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: . . Communications: Saying What We Mean . . . . . . . . . .29
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.. .. . Tricks of the Trade: Tips for Finding a Translator .47
.. .. . Reality versus Nostalgia.
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e-mail: rvalent@online.ru
www.rvalent.ru .. .
ISBN 5-93439-142-9 - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .79
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26

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27

- Emotions that are ordered and given shape


.. , .. are more important than disorderly emo-
, tions. Yes, I'm sure they are, she said.
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You think so?' he said coldly. 'I'm sure! you? You did what?) .
? ,
. ! -

After all, he said in a declamatory voice, Your lip is no fool.
one gets all one wants out of Racine.

28

.
Communications: Saying What We Mean
.

. humanitarian disciplines. I have polled


For many years I have attended dinner translators to provide some possible transla-
parties, conferences, meetings, and recep- tions into Russian; these are not meant to be
tions in the US and in Russia, dreading the definitive, but rather a starting point for
inevitable ice-breaker question: What do other translators. I also consider the mean-
you do?/ ? The ing of communication in everyday
answer in English or Russian Im in American speech, and its very important role
health communications/ in interpersonal relationships.

almost always results in a polite, blank stare. Communicate/Communications
For English-speakers I add: I do public Communicate is derived from the Latin
education programs in health, for Russians: communicare, to share, impart, partake.
. If people still There are two main branches of commu-
dont fully understand what my work entails, nications: one that deals with human forms of
at least they know my professional ball park. information-sharing (the art and technique
If I were to simply answer in English, of using words effectively to impart informa-
Im in communications, this could mean tion or ideas); and one that deals with the
I work for a telephone company, write copy technical means of sharing information
(text) in an advertising firm, program com- (a means of communicating, especially a
puterized information storage and retrieval system, such as mail, telephone, or television,
systems, or even work as a graphic designer. for sending and receiving messages). There
The professions and scholarly work that are several other meanings in medicine and
come under the category of communica- the military (not considered here).
tions in America are extremely diverse, In the humanitarian spheres, communi-
defined and grouped in many cases more by cation can refer to a one-way transmission
tradition than by logic. And they are con- of information (impart), in which the skill
stantly changing: these areas of scholarly is cogent articulation ( -
endeavor and professional activity have only ); two-way transmission (share,
appeared within the last twenty or thirty partake), in which competence is defined
years, some within the last five. Each year by both the ability to present a point of view
new theoretical work and new technologies and information, and the skills of listening,
expand and redefine the subjects themselves. understanding, and acceptance ( -
To help Russian translators who come ); and
across communications in its various persuasive communication, which, to be
incarnations, in this paper Ive tried to effective, requires feed-back and dialog, but
define more clearly what communications in which an individual or group have the goal
means in various contexts, primarily in the of persuading others (an individual or group)

