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The Instructors Guide for the third edition of Human Resources Management in
Public and Nonprofit Organizations includes several model syllabi for courses of
differing lengths, as well as additional class references. The Instructors Guide
is available free online. If you would like to download and print out a copy
of the Guide, please visit:
www.wiley.com/college/pynes

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EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES FOR NONPROFIT AND PUBLIC
MANAGEMENT

Bryson, Strategic Planning for Public and Nonprofit Organizations, 3e


Cohen, The Effective Public Manager, 4e
Condrey, Handbook of Human Resources Management in Government, 2e
Cooper, The Responsible Administrator, 5e
Dove, Conducting a Successful Capital Campaign, Revised and Expanded
Feinglass, The Public Relations Handbook for Nonprofits
Gastil and Levine, The Deliberative Democracy Handbook
Herman, The Jossey-Bass Handbook of Nonprofit Leadership and Management, 2e
Keehley and Abercrombie, Benchmarking in the Public and Nonprofit Sectors, 2e
Kotler et al., Museum Marketing and Strategy, 2e
Lewis, The Ethics Challenge in Public Service, 2e
Linden, Working Across Boundaries
Oster, Generating and Sustaining Nonprofit Earned Income
Pawlak, Designing and Planning Programs for Nonprofit and Government Organizations
Poister, Measuring Performance in Public and Nonprofit Organizations
Rea and Parker, Designing and Conducting Survey Research, 3e
Rainey, Understanding and Managing Public Organizations, 3e
Snow and Phillips, Making Critical Decisions
Tempel, Hank Rossos Achieving Excellence in Fundraising, 2e
Wholey et al., Handbook of Practical Program Evaluation, 2e

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Y

HUMAN RESOURCES
MANAGEMENT
FOR PUBLIC AND
NONPROFIT
ORGANIZATIONS

A STRATEGIC APPROACH
THIRD EDITION

Joan E. Pynes

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Copyright 2009 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Published by Jossey-Bass
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Pynes, Joan.
Human resources management for public and nonprofit organizations : a strategic approach /
Joan E. Pynes.3rd ed.
p. cm.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-0-470-33185-9 (cloth/website)
1. Nonprofit organizationsUnited StatesPersonnel management. 2. Public
administrationUnited StatesPersonnel management. I. Title.
HF5549.2.U5P96 2009
658.3dc22
2008032854

Printed in the United States of America


THIRD EDITION
HB Printing 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

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CONTENTS

Figures, Tables, and Exhibits xi


Exercises xiii
Preface xv
Acknowledgments xxiii
The Author xxiv

PART ONE: HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT IN CONTEXT 1

1 Introduction to Human Resources Management


in the Public and Nonprofit Sectors 3
The Public Sector 5
The Nonprofit Sector 11
The New Public Service 22
Todays Context for Human Resources Management 23
Conclusion 27

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vi Contents

2 Strategic Human Resources Management and Planning 31


The Changing Role of Human Resources Management 33
Human Resources Outsourcing 36
Strategic Human Resources Management 38
Human Resources Planning 39
Evaluating the Effectiveness of Strategic Human Resources Management 46
Problems and Implications of Strategic Human Resources Management 47
Conclusion 49

3 The Legal Environment of Human Resources Management 55


Federal Equal Employment Opportunity Laws 56
Proving Employment Discrimination 66
Affirmative Action: Executive Orders and Other Federal Laws 68
Affirmative Action 71
Constitutional Rights 73
Additional Protections for Employees 78
Conclusion 80

4 Managing a Diverse Workforce 88


Glass Ceilings 91
Why Diversity Is Important 92
Sexual Harassment 96
Employer Liability 99
Sexual Orientation 99
What Does It Mean to Be Transgendered? 101
Changes in the Nonprofit Landscape 102
The Difference Between Compliance with Laws and Managing Diversity 105
Strategic Human Resources Management Implications
for Managing Diversity 107
Conclusion 110

5 Volunteers in the Public and Nonprofit Sectors 115


Use of Volunteers 117
Volunteer Motivation 119

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Contents vii

Barriers to Volunteer Recruitment 120


Recruitment 120
The Prerecruitment Process 122
Managing Volunteers 126
Orientation and Training 128
Volunteer Recognition 129
Evaluation 130
Volunteer Protection Act 131
Service Initiatives 131
Governing Boards 132
Conclusion 139

PART TWO: METHODS AND FUNCTIONS OF


HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT 145

6 Job Analysis 149


Legal Significance of Job Analysis Data 151
Job Analysis Information and Methods 153
Designing a Job Analysis Program 158
Strategic Job Analysis 164
Competency Modeling 166
Job Analysis Techniques 171
Contextual Performance 174
Conclusion 175

7 Recruitment and Selection in the Public and


Nonprofit Sectors 180
Recruitment 181
Screening Applicants 189
Executive and Managerial Recruitment and Selection 207
Conclusion 209

