single DNS server host?

A single DNS server can be configured to host zero, one, or multiple zones.

102. What benefits d DNS clients obtain from the dynamic update feature of
Windows 2003?
Dynamic update enables DNS client computers to register and dynamically update
their resource records with a DNS server whenever changes occur. This reduces the need for
manual administration of zone records, especially for clients that frequently move or change
locations and use DHCP to obtain an IP address.

103. Name one benefit and disadvantage of a caching-only server?

The benefit provided by caching-only servers is that they do not generate
zone transfer network traffic because they do not contain any zones. A disadvantage of a
caching-only server is that when the server is initially started, it has no cached information and
must build up this information over time as it services requests.

104. List and describe three DNS performance counters?

1. Dynamic update and secure dynamic update counters, for measuring registration
and update activity generated by dynamic clients.
2. Memory usage counters, for measuring system memory usage and memory
allocation patterns created by operating the server computer as a windows 2003
DNS server.
3. Recursive lookup counters, for measuring queries and responses when the DNS
server service uses recursion to look up and fully resolve DNS names on behalf of
requesting clients.

105. What is Lmhosts file?

A local text file that maps Network Basic Input Output System (NetBIOS) names
(commonly used for computer names) to IP addresses for hosts that are not located the local
subnet. This is file is stored in WINDOWS\System32\Drivers\Etc folder.

106. What is Remote Access?

Part of the integrated Routing And Remote Access service that provides remote
networking for telecommuters, mobile workers, and system administrators who monitor and
manage servers at multiple branch offices.

107. What is Remote Access Policy?

A set of conditions and connection parameters that define the characteristics of the
incoming connection and the set of constraraints imposed on it. Remote access policy
determines whether a specific connection attempt is authorized to be accepted.

108. What is Remote Access Server?

A Windows based computer running the Routing And Remote Access service and
configured to provide remote access.
109. What is Remote Access Service (RAS)?
A Windows NT 4 service that provides remote networking for telecommuters,
mobile workers, and system administrators who monitor and manage servers at multiple

109. What is Remote Procedure Call (RPC)?

A message passing facility that allows a distributed application to call services that
is available on various computers on a network. Used during remote administration of

110. What is Reservation?

A specific IP address within a scope permanently reserved for leased use to a
specific DHCP client it is reserved for DHCPdata base based on that it is having unique
Identifier for each reserved entry

111. What is security group?

A group that can be listed in discretionary access control lists used to
define permissions on resources and objects.

112. What is Task Manager?

A tool that provides information about programs and processes running on the
computer. Using Task manager, you can end or run programs, end processes, and display a
dynamic overview of your computers performance.

113. What is Virtual Private Network (VPN)?

The extension of a private network that encompasses encapsulated, encrypted, and
authenticated links across shared or public networks. VPN connections can provide remote
access and routed connections to private networks over the Internet.

114. What is VPN Server?

A computer that accepts virtual private network (VPN) connections from VPN
clients. A VPN server can provide a remote access VPN connection or a router-to-router VPN

115. What is Workgroup?

A simple grouping of computers intended only to help users find such things as
printers and shared folders within that group. Workgroups in Windows do not offer the
centralized user accounts and authentication offered by domains.

116. What is an operating system? List the basic functions of an operating system?
The operating system is a software program that controls the processing and
hardware associated with a computer. The operating system is the first piece of software loaded
into memory when a computer starts. It is the operating system that launches or starts other
software programs such as word processors, spreadsheets, databases, etc. The operating system
manages all of the resources on the computer; it controls all the hardware in a machine.
Manage all programs and resources; handle I/O, security, memory management, storage
management, etc., are the important functions of an OS.

117. Whats the difference between Windows 2000 and Windows XP?
1. Windows XP has higher system requirements but somewhat faster than windows
2. XP has more colorful GUI than earlier versions and we can switch back to 2000 like
classing interface.
3. Windows XP has more features, such as the Windows movie Maker, built-in CD
writer support, the Internet Connection Firewall, and Remote Desktop Connection.
4. Windows XP has better support for games and multimedia.
5. Windows XP has product activation.
6. Switching between different users sessions with out logging of.
7. We have the option of using simple file sharing or file permissions at an NTFS

118. You cannot log on to my network. What will you do?

1. Make sure that the Hub/Switch is on
2. Make sure that the machine is in the correct work group or domain.
3. Make sure that the appropriate network client and protocols installed
4. Check the adapter settings and verify TCP/IP configuration i.e., check the IP and
Subnet Mask.
5. Make sure that the network adapter is installed correctly.
6. The adapter and slot functioning are properly.
7. The cable securely connected to your network adapter.
8. Some times some failed services can prevent you from logging into the domain.