29

to accept information or an attitude, or adopt lated as . The


. a behavior ( ). thousands if not millions of companies
that have sprouted up in this field within the
Communications as last decade often just call themselves com-
An in-depth analysis of this terminology munications firms.
is beyond the scope of this paper, but it is A related field is technical communica-
helpful to know a few of the marker words tion, that is, the profession of gathering
and professions. information of a technical nature and pre-
Often communications refers to what senting it or transmitting it. In this field spe-
in Russian falls under the category of . cialists write and edit professional technical
For example, the Federal Communications magazines, write instruction manuals or text-
Commission (FCC) is charged with regula- books, provide explanatory texts for web-sites
ting interstate and international communica- and software programs, or make educational
tions by radio, television, wire, satellite and films and videos. I have found this translated
cable. This could be translated as the - as , but a more
.1 Communications apt translation might be -
is understood somewhat more broadly by the or simply -
Communication Workers of America trade .
union, which serves a wide array of humani-
tarian and technical professions, among them: Communications in the humanities
telecommunications (), Websters Third International Dictionary
telephone systems (), broadcasting defines communications as an art that
(- ), cable TV (- deals with expressing and exchanging ideas
, ), effectively in speech or writing or through the
journalism (), and even airline graphic or dramatic arts and that is taught as
workers ( ). an integrated program at various levels of
(Railway workers in the US have their own education in distinction to traditional separate
union.) This might be rendered, somewhat courses in composition and speech. The
wordily, as Association for Communication Administra-
, tion defines the field of communication in
, although translators will need to this way: The field of communications
clarify what does and doesnt come under focuses on how people use messages to gen-
their auspices. erate meanings within and across various con-
Information and communications tech- texts, cultures, channels, and media. The field
nology is defined as the technology used promotes the effective and ethical practice of
to handle information and aid communica- human communication.2
tion. This relatively new phrase (coined by That is, the field of communications is an
Dennis Stevenson in a 1997 report to the interdisciplinary field that has developed in
UK government) refers to technologies at response to new technologies (such as inter-
the organizational level and is usually trans- net) and media (such as multi-media presen-
tations), as well as to advances in traditional
1 B.N. Klimzo has noted helpfully that in transla- academic disciplines. It examines the full
tion from the Russian, range of human verbal and non-verbal com-
is rendered in English as the munication: everyday (such as speech, body
Ministry of Information Technologies and Communi-
cations of the Russian Federation. C (,
language), persuasive (such as advertising
, , , ) is techniques), and applied artistic (such as
often translated as telecommunications in English. For graphic design). Communications specialists
example, is the State come from various branches of linguistics,
Telecommunications Committee. can semiotics, pragmatics, psychology, behavioral
be translated as communications (in the context of mil-
itary operations), or as utilities when used as a synonym science, sociology, anthropology, ethnogra-
of (sewerage and water,
2 National Communication Association,
gas and power supply). Here the potential for confu-
sion and mistranslation is quite evident. http://www.natcom.org/ComProg/new_page_1.htm

30

.
phy, journalism, public relations, advertising, ) is
television, radio, cinema, video, photography, awkward and strange, since the concept of
as well as the graphic arts. communication that binds together all
There is, of course, no umbrella word in these disciplines is missing from the transla-
Russian that encompasses all these disparate tion. If the translator avoids these traps, he or
disciplines and professions. Among academ- she can fall into another: since this kind of
ic circles the discipline is usually translated educational institution doesnt exist in Russia,
as / , the tendency is to name it something like
although some specialists call it and /-
advocate for this translation.3 . This translation has the
To confuse matters, there are a number of benefit of no associations with other Russian
American universities, schools and depart- educational institutions, and adequately cov-
ments that call themselves communications ers the disciplines taught. But it has one fatal
but teach different subjects. Some aspects of flaw: it is utterly meaningless. This kind of
communication are taught in the various tra- translation would be appropriate if the task of
ditional academic departments, such as lin- the translation were to name the institution
guistics or psychology. Communications and then define the nature of the curriculum
Departments or Communications Programs in a footnote or within the text.
at colleges, universities, and post-graduate The translator will also be tried sorely by
educational institutions might teach some of the Association for Women in Communica-
the same subjects found in traditional disci- tions ( ,
plines (the same kind of course in organi- / ), which
zational communications might be taught in a unites women in print and broadcast journal-
psychology department or a communications ism ( ), tele-
department). But American Schools of vision and radio production (
Communication (university-level) usually - ), film (),
teach only television and film, journalism, advertising ( ), public rela-
tions ( ),
advertising, and public relations. Some add to
marketing (), graphic design (-
the mix marketing, graphic design, multi-
), multimedia
media design, and photography.4
design ( -
So, unfortunately the translator cannot
), and photography (). It
possibly know from the name of a communi-
describes itself as the premier association of
cations department or school what disciplines
women communicators worldwide.
it teaches. In the case of Schools of
What are communicators in this con-
Communication, the combination of disci-
text? They are people who make their liveli-
plines is so at odds with traditional Russian
hood in the communication professions: -
academic and ministerial combinations, that
or
an inclusive translation (such as
-
-
. I dont like either option, because I think
) is misleading, and a descriptive
the reader would immediately ask, What kind
translation (such as -
of professionals do you mean? Here the
, , , ,
translator would do well to rework the text so
3 Tolstikova-Mast, Yulia, and Keyton, Joann,
that the professions are clearly understood.
Communicating About Communication: Fostering The communication spheres cited above
the Development of the Communication Discipline in represent two of the three types of commu-
Russia, Russian Communication Association,
http://www.russcomm.ru/eng/rca_biblio/t/tolstikova- nication: one-way (the skill of presenting
mast01_eng.shtml information cogently and clearly through a
4 For more detailed descriptions of US Depart- reader-friendly page lay-out, a photograph
ment of Education definitions of communication pro- that conveys a particular emotion or story,
grams, seehttp://www.natcom. org/ComProg/ an understandable text, or through a video or
Stats/instruction.htm and http://nces.ed.gov.pubs2002/ radio show), and persuasive (public relations
cip2000/ciplist.asp?CIP2=09

