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.., .., .., ..

-
.



--
2008
2

-
: . ., . .,
. ., . .

-
, 2008 .
3

1. . 5
1.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
1.3.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
1.3.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
1.4. MAPLE . . . . . 16
1.4.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

2. -
19
2.1. . . . . . . . . . 19
2.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
2.3.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
2.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

3.
. 29

4. Delphi 34
4.1. Delphi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
4.1.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
4.1.2. Delphi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
4.1.3. : . . . . . . . . . 38
4.1.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
4.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
4.2.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
4.2.2. sin(x) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
4

4.2.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
4.3. -
() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
4.3.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
4.3.2. 5.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
4.3.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
5

-
, ,
-
.
.

, -
Maple -
Delphi. -
. -
,
, -
, .

1. .
1.1.
()

x = F (x, t); x Rn , t R, (1)

,
t. , ,
, . :

x = F (x), (2)





x1 = F1 (x1 , . . . , xn ),

.....................



xn = Fn (x1 , . . . , xn ).

x = (x1 , . . . , xn ) Rn , F = (F1 , . . . , Fn ) -.
6

, -
, . -
, , -
.
(-) t0 :

x(t0 ) = x0 . (3)

1. (2) (3)
.

2. -
, t0 : I = (t0 , t0 + ), Rn :

: I Rn , (4)

, :
d
= F ((t)), t I. (5)
dt
(, [1, 2, 3]) -
, -
F (x1 , ..., xn )
D Rn (x0 D). ,
.
(t) ,

x = (t) (6)

Rn , ().
Rn .
(2)
F (x).
, -
: -
.
7

3. (2)
x Rn , , F (x ) = 0.
, , .

1. n - , -

x(n) = f (x, x, ..., x(n1) , t) (7)

n -

x1 = x, x2 = x, . . . xn = x(n1) . (8)

, (n = 2)

x = f (x, x, t)


x = x ,
1 2
x2 = f (x1 , x2 , t).

, -
, .
1.2.
1. m, -
l O.
, -
, .
O rJ
J
J
J
J `
J
J
J
J
Ju

r
mg
?
8

. 1. .

, ,

s( ) = l( ).


ds d
v( ) = =l ,
d d
a
d2
a( ) = l .
d
,
,
d2
ml 2 = mg sin , (9)
d

= 02 sin , (10)
g
02 = .
l
t = 0 , -

= sin . (11)

2- , :

x = , y = . (12)


x = y,
(13)
y = sin x.

()
( x = , y = ), -
(R2 ).
(13) , -
, , .
9

MAPLE.
(13), , -
.
1.4.

2
y
1

6 4 2 0 2 x4 6
1

. 2.

: (, -
, )
:

1. (), -
,
O1rJ
Y J
J
J
J
J
J
J
J

u Ju

r
mg
?

. 3. .

2. : -
,
10
u







R

r
O

. 4. .

3. : x = k, y = 0, k Z.

, (0, 0): -
.
r

u
mg
?

. 5. .

(, 0) .
u
mg
?

r
11

. 6. .

, -
:

4. .

( . ), , -
.

2
y

3 2 1 1 x2 3

. 7.

, , -
(0, 0) . -
-
.

, t -
(, 0), t +
(, 0) ( ).

: -

,
.
12

1.3. .

1.3.1. . -
(2)
: F (x) ( ) -

F (x) = F 0 (x0 )(x x0 ) + . . . . (14)

, ,

x = F 0 (x0 )(x x0 ). (15)

: ()

= x x0 ,

x0

= F 0 (x0 )(). (16)

2.

x = f (x, y),
(17)
y = g(x, y).

1. (x0 , y0 ).
:

f (x , y ) = 0,
0 0
(18)
g(x0 , y0 ) = 0.

2. (17) (u, v):



x = x + u,
0
(19)
y = y0 + v.
13

(17) :

u = f (x + u, y + v),
0 0
(20)
v = g(x0 + u, y0 + v).

(19) . -

(u = 0, v = 0).

