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Standard operating procedure (SOP)

A standard operating procedure, or SOP, is a set of step-by-step instructions


compiled by an organization to help workers carry out routine operations. SOPs aim
to achieve efficiency, quality output and uniformity of performance, while reducing
miscommunication and failure to comply with industry regulations.

What do you mean about SOP?


Standard operating procedures (SOPs) are the documented processes that
accompany have in place to ensure services and/or products are delivered
consistently every time. When a company is growing, it is often highly dependent on
the owner for all major decisions.

What is the purpose of a standard operating


procedure?
"A Standard Operating Procedure is a document which describes the regularly
recurring operations relevant to the quality of the investigation. The purpose of
aSOP is to carry out the operations correctly and always in the same manner. ...
ASOP is a compulsory instruction.

Procedures Are About Business Processes. ... An SOP or Standard Operating


Procedure is used to ensure business processes are well thought through, that each
task in a process is performed the same way every time, and important data is
recorded, along with errors or deviations so corrective action can be taken.
Specification of Materials
CABLE TYPES AND SPECIFICATIONS

For Wires and Cables :

SEMI-RIGID CABLES

SEMI-RIGID COAXIAL CABLE HAS A SOLID OUTER CONDUCTOR AND IS


MANUFACTURED BY DRAWING SEAMLESS TUBING OVER THE INSULATING MATERIAL AND
CENTER CONDUCTOR. IT IS ELECTRICALLY SUPERIOR TO FLEXIBLE CABLE WITH 100%
SHIELDING EFFECTIVENESS (FIGURE 9); GENERALLY LOWER LOSS, EXTENDED FREQUENCY
RANGE, AND UNIFORM IMPEDANCE. TYPICAL OUTER CONDUCTORS ARE ALUMINUM OR
COPPER, EITHER OF WHICH MAY BE TIN-PLATED. THE CENTER CONDUCTOR IS USUALLY
SOLID SILVER PLACED COPPER, WHICH HAS THE ADVANTAGE OF BEING NON-MAGNETIC WITH
LOSS. SILVER PLATED, COPPER CLAD STEEL CENTER CONDUCTOR IS ALSO AVAILABLE.

FLEXIBLE CABLES

A TYPICAL FLEXIBLE COAXIAL CABLE HAS AN OUTER CONDUCTOR MADE OF FINE


SILVER-PLATED COPPER WIRES BRAIDED OVER THE INSULATION MATERIAL. OTHER OUTER
CONDUCTORS USE WIDE SILVER-PLATED COPPER STRIPS BRAIDED IN A BASKET WEAVE
CONFIGURATION, OR HUNDRED OF SILVER-PLATED COPPER WIRES RUNNING PARALLEL TO
ONE ANOTHER IN A LONG SPIRAL. STRANDED, FLEXIBLE CENTER CONDUCTORS ARE
COMMON IN FLEXIBLE CABLE. COAXIAL CABLES WITH STRANDED CENTER CONDUCTOR AND
BRAIDED OUTER CONDUCTORS ARE INTENDED FOR USE IN APPLICATIONS WHERE THE CABLE
MUST FLEX REPEATEDLY WHILE IN SERVICE, BUT WILL EXHIBIT HIGHER ATTENUATION AS
COMPARED TO CABLES WITH SOLID CENTER CONDUCTORS.

CONFORMABLE CABLES

CONFORMABLE CABLE IS AN ALTERNATIVE TO SEMI-RIGID OR FLEXIBLE CABLE.


THESE CABLES HAVE A CENTER CONDUCTOR OF VARIOUS TYPES OF METALLIC
BRAID. STANDARD SEMI-RIGID CONNECTORS CAN BE USED WITH CONFORMABLE
CABLE, AND IT WILL RETAIN ITS SHAPE ONCE BENT. PERFORMANCE IS GENERALLY
BETWEEN SEMI-RIGID AND FLEXIBLE CABLES
FOR ELECTRICAL TAPE:
ELECTRICAL INSULATING TAPE

WITH THE RIGHT BALANCE OF ELECTRICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES


AND EXCELLENT HANDLING CHARACTERISTICS 3M ELECTRICAL INSULATING TAPES
HELP IMPROVE EFFICIENCY AND REDUCE WASTE. MANY OF THESE 3M TAPES ARE UL
LISTED OR UL RECOGNIZED AND MAY MEET SPECIFICATIONS OF OTHER CERTIFICATION
AGENCIES

Conducting Tapes
When the job calls for reliable point-to-point electrical contact, such as grounding,
static charge draining or EMI/RFI shielding, 3M EMI Conducting and Shielding Tapes
deliver. These 3M Conducting and Shielding Tapes tapes are easily die-cut and readily
available for use in electrical design and test laboratories for prototyping, design and
troubleshooting.

Available in copper, aluminum, embossed, and tin-plated materials and with two (2) adhesive
systems: solvent-resistant acrylic and conductive acrylic.

FOR RESISTOR
Performance specifications to consider when searching for resistors include resistance
range, tolerance, power rating, and temperature coefficient. Resistance (R) is the
main specification for resistorelements which indicates the single resistance value or range of
resistance which the element provides.

FOR CAPACITOR
One is the electrolyte operation in components such as electrolytic capacitors. Leakage
current: The leakage current specification indicates the amount of current that flows through
the capacitor. ... ESR: The Equivalent Series Resistance or ESR, is an
importantspecification in many instances..

FOR DIODE
It is found that for a real PN junction diode, a very small amount of current flow in the
reverse direction as a result of the minority carriers in the semiconductor. ... The leakage
current characteristic or specification for a PN junction diode is specified at a certain reverse
voltage and particular temperature.

FOR TRANSISTOR
Transistors are more complicated devices than resistors, capacitors, inductors, and diodes. Whereas
those electronic components have just a few specifications to wrangle with, such as ohms of resistance
and maximum watts of power dissipation,transistors have a bevy of specifications.