119. User(s) are complaining of delays when using the network. What would you do?
1. Check whether this is network-wide problem or system specific.
2. Make sure you dont have many programs running in the background, particularly
ones that use an internet connection. File sharing programs can often cause extreme
3. Delete any temporary Internet files and make sure the cache sizes are set correctly.
4. Bad connections are sometimes caused by faulty cables. Try a different cable.
5. Run a virus scan. Viruses often run in the background and use up tons of resources.

120. What is ISA Server (Internet Security & Acceleration Server)?

ISA server is an upgraded version of Microsoft proxy server 2.0 with inbuilt
firewall. ISA server is a software firewall. This service will enable you to protect the data from
different attacks. ISA server is also called as firewall.

121. Describe about Basic Disk and Dynamic Disk?

Basic disks use standard formatting and partitioning and contain primary partitions,
extended partitions and logical drives. A basic disk can have maximum of 4 partitions. You must
use basic disk if you want to support dual booting since dynamic disk is only recognized by w2k.
Dynamic disk does not contain primary partitions, extended partitions or logical
drives. It contains dynamic volumes.

122. What is a RAID? Define different RAID levels?

A RAID system is a collection of hard drives joined together for speed and fault
At least 2 hard drives are required, preferably identical. None of the space is wasted as
long as the hard drives used are identical. Data is stored evenly and d\sequentially across all
disks. It is also called as Stripped Volume. It can be created on FAT, FAT32, and NTFS. If any
of the hard drives in the array fails, everything will be lost.
This level is known as mirroring. Two identical copies of data are stored on two drives.
When one drive fails, the other drive still has the data to keep the system going. It can be
created on FAT, FAT32, and NTFS.
RAID 5 is identical sized areas of formatted disk space located in 3 or more dynamic
disks. Data stored evenly sequentially among all disks and parity information is written across
all disks in the volume. It can be formatted with FAT, FAT32, and NTFS. IF a single disk in
the RAID 5 fails data can be recovered using the parity information but if more than one disk
fails you can not recover data.

123. What is the difference between Non-RAID and RAID?

RAID prevents data loss and ensures continuous data supply, even during and after
limited disk failure. But non-RAID does not support fault tolerance. RAID is more expensive
than non RAID.

124. What is the difference between software RAID and hardware RAID?
Hardware RAID is typically easier to manage, maintain, and upgrade. Software
RAID does not allow many advanced RAID features like online Capacity Expansion nor does
software RAID allow pre-notification of disk drive failure, auto rebuild, or hot-pluggable hard
disk drives.

125. What is a computer virus (Vital Information Resource under Search)?

A computer virus is a piece of malicious code that attaches to important areas
within computers, such as executable files, and the boot areas of floppy disks and hard disks.
The basic virus types are defined by the area of the computer they infect;
Boot Viruses: Insert instructions into the boot sectors of floppy disks, or the boot sector or
master boot record (partition sector) of a hard disk.
Program Viruses: Infect executable files such as .com, .exe, and .dll files.
Macro Viruses: Infect document files such as Microsoft Word .doc files by changing the way
macros behave.
Other types of destructive code include worms, Trojan horses, and logic bombs. These types of
destructive code are different than viruses because they dont replicate.

126. What is Backup? Describe the Back up Types?

It is a tool or utility which will helps you to protect your data from accidental loss.
You can create the backup to protect the data.
1. Normal Backup: - It will take the backup of all files which is created in the folder.
Normal backup will not check for Archieve bit. After taking the backup it will
unchecked. In normal, it is irrespective of archieve status. It is going to take the
backup of new files, existing files and modified files.
2. Incremental Backup: - Incremental backup will follow archieve status. It is going to
take the backup of those files where it is finding archieve status checked. After
taking the backup, it will remove the archive bit.
3. Differential:- It is going to take the backup files where archieve status is checked.
But, after taking the backup it will not remove the archive bit.
4. Copy & Daily:- It is going to take the backup all the files . Copy and daily backups
are used on date and time basis or everyday.
127. What is system state data?
It is going to contain system files, Boot files, configuration files, registry files,
active directory database files. These files are belonging to your operating system.