3. (19)
(u = 0, v = 0) u, v:

f f
u = f (x0 , y0 ) + (x0 , y0 )u + (x0 , y0 )v + . . .
x y (21)
g g
v = g(x0 , y0 ) + (x0 , y0 )u + (x0 , y0 )v + . . . .
x y

, (x0 , y0 ) -
:
f f
u = (x0 , y0 )u + (x0 , y0 )v,
x y (22)
g g
v = (x0 , y0 )u + (x0 , y0 )v.
x y
1. , -
(13)
(0, 0)
x = y,
(23)
y = x.

1.3.2. .

3. -
x = 0, ,
. :

x = kx. (24)
14

x = x, y = x, (25)



x = y,
y = kx.

(24)

2 = k.

1,2 = i k, , -


i kt i kt
x(t) = c1 e + c2 e , (26)



x(t) = A cos kt + B sin kt. (27)

-
( A B).
:

x(0) = x0 , y(0) = v0 . (28)


v0
x(t) = x0 cos kt + sin kt. (29)
k

x = r cos(t + ), (30)

r , .
( ),
: [x(0) = 0.5, y(0) = 0.5]
15

y0

10
x0
t

. 8.

R2 .
, .

0.5

0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0.5


0.1 0.2 Y
0.3 0.4 0.5

. 9. .

, -
.
(24). -
[[x(0)=0,y(0)=.5],[x(0)=0,y(0)=1],[x(0)=0,y(0)=1.8]]
16

1.5

y1

0.5

6 4 2 0 2 x4 6
0.5

1.5

. 10. .

, -
, (0, 0)
.

2.
= . -
.

1.4. MAPLE

1.4.1. .
(13) : DEtools,
plots:

[> with(DEtools):
[> with(plots):

DETools , -
.
plots .
:
17

[>eq1:=diff(x(t),t) =y(t);
[>eq2:=diff(y(t),t) =-sin(x(t));

: x = 1,
y = 0. ,
, 1, .

[>init:=[[x(0)=1,y(0)=0]];

-
DEP lot.

[>DEplot( [eq1,eq2], [ x, y ], t=0..40,x=-2*Pi..2*Pi, init,


> scene=[x,y], stepsize=0.05,obsrange = FALSE, color=black,
> linecolour=black,arrows =MEDIUM);

y 0.5

6 4 2 0 2 x4 6

0.5

. 11.

, x(0) = 1, y(0) = 0 .

, -
.
: x(0) = 0, y(0) = 2 ( -
, , , 2):

[>init:=[[x(0)=1,y(0)=0],[x(0)=0,y(0)=2]];
18

y1

6 4 2 2 x4 6

. 12. , .

( )

[>init:=[[x(0)=1,y(0)=0],[x(0)=0,y(0)=2],[x(0)=0,y(0)=3]];

2
y
1

6 4 2 0 2 x4 6

. 13. : () , ?

(, -
).
19

2.
2.1.

x = Ax, (31)

A .
-
, [2, 3, 6]. -
, (31)

x = c1 1 (t) + ... + cn n (t), (32)

1 n .
A 1 , 2 , ...n -
, i

i = ei t hi , i = 1, n, (33)

h1 . . . hn .
r > 1,
:
) r . i

i = et hi , (34)

) , , k < r
. p > 1 -
:

1 = et h1 ,
2 = et (th1 + h2 ) ,
2
t t
3 = e h1 + th2 + h3 ,
2
...
p1
t t
p = e h1 + ... + hp .
(p 1)!
20

i , , -
(32).
2.2. .
(31)

x(0) = x0 ,

x = etA x0 . (35)

eA A -

A2 An
eA = E + A + + ... + + ..., (36)
2! n!

kAxk
kAk = sup . (37)
x6=0 kxk
, eA , -
.
( )

1 0 0 0

0 2 0 0
A=

(38)
............

0 0 0 n
e
1
e 0 0 0

0 e 2 0 0
e =
A


(39)
..............

0 0 0 e n
A

J = P AP 1 , (40)
21

P .
J ,

J = E + K, (41)

K , , -
, (K n = O).
Ji , eJi , -
eJ .

eA = P eJ P 1 . (42)

eAt .

4. etA , A

1.
0 1
A=
0 0
, A A = 0, (36)
:
eAt = E + At. (43)

A,

1 t
eAt = .
0 1

2.
1 2
A=
2 1

1 = 1, 2 = 3.
22

A:

1 0
D=
0 3

:

1 1
P = 2 2 .
1 1
2 2



t
e 0
eDt = .
3t
0 e

(42), ,

eAt = P eDt P 1 .