31

and advertising, which are designed to con- , 6), it is


. vince the reader, viewer or listener to change traditionally used in reference to the applied arts
attitudes or behavior). or professions in which the medium or the act
Communicator often has the connota- of transmitting information is perceived to
tion of someone who is persuasive, who can be the key skill. In the US it is traditionally
sway an audience to his side. In the US, not used in reference to the performing arts
President Reagan was described most famous- (acting, music composition or performance,
ly as the Great Communicator. In conversa- performance art), fine arts (painting, sculp-
tions, in speeches or at press conferences, he ture, drawing), applied arts that are not con-
had the ability to present his point of view in nected with cognitive messages (furniture
a way that was both appealing and convinc- design, architecture, clothing design), or to
ing. This is something between - other professionals such as teachers and
and , with a bit of the lawyers, despite the fact that the art of com-
notion of someone who always munication is an important part of their pro-
comes out on top. (He was also called the fessions. Translation and interpreting also do
Teflon President, because no criticism stuck not usually fall within the realm of communi-
to him.5) I have seen this translated as - cations (although logically they should),
, and even - except in some academic spheres of commu-
(on NTV, whose news- nication studies.
writers should win an award for using more Cause marketing, behavior-change com-
calques than all the other Russian TV stations munication and health communication
combined). Here its back to the drawing
board ( ); none of these Cause marketing is defined by one of its
translations quite capture the sense of the American founders and practitioners as
English. using the skills of advertising to effect social
change, to benefit individuals or society at
Communication arts large cause marketing can also help create
An ancillary communications field is the or change public policy Advertising which
sphere of communication arts, that is, all (sic) does that is also widely classified as
the forms of applied art that are used in the social marketing.7 In other words, cause
communication fields. This includes graphic or social marketing sells ideas, policies
design, advertising images, web design, and behaviors (such as voting, using seat
corporate image (logos, corporate style in let- belts, passing environmental protection laws)
terhead and business cards), photography, art by using the same techniques that the adver-
journalism (cartoons, caricatures), packaging, tising industry uses in order to sell products.
film and video arts, and illustration. It is commonly referred to as conducting a
communication (public service/information)
The Non-Communication arts campaign. All this is variously translated as
Although the definition of communication , -
embraces virtually any form of transmission of /, -
information or emotion (one Russian source , -
defines it as
, - (or
5 I recently found this headline and text on a ) -
Russian web-site: ? 6 Osipova, G.V., ed, Entsiklopedicheskii sotsiolo-
: gicheskii slovar (Moscow: RAN, 1995) quoted in
. Dmitrieva, E.V., Sotsiologiya Zdoroviya: meto-
dicheskie podkhody i kommunikatsionnye programmy
(Moscow: Izdatelstvo TSENTR, 2002), p. 181.
, 7 Earle, Richard, The Art of Cause Marketing:
.
, . How to Use Advertising to Change Personal Behavior
For the full article, see: http://2004.novayagazeta.ru/ and Public Policy (Chicago: NTC Business Books,
nomer/2004/48n/n48n-s12.shtml 2000), p. 3.