8 Performance Management 215


Motivation 218

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viii Contents

Developing an Evaluation Program 223


Rater Training 224
Who Should Rate? 227
Executive Evaluation 228
Documentation 231
Evaluation Review 232
Ethical Issues in Performance Appraisal 233
Performance Appraisal Techniques 234
Team-Based Performance Techniques 241
Employee and Management Motivations: Public and
Nonprofit Organizations Versus For-Profit Organizations 245
Conclusion 246

9 Compensation 251
Equity 252
Executive Compensation and Benefits 269
Federal Laws Governing Compensation 271
State and Local Government Minimum Wages 274
Living Wages 274
Comparable Worth 276
Conclusion 280

10 Benefits 284
Required Benefits 285
Discretionary Benefits 289
Quality-of-Work and Quality-of-Life Issues 297
Conclusion 303

11 Training and Development 308


The Training Process 311
Career Development 325
Managerial and Executive Development 327
Conclusion 334

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Contents ix

12 Labor-Management Relations: Collective Bargaining


in the Public and Nonprofit Sectors 339
The History of Private Sector Collective Bargaining 340
Collective Bargaining in Nonprofit Organizations 343
Collective Bargaining in the Federal Government 344
Collective Bargaining in State and Local Governments 346
Concepts and Practices of Collective Bargaining 346
Public Sector Distinctions 358
Nonprofit Sector Distinctions 362
Privatization of Public Services 366
Conclusion 367

13 Strategic Human Resource Management and Technology 373


Information Systems Technology 375
Organizational Change 376
Types of Information Systems 378
Information Systems Design 380
Information Technology Resource Policies 381
Human Resource Information Systems 383
Electronic Human Resources Management 388
Strategic Human Resources Management 389
Conclusion 390

14 Conclusion: Challenges for Public and


Nonprofit Organizations 395
What to Expect 395
Challenges of Strategic Human Resources Management 398
Change in Skill Requirements 399
Conclusion 400

References 401
Name Index 431
Subject Index 437

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FIGURES, TABLES, AND EXHIBITS

Figures

4.1 Change Model for Work on Diversity 109


13.1 Uses of Human Resources Information Systems 384

Tables

1.1 IRS Organization Reference Chart 12


1.2 Number of Nonprofit Organizations in the United States, 19962006 17
1.3 National Taxonomy of Exempt Entities: Broad Categories 19
5.1 Grid for Matching Incumbent and Potential Board Members 136
6.1 Department of Labor Worker Functions 172
9.1 General Schedule Pay Scale: Annual Rates by Grade and Step 259
9.2 City-County Library District Salary and Wage Schedule 260
9.3 Comparable Municipal Market Study for Select Local
Government Positions 263

xi

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xii Figures, Tables, and Exhibits

Exhibits

5.1 Information Sheet on Prospective Appointee for Citizen


Board or Commission 125
6.1 Job Analysis Questionnaire 154
6.2 Structured Task Questionnaire 156
6.3 Example Job Descriptions 160
6.4 Competencies of Canadian Public Managers 167
6.5 American Cancer Society Competencies 169
7.1 Resources for Job Seekers 186
8.1 Common Rating Errors 225
8.2 Trait Rating Scale 236
8.3 Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale 238
8.4 Management by Objectives Rating Scale 239
8.5 Sample Critical Incidents Report 240
8.6 Questions to Consider When Developing a
Performance Evaluation System 244
9.1 Typical Compensable Factors 256
11.1 Montgomery County, Maryland, Leadership Competencies 328
11.2 Leadership Competencies Expected of
Senior Executive Service Executives 330
12.1 National Labor Relations Board Jurisdictional Standards in
Effect as of July 1990 342

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EXERCISES

1.1 Art Museums Are Looking for Leaders 29


2.1 Nature Conservancys Leader Abruptly Steps Down 52
2.2 Travis County, Texas, Facing a Brain Drain 53
3.1 A Muslim Womans Right to Wear a Head Scarf at Work 84
3.2 State and Local Laws on Human Resources Management 85
4.1 Susan-Steve Stanton 112
4.2 Tattoos and Piercing: Are They Acceptable in Public Safety
Positions? 113
5.1 Voluntourism 141
5.2 Screening for Terrorists 142
6.1 General Manager and Chief Executive of the Walter E. Washington
Convention Center Resigns 177
6.2 Caseworkers Often Face Tremendous Difficulties 178
7.1 Recruiting Medical Personnel in Southwest Florida 211
7.2 Boomerang Database Used to Recruit Retirees Back to
the Labor Force 213
8.1 The HR Director Resigns Immediately 248
8.2 Why Executive Directors Get Fired 249
9.1 Compensation and Retirement Benefits from the United Way
of Metropolitan Atlanta 281

xiii

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xiv Exercises

9.2 Are There Too Few Troopers for Safety? 282


10.1 Supporting Adoption in Carmel, Indiana 304
10.2 Depression Reported by 7 Percent of the Workforce 305
11.1 Improving Leadership Prospects for Women at Jewish Charities 336
11.2 Training First Responders in Water Rescue 337
12.1 No Union-Related E-Mail 370
12.2 Teachers at New York City Catholic Schools Strike 371
13.1 No-E-Mail Fridays 392
13.2 Tracking Workers Through Technology 393

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