,

t 3t 3t t
1 e +e e e
eAt = .
2 e3t et et + e3t

5. -
:

x = x x, (44)

> 0 .

x1 = x, x2 = x,

:

x = x ,
1 2
(45)
x2 = x1 x2 .
23



0 1
A=
1




1,
= 2 + 1 = 0.

1
p
2 4
1,2 = . (46)
2
, || > 2 . etA
:

1 t
e 0
etA = . (47)
2 t
0 e

3. (45), -
.

2.3.

-
:
x = a x + a y,
11 12
(48)
y = a21 x + a22 y.



a x + a y = 0,
11 12
(49)
a21 x + a22 y = 0.

(48) (0, 0) ,
A , , . -
.
24




a11 a12 ,
= 2 Tr A + det A = 0,

a21 a22

Tr A = 1 + 2 A, det A A,

det A = 1 2 . (50)

.
I. : c A, 1 ,
2 , .
det A 6= 0, -
x = 0.
h1 , h2 . ,
:

z(t) = 1 (t)h1 + 2 (t)h2 , (51)

1 (t) = C1 e1 t , 2 (t) = C2 e2 t . (52)

2 1 (52),

|2 | = C|1 |2 /1 . (53)

(53) 1 = 0.

1. .

1 , 2 , (53)
2 /1 .

|2 | > |1 |, 2 = 0. (51) ,
1 = 0 2 = 0 .
, , ,

2 (t), 1 (t) 0 t +,
25

y
0.5

1 0.5 0 0.5 1
x

0.5

. 14. 1 < 2 < 0 .

2. .
1 , 2 , (53) -
2 /1 . , , 1 < 0, 2 > 0. 1 (t) 0,
2 (t) t +.

y
0.5

1 0.5 0 0.5 1
x

0.5

. 15. .

3. 1 = 2 6= 0.
26

(a) .
, 1 .

x(t) = x0 et , y(t) = y0 et . (54)

, ( > 0),
( < 0) .

y
0.5

1 0.5 0 0.5 1
x

0.5

. 16. .

(b) .
.

y
0.5

1 0.5 0 0.5 1
x

0.5

1
27

. 17. .

II -

1. .
- .

1,2 = i, 6= 0, 6= 0. (55)



= R et ,
0
(56)
= t + 0 .

R0 0 .
(56) : > 0
( ), < 0 -
( ).

y
0.5

1 0.5 0 0.5 1
x

0.5

. 18. .

2. .
1,2 = i. .
28

y
0.5

1 0.5 0.5 1
x

0.5

. 19. .

4.

1. 1 6= 0, 2 = 0.

2. 1 = 0, 2 = 0.
0 1
A (57)
0 0

2.4. .
x + bx + cx = 0. (58)

bx , .
b , -
b,c.
b = b0 , c = c0 .
(58) .
c0 , b .

1.
b=4 c=5
29


b = 4 c = 5

2.
b=4 c=4

b = 4 c = 4

3.
b=4 c=3

b = 4 c = 3

4.
b=4 c=0

b = 4 c = 0

5.
b = 4 c = 5

b = 4 c = 5

3.
.
.
.
:

x = 2x + y 2 1,
y = 6x y 2 + 1.

1. .
30

2. -
.
.

3. .

4. .
:

> restart;
> with(plots):
> with(DEtools):
> with(linalg):
> with(LinearAlgebra):

-
():

> f:=(x,y)->2*x + y^2 -1;


> g:=(x,y)->6*x -y^2 +1;

> SYS := [diff(x(t),t) = f(x(t),y(t)), diff(y(t),t) = g(x(t),y(t))];

1. ( ; -
) -
:
f (x, y) = 0,
g(x, y) = 0.

solve

> res:=solve(f(x,y)=0,g(x,y)=0,x,y);
31

res := {y = 1, x = 0}, {y = 1, x = 0}

(). -
x0 , y0 .