32

.
. (A public service announcement ing those which are not strictly communica-
PSA is or tive, such as reforming health systems, advo-
.) While not entirely precise, these cating for changes in legislation, and mobiliz-
terms are entering the language, and seem to ing communities. Health promotion programs
be comprehensible by analogy with other in Russian are commonly translated as -
phrases, such as , - . One model
, etc. of health promotion consists of three main
When a campaign is directed at an indi- forms of intervention (): edu-
vidual (to use his seat belt, refrain from cation (), prevention (-
drinking and driving, practice safe sex), its ), and protection (
often called behavior-change communica- /).
tion. This is usually translated by the some-
what clumsy, but more or less comprehensi- We just cant communicate
ble phrase, ( ), In everyday American speech, commu-
(- nication has come to mean a specific
/). It is my sense that this speech act which manifests mutual self dis-
concept and phrase appeared in the US in closure, positive regard for the unique selves
response to criticism that communication of the participants, and openness to emer-
campaigns were successful in informing peo- gent, negotiated definitions of self and
ple, but not in persuading them to change other.8 That is, when an American says,
their behavior. Now it is bandied about My husband and I dont communicate any-
(We ran a BCC campaign) almost as a more, Theres a breakdown in communi-
synonym for an effective communication cation with my children, The basis of a
campaign. In these cases the more common good marriage is communication, they are
may be a more grace- referring to a special kind of talking in which
ful translation choice. all parties are open, truthful, revealing,
Health communication is cause mar- exhibit a profoundly self-reflexive under-
keting when the cause is improved health. standing of themselves, listen attentively to
However, it may include additional cam- one another, accept the emotional validity of
paign elements ( ), others statements, and support one another.
such as counseling () as a The goal of this kind of communication is
form of interpersonal (persuasive) communi- deeper intimacy; an enhanced sense of self;
cation ( ), or acceptance of the points of view of others,
using entertainment for educational purposes and an affirmation of the validity of those
(enter-educate): - points of view (I hear where you are com-
- - ing from); and, if not resolution of inter-
/ - personal problems, then at least a willingness
. to keep communicating (talking it out)
The latter might be a pop song that advocates until a solution or resolution is found. This
safe sex, or a soap opera that models behav- kind of communication exhibits all three
ior ( ), such as using communication paradigms: it is articulate
seat belts. Depending on the audience, I call one-way transmission of information, a dia-
health communication log, and persuasive. It is also something of a
, balancing act, in which the uniqueness of the
- individuals is confirmed, each persuades the
, or even (-- others of the validity of his point of view,
).
8 Katriel, Tamar and Philipsen, Gerry, What We
Health communication and health
promotion are sometimes used as synonyms Need is Communication: Communication as a
in English, but, as defined by the World Cultural Category in Some American Speech. In
Cultural Communication and Intercultural Contact,
Health Organization, health promotion ed. Donal Carbaugh (Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence
involves a broader range of activities, includ- Erlbaum Associates, Publishers, 1990), p 91.