128. What is Authoritative Restore?

With the help of this restore you can restore deleted objects.

129. What is non Authoritative Restore?

It is not going to restore the objects which have been deleted.

130. How do you install recovery console?

C:\i386\Win32/cmscons, assuming that your win server installation is on drive C.

131. What is Answer File?

A file that contains answers to questions that should be automated during

132. What is Event Viewer?

A Microsoft Management Console (MMC) that maintains logs about application,
security, and system events on your computer.

133. What is metadata?

Information about the properties of data, such as the type of data in a column
(numeric, text, and so on) or the length of column.

134. What is Ntdsutil.exe?

A command-line tool that provides management facilities for Active
directory. By default, the Ntdsutil.exe file is installed in the %systemroot%system32 folder.

135. What is PDC emulator?

A domain controller that holds the PDC emulator operations master role in Active
Directory. The PDC emulator handles password authentication requests involving passwords
that have recently changed and not yet replicated. At any time, the PDC emulator master role
can be assigned to only one domain controller in each domain.

136. What is Sysvol?

A shared directory that stores the server copy of the domains public files, which
are replicated among all domain controllers in the domain.

1. What is Processor/CPU?
The central Processing unit is the brain of the computer. All actions performed by
the computer are the result of the CPU. The CPU comes in many different types, sizes, and
speeds and is contained on the system Board in a variety of attachments.

2. What is Memory?
There are two types of memory in a computer. RAM or Random Access Memory is
the computer short-term memory. Any time a program or document is opened, it is copied into
the computer assists in determining the speed and capabilities of a computer. The second type
of memory is ROM or Read Only Memory. ROM is the computer long-term memory. ROM
contains instructions for the computer that cannot be changed.

3. What is Modem?
Modem is the acronym for modulator/demodulator, and is the device necessary to
connect to the internet through the use of a telephone line. A Modem is the translator of digital
to analog signals, which enables the computer to send and receive information through the
telephone line. Modems may be internal or external.

4. What is Firmware?
Any type of software that is stored in the Read Only Memory area of a computer is
considered Firmware. Firmware is sometimes distributed for printers and modems.

5. What is BIOS?
BIOS are the acronym for Basic Input/Output System. The BIOS is the translator
between the computers hardware and the Operating system. The BIOS also contains the
necessary instructions used to start the computer. BIOS information is stored in ROM.

6. What is CMOS?
Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor, otherwise known as the CMOS
contains the configuration information of a computer. CMOS information is stored in a
nonvolatile area of memory. CMOS information is so important to a computer that is backed
up by a small battery when the computer is turned off. The CMOS contains information such
as how many and what type of storage devices a computer contains, and the storage device
boot order.

IRQ Number Device
0 System Timer
1 Keyboard
2 Cascade to IRQ 9
3 COM 2 and COM 4
4 Com 1 and COM 3
5 Sound card
6 Floppy Disk

7 Parallel Port-LPT 1
8 Real Time Clock

8. What is USB Ports?

USB Ports are able to support up to 127 external devices through a hub or a chain
setup. USB ports are now commonly found on most computers and peripheral devices. USB
supports a data transfer rate up to 1.5 Mbps.

9. What is Infrared Ports?

Infrared Ports are able to transfer data using a wireless transmission. Most new
computers and PDAs are equipped with Infrared Ports. Infrared transmission uses light
frequencies, along with a transmitter and receiver to move data. Data can be transmitted to a
maximum rate of 1.1 Mbps at a maximum distance of 3.3 yards.