> assign(res[1]); x0:=x; y0:=y; unassign(x,y);


x0 := 0
y0 := 1

(1):

2(a). :

> a := subs(x=x0,y=y0,diff(f(x,y),x));
> b := subs(x=x0,y=y0,diff(f(x,y),y));
> c := subs(x=x0,y=y0,diff(g(x,y),x));
> d := subs(x=x0,y=y0,diff(g(x,y),y));
> SYS_lin1 := [diff(u(t),t) = a*u(t) + b*v(t),
diff(v(t),t) = c*u(t) + d*v(t)]:
a := 2
b := 2
c := 6
d := -2

2(b). :

2(c). :

Eigenvectors, -
.

> (lambda,H) := Eigenvectors(Matrix([[a,b],[c,d]]));;


4 1 3
, H =
4 1 1
32

=> .

> h1:=[H[1,1],H[1,2]]:
> h2:=[H[2,1],H[2,2]]:
> h1_plot:=PLOT(CURVES([-h1,[0,0],h1]),THICKNESS(3)):
> h2_plot:=PLOT(CURVES([-h2,[0,0],h2]),THICKNESS(3)):
> a:=dfieldplot(SYS_lin1,[u(t),v(t)],t=-2..2,u=-1..1,
v=-1.5..1.5,color=black):
> display(a,h1_plot,h2_plot);

1.5

1
v
0.5

1 0.5 0 0.5 1
u
0.5

1.5

. 20. .


2 + 2I 3 1/3I 3 1/3I 3
, H =
2 2I 3 1 1

= 2 2I 3, .

.
33

v 0.5

1 0.5 0 0.5 1
u

0.5

. 21.

4. :

-
.

> #IC - :
> IC := [[0, 4.1, 2],[0, 3, 2], [0, 5, 2], [0, 4, 1.9], [0, 3, 1],
> [0, 2, 1], [0, 0, 1], [0, 5, 0], [0, 5, -2], [0, 5, -4],
> [0, 2, -5], [0, 0, -5], [0, -2, -5], [0, -5, -5], [0, -5, 0] ]:

y1

1 0.5 0 0.5 1
x

. 22.
34

4. Delphi
4.1. Delphi

4.1.1. .
Delphi , -
Windows. , ,
TCanvas () , -
, -
, . TCanvas
, -
.
, Delphi -
API-
Windows. Windows,
Delphi, ,
uses. -
Delphi,
, . .
,
Delphi .
TCanvas,
.

procedure Ellipse(X1, Y1, X2, Y2: Integer); -


(X1, Y1) (X2, Y2)
.

procedure LineTo(X, Y: Integer); -


(X, Y ).

procedure MoveTo(X, Y: Integer);


35

(X, Y ) .

property Pixels[X, Y: Integer]: TColor , -


.

procedure Polygon(const Points: array of TPoint); -


, Points.
, .

procedure Rectangle(X1, Y1, X2, Y2: Integer); -


.

procedure TextOut(X, Y: Integer; const Text: String); -


Text , -
(X, Y ).

TCanvas
: TPen, TBrush TFont.
TPen () -
. : Color (), Width (
), Style ( , , psSolid psDash
; ),
Mode ( ).
TBrush () -
. Color (), Style ().

. Bitmap.
TFont () -. -
: Name ( , MS Sans Serif),
Color (), Size ( ), Style ().
Delphi ,
Canvas. , , -
36

. , TPaintBox ,
. TImage , -

. , TImage
( ), -
. , ,
TPaintBox -
, TImage (
, ), -
. . . TPaintBox , TImage
.
Delphi
TGraphic TPicture. TGraphic ( -
, ),
. -
: TIcon ico
(, ); TBitMap bmp;
TMetafile wmf emf.
TPicture -
. TBitMap
:
.
Delphi. TColor
,
: , .
0 255, .
, , .
.
. -
37

, : 255 $0000FF; : 255*256


$00FF00; : 255*256*256 $FF0000.
RGB.
( 0 255): , ,
. , myColor := RGB(0,100,255);
, Delphi , -
, : clBlack, clGray, clSilver, clRed,
clYellow, clBlue, clWhite, clBtnFace, clBackground.