33

and yet the needs of the individuals and US can include not only promoting a person,
. group are integrated. event, or institution, but simply providing
The researchers Tamar Katriel and Gerry information to the public. The public rela-
Philipsen have noted that talk shows like tions director of a city museum may answer
The Oprah Winfrey Show or The Phil questions about exhibits, or send out a press
Donahue Show, where guests communi- release on a public talk. This is closer to the
cate openly about any kind of intimate old Russian term -
problem, from addictions to sexual dysfunc- than , which I think is currently
tion to criminal acts, has made this kind of understood by non-specialists in Russia as
communication something of a national reli- promotion, and is often imbued with neg-
gion, or a national panacea, that cures all ative connotations. (Ive noticed that the
that ails Americans spiritually, psychological- phrase is found less frequently
ly and emotionally. Turning inward and now than, say, five years ago; today it would
brooding over a problem, they note, is not seem that most is largely perceived as
considered a step towards its solution.9 .) The Public Relations Association in
This is, in many ways, similar to the Russia and other groups are trying to
Russian phrases and speech acts of - reclaim the meaning of public relations,
(talking about our relation- but, given the practices of many PR compa-
ship, solving problems in our relationship) nies and specialists, it is an uphill battle
and (a heart-to-heart ( ).
talk). However, there seems to be an impor- The Russian Communications Association
tant difference: Americans regard this kind of (called misleadingly to my ear -
communication as a skill or work: we ) has
need to work on our relationship, we need plans to develop of glossary of terms that
to work on communication in our marriage, would standardize the lexicon. This is a good
I need to work on my communication idea in principle, but will need to be done
skills. While or - carefully so that American or other Western
may be difficult, emotional- definitions are not imposed on terms that
ly trying or draining, these speech acts dont already have different meanings in Russian.
seem to be perceived as requiring skills. However, a glossary that everyone agrees to
Rather they are often spontaneous and rela- use may clear up some of the ambiguities
tively effortless. However, the results one now finds in Russian texts. Recently I
enhanced intimacy, resolution of a problem, found the phrases -
emotional validation of the speakers appear and and could
to be similar. not determine from the contexts if they were
translation variants of health communica-
Clarity of translation and definition tion or meant something else entirely.
The task of this paper was to clarify some Until there is uniform terminology in
aspects of the word communications that Russian, communication is a difficult
Russian translators might encounter in process. It is a rich irony indeed that these
American texts. However, the Russian field fields should be plagued with such break-
of communications is itself developing rapid- downs in communication.
ly, and the questions of naming, defin-
ing and translating are becoming critical.
As the Russian fields of communication
develop, Russian terms borrowed from the
English have come to have distinct and sep-
10 Tolstikova-Mast, Yulia, and Keyton, Joann,
arate meanings, sometimes varying among
Communicating About Communication: Fostering
separate fields, such as sociology and adver- the Development of the Communication Discipline in
tising.10 For example, public relations in the Russia, Russian Communications Association,
http://www.russcomm.ru/eng/rca_biblio/t/tolstikova-
9 Ibid, p 87. mast01_eng.shtml

34


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35

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36

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37



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38
The Guardian The survey was conducted by 3. radioukacz [Polish for a
June 14, 2004 Today Translations, a London- person who worked as a
based translation and inter- telegraphist for the resistance
THE MOST UNTRANSLAT- preting agency, which asked a
ABLE WORDS IN THE WORLD movements on the Soviet side
thousand of its linguists across of the Iron Curtain]
IN WORLDWIDE POLL OF
the world to nominate the
PROFESSIONAL 4. naa [Japanese word only
TRANSLATORS words that they found hardest
used in the Kansai area of
to translate.
Googly, spam and gobblede- Japan, to emphasise state-
Other foreign words to make
gook have been voted among ments or agree with someone]
the top 10 included naa, a
the most untranslatable words Japanese word used only in the 5. altahmam [Arabic for a
in the English language, in a Kansai area of Japan to empha- kind of deep sadness]
worldwide poll of a thousand sise statements or agree with 6. gezellig [Dutch for cosy]
professional translators and someone, and pochemuchka, 7. saudade [Portuguese for a
interpreters. the Russian word for a person certain type of longing]
But the most untranslatable who asks a lot of questions.
word in any language, reckon 8. selathirupavar [Tamil for a
Today Translations uses a
the translators, is ilunga, a certain type of truancy]
worldwide network of over
word in the Bantu language of 1,500 professional linguists to 9. pochemuchka [Russian for
Tshiluba for a person who is provide translation and inter- a person who asks a lot of
ready to forgive any abuse for preting services. After asking questions]
the first time; to tolerate it a a thousand of this network to 10. klloshar [Albanian for
second time; but never a third nominate words that were loser]
time. And I suppose we all problematic to translate, it
know that kind of person. then asked 50 of them to vote
It narrowly outpointed shli- for just one of the top con- THE TEN ENGLISH WORDS
mazl, a Yiddish word for a tenders. THAT WERE VOTED
chronically unlucky person and Linguists taking part in the HARDEST TO TRANSLATE
radioukacz, a Polish word for a poll were native speakers of 1. plenipotentiary
person who worked as a languages ranging from English 2. gobbledegook
telegraphist for the resistance and French to Turkish, 3. serendipity
movements on the Soviet side Ukranian, Chinese, Dari, Farsi, 4. poppycock
of the Iron Curtain. And both Amharic, Pushto, Somali, Tamil 5. googly
finished well ahead of klloshar, and many others. 6. spam
the Albanian word for loser,
which, perhaps fittingly, came THE RESULTS IN FULL 7. whimy
in last place. THE TEN FOREIGN WORDS 8. bumf
The most untranslatable word THAT WERE VOTED HARD- 9. chuffed
in the English language was EST TO TRANSLATE 10. kitsch
reckoned to be plenipotentiary, 1. ilunga [Tshiluba word for a
which even many native English- person who is ready to forgive
speakers may not know means a any abuse for the first time; to
special ambassador or envoy, tolerate it a second time; but
invested with full powers. never a third time. Note:
Whimsy, bumf and serendip- Tshiluba is a Bantu language
ity (the faculty of making happy spoken in south-eastern
and unexpected discoveries by Congo, and Zaire]
accident) were other words 2. shlimazl [Yiddish for a
among the top ten. chronically unlucky person]