10. What are the Connector Types?

DB-9: A DB-9 connector is used on a serial cable or a VGA cable and may be
either male or female.
DB-25: A DB-25 connector may be used on either a serial or parallel cable and may
be either male or female.
RJ-11: RJ-11 connectors are used in conjunction with a Modem, and may be
plugged into a phone jack. RJ-11 connectors are male.
RJ-45: RJ-45 connectors are most often used in an Ethernet or Token Ring network.
RJ-45 connectors are male.
BNC: BNC connectors are used in conjunction with a Thinnet network.
PS/2 or MINI-DIN: PS/2 or MINI-DIN connectors have 6 sockets and are female.
PS/2 or MINI-DIN connectors are used in conjunction with a PS/2 mouse.
USB: USB connectors are flat and square. USB connectors are most commonly
used with newer peripherals such as printers, and digital cameras.
IEE1394: The IEEE 1394 or FireWire connector resembles a cross between a USB
port and a telephone jack. IEEE 1394 ports are used in conjunction with digital video

11. What is Master/Slave?

When configuring two IDE/EIDE drives, the primary drive must be set as the
master drive through the CMOS settings and jumpers. The secondary drive must be set as the
Slave drive through the CMOS settings and jumpers. The Master drive controls the Slave drives by
means of a controller.

What is the ITC Windows Patch Service?

ITC is offering a solution for faculty and staff that makes maintaining the operating system patches
on multiple Windows machines much simpler and easier. The service is based on a Microsoft
product called Software Update Server (SUS). With this service, patches are tested and, once
approved, are automatically distributed to all the machines utilizing the service. This alleviates the
need to touch each machine individually and ensures that all of your machines are as up to date as

The service works on Windows 2000 and XP only. It does not work on 95, 98, ME, or NT 4. If
you are running one of the unsupported OS's, you should set the Automatic Updates applet up
yourself. It will accomplish basically the same function.

When new patches are released by Microsoft, they are tested on the 2000 and XP Premium
Desktop images. All commonly used applications are run to be sure the patches didn't break
anything. Once all images have been tested, patches are then released to members of the ITC
Windows Patch Service.

What is SUS?

It is Microsoft Software Update Server, and it is designed to automate the process of distributing
Windows operating system patches.
It works by controlling the Automatic Updates applet already present on all Windows machines.
Instead of many machines at UVA all going to Microsoft's website to download updates, the SUS
server downloads all updates to an ITC-owned server and workstations then look there for updates.

Currently (1/04), SUS works with Windows XP, 2000, and 2003 Server. It does not update
Office, Exchange, or SQL.

How do I join?

Send an email to itc-microsystems at virginia.edu.

If you are already in Eservices, getting added is quick and simple. All we need is your machine

Note: You can find your machine name by clicking on Start | Settings | Control Panel. Open the
System applet and click on the Computer Name tab.

If you are not in Eservices and you don't have a Windows 2000/2003 domain already, the
University will purchase your Client Access Licenses so you may join Eservices to take advantage
of this service. Detailed instructions on joining your computer to the domain can be found here.

If you already have a 2000/2003 domain, ITC will help you set up a SUS policy in your domain
which points to the ITC SUS server.

Technical details:

Your machine account in Eservices is moved into an Organization Unit, which applies a policy to
your machine. The policy controls the Automatic Updates applet so that it pulls updates from
ITC's SUS server at the specified time. Once your machine is added to the OU, you can no longer
make changes to the Automatic Updates configuration.

Sus Behavior

Once joined to the sus system, the following occurs:

- The Automatic Updates applet in Control Panel becomes grayed out and is no longer
controllable by the user

- The user may see the automatic updates icon appear in the system tray.

o Once it does appear, they can choose to ignore it or to go ahead and install the

o If ignored, patches will be automatically installed at 3:00AM the following

morning if the machine is left on.

- If the machine is left on overnight (recommended):

o If no one is logged on:

Patches are downloaded and installed at 3:00AM and the machine is

automatically rebooted if necessary.

o If a user is logged on:

A dialog box will pop up, giving any active users 5 minutes to decline the
installation of patches. If no buttons are pressed, installation proceeds after
5 minutes and the machine is rebooted if necessary.

- If the machine was off at 3:00AM, the user will be prompted to install patches 1 minute
after their machine boots the next time (if they are logged in).

At that time, they have the choice of installing the patches or refusing.

If they refuse, patches will be installed at 3:00AM the following morning if

it is on, or they will be prompted again the next time their computer boots.

If the user was not logged in after the system had been booted for 1 minute,
the patches will install automatically and the machine will reboot as long as
no one is logged in.

If someone logs in during the install, they will be prompted to reboot once
installation is completed. They will be given the option to reboot now or
postpone until a convenient time.