4.1.2. Delphi .
. : -
TPanel, TButton -
TPaintBox.
: Panel1.Align=alTop,
Panel1.Caption= , Button1.Caption=, PaintBox1.Align=alClient.
OnClick:

procedure TForm1.Button1Click(Sender: TObject);


begin
with PaintBox1.Canvas do begin
{ }
Pen.Color := $AF0080;
MoveTo(0, PaintBox1.Height div 2);
LineTo(PaintBox1.Width, PaintBox1.Height div 2);
{ }
Brush.Color := RGB(0, 200, 255); Brush.Style := bsDiagCross;
Rectangle(20, 10, 300, 100);
Brush.Style := bsSolid;
Ellipse(150, 0, 300, 200);
Polygon([Point(120, 150), Point(150, 100), Point(200, 100),
38

Point(230, 150), Point(200, 200), Point(150, 200)]);


{ }
Font.Color := clRed; Font.Size := 14; Brush.Style := bsClear;
TextOut(110, 30, 1);
end; end;

, Run, . 23.

. 23. Delphi

, -
() . -
, ,
. ,
.

4.1.3. : . .
, .
Button2.Caption = .
-
(buffer: TBitMap), : -
, .
39

{ }
procedure TForm1.FormCreate(Sender: TObject);
begin buffer := TBitMap.Create; end;
{ }
procedure TForm1.FormDestroy(Sender: TObject);
begin buffer.Free; end;
{ PaintBox1}
procedure TForm1.FormResize(Sender: TObject);
begin buffer.Width := PaintBox1.Width;
buffer.Height := PaintBox1.Height; end;

-
. (blRis:
Boolean) :

procedure TForm1.Button2Click(Sender: TObject);


begin blRis := False; end;

procedure TForm1.Button1Click(Sender: TObject);


var phi, step: real; Dest, Sourse: TRect;
LengthLine, radius, centreX, centreY, koordX, koordY: Integer;
begin
Button2.Enabled := True; blRis := True;
{ , }
centreX := Width div 2; centreY := 40;
{ , , }
LengthLine := 200; radius := 7;
{ .}
phi := 0; step := 0.02;
{ }
40

while blRis do begin


{ }
Application.ProcessMessages;
{ }
with Buffer.Canvas do begin
Brush.Color := clWhite;
Rectangle(0, 0, Buffer.Width, Buffer.Height);
Font.Size := 14;
TextOut(Width div 2 - 60, 10, . .);
koordX := centreX + round(LengthLine*sin(phi));
koordY := centreY + round(LengthLine*cos(phi));
MoveTo(centreX, centreY); LineTo(koordX, koordY);
Brush.Color := clBlack;
Ellipse(centreX - 2, centreY - 2, centreX + 2, centreY + 2);
Ellipse(koordX - radius, koordY - radius, koordX + radius,
koordY + radius);
end;
{ }
Dest := ClientRect; Sourse := ClientRect;
PaintBox1.Canvas.CopyRect(Dest,Buffer.Canvas,Sourse);
{ }
if abs(phi)>=1.2 then step := - step; phi := phi + step;
{}
sleep(10);
end;
Button2.Enabled := False;
end;

. 24.
41

. 24.

4.1.4. .
-
. -
: , .
TPaintBox
4.1.2.
(blRisMouse: Boolean) :

{ , }
procedure TForm1.PaintBox1MouseDown(Sender: TObject;
Button: TMouseButton; Shift: TShiftState; X, Y: Integer);
begin
if Button=mbLeft then begin
blRisMouse := True; PaintBox1.Canvas.MoveTo(X, Y); Randomize;
PaintBox1.Canvas.Pen.Color :=
RGB(Random(256),Random(256),Random(256));
end; end;
{ }
procedure TForm1.PaintBox1MouseMove(Sender: TObject; Shift:
TShiftState; X, Y: Integer);
begin if blRisMouse then PaintBox1.Canvas.LineTo(X, Y); end;
42

{ }
procedure TForm1.PaintBox1MouseUp(Sender: TObject;
Button: TMouseButton; Shift: TShiftState; X, Y: Integer);
begin
if blRisMouse then begin
PaintBox1.Canvas.LineTo(X, Y); blRisMouse := False;
end; end;

4.2.

4.2.1. .
-
( (0, 0)), (
(PaintBox1.Width, PaintBox1.Height)
, ). , -
, -,
, -
, , -, .
-

.
, , . -
: minX, maxX, minY,
maxY. :

procedure TForm1.perevod(X, Y: real; var xRes, yRes: integer);


begin
xRes := round((X - minX)*PaintBox1.Width/(maxX - minX));
yRes := PaintBox1.Height
- round((Y - minY)*PaintBox1.Height/(maxY - minY));
end;
43

Y - -
. round
.
, , -
.