39

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40

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41



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42

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43

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Tricks of the Trade:


Tips for Finding a Translator1
by N. Shahova2

How much does one letter of the alpha- be. Americans entering the Russian market
bet cost? As much as $10,000, a Russian must be attuned to problems associated with
forest products executive learned to his cha- the language barrier.
grin. He lost twice that sum as a result of a
translators error in the contract for a deliv- When Do You Need a Translator?
ery of wood chips to an overseas customer. Operating on the Russian market,
Because the translator ignored the letters American companies have various transla-
BD in the abbreviation BDMT (bone-dry tion needs. Among the types of documents
metric tons), the supplier delivered several they work with are letters, product manuals,
tons of wet wood chips, and the money he advertising materials, contracts, and market
received for the reduced tonnage after surveys. Some of these need to be translated
the chips were dried out didnt even from English into Russian and some from
cover his shipping costs. Russian into English. And while letters are
That is just one example of how costly just working tools and dont have to be per-
miscommunication with foreign partners can fect, translations of contracts must be very
1 accurate, while ads need to be translated
BISNIS Bulletin, June 2002
2 , - with some flair. These differences determine
- which translator is needed for a given job.
: Shakhova (. There are several options. Most working
.. documents (letters, reports) can be written in
. ., ., 2001).

47

..
either English or Russian whichever you It is often assumed that Russia-based
require by Russian employees who know translators are cheaper than others, but
English. However, to create documents that nowadays that is true only to a certain extent.
are accurate and consistent in two languages The cost of translation services in the Russian
(such as contracts), or to translate texts that market varies more widely than in the United
have to sound absolutely native (such as ads), States. Its true that, especially outside
you need the help of professional translators. Moscow, you can find translators who charge
And, as the example of the wet wood chips five or even 10 times less than Americans, but
shows, the ones you hire must also be famil- most of them with rare exceptions are
iar with your type of business in order to han- either novices (are you ready to take a risk?)
dle standard terms and abbreviations. So, rule or produce poor quality of work. The recent
number one for translation jobs: Hire a pro- wide and rapid spread of the Internet in
fessional translator, preferably one who special- Russia has given Russian translators access to
izes in your area. the international market, so highly qualified
Contrary to a common belief that any professionals usually can offer their services
translator can translate in either direction worldwide and thus price them at standard
between two languages, most translators are international rates. Rule number three: If you
good only at translating into their native lan- pay peanuts, you get monkeys.
guage. Thats why rule number two reads: Hire Having established these criteria, the
Americans to translate into English and Russians next question is where to find reliable, qual-
to translate into Russian. Russian companies ified translators. The short answer is through
often break this rule and engage Russians to reliable organizations like the American
translate into English. You can see the results Translators Association, or from friends and
on many Russian websites, where, for exam- acquaintances with experience. There are
ple, visitors are urged, Right us please! You also two other approaches that may be help-
wouldnt want to risk ending up with an equiv- ful, though time-consuming. First, you can
alent Russian mistake in your ad. use Internet search engines to collect infor-
mation about freelancers and/or agencies,
and then contact the ones you select.
Finding a Translator Secondly, you can publish an ad either
Choosing among Russians, you have two online or in print inviting translators to
options: Russian expats living in the United send you short samples of their work in the
States or Russia-based translators. The former relevant area (usually one or two pages of an
usually have a better knowledge of English original, with its translation, will suffice).
and of the American environment, so they However, these methods take a lot of time
can better understand the nuances of your and effort. Whichever method you choose,
English original. The latter, however, are keep in mind that you need a person who
more fluent in contemporary Russian. They combines a good knowledge of both English
can produce more idiomatic translations, as and Russian with extensive experience in
well as help with another dimension of a your area of business.
translated text localization. Will your All this legwork will give you a generous
advertisement say what you intend it to say in payback. First of all, the Russian Consumer
the social and cultural setting of your audi- Rights Law requires that any product sold in
ence? For instance, a local Russian translator the country come with instructions in
would surely have warned a Swiss sewing- Russian. And the need for Russian docu-
machine manufacturer against prmoting its mentation is especially great, because
product in Moscow with the slogan it used at knowledge of foreign languages in general,
home: Dependable as a bank! In Switzerland, and English in particular, is not widespread
the comparison would evoke that countrys in Russia. Thats why comprehensive and
famously rock-solid financial institutions, but well-worded Russian announcements,
it sounds a bit dubious to Russian citizens descriptions, and manuals will give you a
after the 1998 financial crisis. significant competitive advantage in the
Russian market.

48

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49


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53

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56

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. Rock, and Contained Fluids. ,
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Soils; D2434-68(2000) Standard Test Method coefficient of permeability. -
for Permeability of Granular Soils (Constant coefficient of perme-
Head); D4318-00 Standard Test Methods for ability -
Liquid Limit, Plastic Limit, and Plasticity ,
Index of Soils. :
, [1, 2, 3, 4],
- [2, 3], -
, 30. [4, 6], -
- [6]. ,

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ASTM - , -
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1-En. D422-63 (1998) 1-Ru. 12536-79 , -
Standard Test Method for . - coefficient of per-
Particle-Size Analysis of - meability.
Soils (- :
)
8. Calculation
2-En. D2434-68 (2000) 2.1-Ru. 23278-78 8.1 Calculate the coefficient of permeability, k, as
Standard Test Method for . follows:
Permeability of Granular k = QL/Ath,
Soils (Constant Head) 2.2-Ru. 25584-90 where:
. - k = coefficient of permeability,
- Q = quantity of water discharged,
L = distance between manometers,
3-En. D4318-00 3-Ru. 5180-84 A = cross-sectional area of specimen,
Standard Test Methods . - t = total time of discharge,
for Liquid Limit, Plastic - h = difference in head on manometers.
Limit, and Plasticity
Index of Soils

65


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: /, /, / : 1)
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D2434-68.
- activity number (A) the w
- ratio of (1) the plasticity
index of a soil to (2) the
D2434-68 percent by mass of parti- , -
25584-90. cles having an equivalent
, - diameter smaller than 2 m. ( 5180-84)
: (D4318)
- Atterberg Limits
() Originally, six "limits of wg -
consistency" of fine- -
1-En. D422-63 (1998) 1-Ru. 12536-79 grained soils were defined , . .
Standard Test Method for . - by Albert Atterberg: the
Particle-Size Analysis of upper limit of viscous flow, -
Soils (- the liquid limit, the sticky -
) - limit, the cohesion limit, the ( 5180-84)
plastic limit, and the
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Standard Test Method for . - term usually refers only to
Permeability of Granular - the liquid limit, plastic limit,
Soils (Constant Head) and in some references, the
shrinkage limit. (D4318)
3-En. D4318-00 3-Ru. 5180-84 consistency the relative wL
Standard Test Methods . - ease with which a soil can , -
for Liquid Limit, Plastic - be deformed. (D4318)
Limit, and Plasticity -
Index of Soils (
5180-84)