4.2.2. sin(x).
4.1.2 minX, maxX,
minY, maxY, perevod :

function TForm1.f(x: real): real; begin Result := sin(x); end;

x 10 10, y 1 1. [10, 10]


.
OnClick :

procedure TForm1.Button1Click(Sender: TObject);


var i, n, xBeg, yBeg, xEnd, yEnd : integer; hag, x, y : real;
begin
{ :}
minX := - 10; maxX := 10; minY := - 1; maxY := 1;
{ [-10,10] x:}
n := 100; hag := (maxX - minX)/n;
{ :}
x := minX; y := f(x); perevod(x, y, xBeg, yBeg);
with PaintBox1.Canvas do begin
MoveTo(xBeg, yBeg);
{ :}
for i := 1 to n do begin
x := x + hag; y := f(x); perevod(x, y, xEnd, yEnd);
LineTo(xEnd, yEnd);
xBeg := xEnd; yBeg := yEnd;
44

end; end; end;

. 25. sin x

4.2.3. .

1. .

2. .
, , , -
.

3. print, -
, -
, .
.

4. :
-
.

. 3, -
Mode pmNot
( ; ),
pmCopy. -
2.
45

4.3. -
()

4.3.1. .
[7, 8].
, (
) : -
.
.
.

dx
= f (t, x(t)), x(t0 ) = x0 . (59)
dt
x(t) -. -
2- t
R2 .
(59) [t0 , t0 + T ].
N [ti1 , ti ], i = 1, . . . , N .
: h = T /N ,
ti = t0 + ih, i = 0, . . . , N .
ti+1
ti :
xi+1 = x(ti+1 ) = x(ti ) + hf (ti , x(ti )) + O(h2 ). (60)

,
.

4.3.2. 5.
.

:
46

const Rasm = 2;
type vector = array[1..Rasm] of real;

,
, . a, b, c, d
func .

function TForm1.func(x: vector; t: real): vector;


begin
Result[1] := a*x[1] + b*x[2];
Result[2] := c*x[1] + d*x[2];
end;

function TForm1.Euler(x: vector; t, h: real): vector;


var i: integer; y: vector;
begin
y := func(x,t); for i := 1 to Rasm do Result[i] := x[i] + h*y[i];
end;

-
:

procedure TForm1.Button1Click(Sender: TObject);


var i, xScreen, yScreen: integer; h, t, tEnd: real; xNach, xTec: vector;
begin
{ :}
minX := -1; maxX := 1; minY := -1; maxY := 1;
{ :}
a := 0; b := 1; c := - 1; d := - 0.1;
{ h - ; t - tEnd - }
h := 0.001; t := 0; tEnd := 10;
{ : }
47

xNach[1] := 0.5; xNach[2] := 0;


{ : }
perevod(xNach[1], xNach[2], xScreen, yScreen);
with PaintBox1.Canvas do begin
MoveTo(xScreen, yScreen);
while t<=tEnd do begin
xTec := Euler(xNach, t, h);
perevod(xTec[1], xTec[2], xScreen, yScreen);
LineTo(xScreen, yScreen);
t := t + h; for i := 1 to Rasm do xNach[i] := xTec[i];
end; end; end;

. 26. 5

O(h2 ). ,
1- . -

.
.
4- .

4.3.3. .

1. .

2. .
48

3. . ,
.

4. 4- -
.

. :

k1 = hf (t, x), k2 = hf (t + h/2, x + k1 /2),


k3 = hf (t + h/2, x + k2 /2), k4 = hf (t + h, x + k3 ),
x(t + h) = x(t) + (k1 + 2k2 + 2k3 + k4 )/6 + O(h5 ).

5. .

6.
. , -
, , ( )
( ).

. , -
(0, 0).

7. , -
.
49

[1] . . . :
, 2000. - 368 c.

[2] . . . .:
, 1983.

[3] . . -
. .: , 1970.

[4] . . . .: ,
1959.

[5] . ., . ., . . -
. --:
- , 1989.

[6] .. . .: -
, 1980.

[7] H. ., . ., . . .
.: , 1987. 598 .

[8] H. H. . .: , 1978. 512 .

[9] . . Delphi. :
. .: , 2005. 640 .