66

plastic limit

..
liquid limit (LL, wL ) [1, 6],
the water content, in per- () wp [2, 3, 4, 6],
cent, of a soil at the arbi- , -
[3].
trarily defined boundary
between the semi-liquid -
( , -
and plastic states. (D4318)
5180-84) , -
liquidity index the - ,
ratio, expressed as a per- -
centage of (1) the water , , ,
content of a soil minus its , , .
plastic limit, to (2) its plas- -
ticity index. (D4318) 2
,
plastic limit (PL, wp)
the water content, in per- : , -
cent, of a soil at the bound- ( 5180-84) -
ary between the plastic and -
semi-solid states. (D4318)
.
plastic soil a soil which -
has a range of water con- d liquid limit plastic limit.
tent over which it exhibits
plasticity and which will ? , , -
retain its shape on drying. ,
(D4318) ( 5180-84)
, .., ,
plasticity index (PI) . -
the range of water content s -
over which a soil behaves ()
plastically. Numerically, it (
is the difference between 5180-84)
: liquid
the liquid limit and the plas-
tic limit. (D4318) limit/ plastic limit/-
().
-
, - ( -
, ,
( - ): liquid limit the
- water content, in percent, of a soil at the arbi-
wL wp) - trarily defined boundary between the semi-liq-
liquid limit (LL, wL)/ uid and plastic states plastic limit the
wL plastic limit (PL, wp)/ - water content, in percent, of a soil at the
() wp. boundary between the plastic and semi-solid
, , states. percent, soil, boundary,
. - state plastic state -
, -
( , - .
): , , ,
liquid limit [1, 2, 4, 5], - water
() content -
[1], [3], .
[6]; :
2 [2, 3], [2, 3], -
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: [5], [6].
1.1.
, -
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- , ,

.

67

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: water content/ . .

semi-liquid state semi-solid state. -
-
. - , .
, ..
( - -
, thread, mass,
) - crumble, roll dis-
. turbed, undisturbed. : break the
- thread into several pieces; roll the mass into a
. thread of uniform diameter throughout its
length; roll into a 3.2-mm (1/8 -in.) diameter
thread; until its water content is reduced to a
point at which the thread crumbles and can no
. plasticity index longer be pressed together and rerolled; undis-
the range of water content turbed sample ..
over which a soil behaves plastically. (thread, mass,
. crumble, roll) -
, .
Numerically, it is the difference between the ,
liquid limit and the plastic limit. .
, (, )
6 . -
- ,
I, , - [7]:
: I = wL wp. thread 10 , -
, ,
(wL) .
(wp)! , mass 15 , -
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plasticity index crumble 10 ,
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index :
roll 40 , -
[1], - , , -
[3], [3, 5], - , .
() [4],
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: thread

68

..
; mass ; crumble
; roll - . ,
, , rolling - , ,
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, : roll into a . ,
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... - , -
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disturbed , -
undisturbed, . -
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disturbed soil undisturbed soil: -
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[5]; , ,
undisturbed soil
[1], - , -
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[6]. - ( -
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-
. - 1. - -
, . .. -

.., , 1967.
. 2. - ,
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- , 1966.
, - 3. -
- 2- , -
, , ..
- .., , 1997.
. [ 4. - , -
ASTM .., .., ..,
, 1995.
, -
5. - , -
: This standard .., - -
( This test method) is under the jurisdiction , 1956.
of ASTM Committee D18 on Soil and Rock]. 6. -
, . ..,
, 1977.
- 7. - 3-
. - , -
, .. .., ,
1993.

69


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70

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74

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the VAZ Auto Works in Togliatti: it took
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would become still more of a problem was Naberezhnye Chelny into a modern city
quite predictable. with a developed infrastructure and a popu-
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bound to disagree radically on this score. diversity of its subject matter.
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or so SPS and "Yabloko" MPs, the five inde- -
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77


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. ( 1, 2004)

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(email: ndoupl@yahoo.com)

86

- 40- .


. (-) ( ) . .. -
. (American Translators Association).
, ( ) ().
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Words Worth Moscow Times.
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.. , .. . An American Patchwork. . -
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./ 7(095) 917 41 53
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