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Well Test Reservoir Boundaries

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The reservoir behaves as if it were infinite before pressure disturbance as a result of rate change

encountered. In general, the Niger Delta is a highly-faulted basin with single sealing faults,

parallel faults and intersecting faults being commonly seen in most reservoirs.

For a well located some distance L from a single sealing fault, after the wellbore storage stage,

the reservoir behaves as an infinite system with the infinite radial acting flow regime identified.

Bourdet pointed out that once the pressure transient reaches the sealing fault, the infinite acting

Horner in 1951 demonstrated that a plot of bottom hole pressure, against Horner time,

tp+ t

on a semi-log graph as shown in Figure x gives a straight line with a slope of m

t

during the infinite acting radial flow regime and a second straight-line with a slope of 2m during

the hemi-radial flow regime when the effect of the fault is felt. Earlougher further pointed out

that the doubling of the slope is a strict theoretical requirement and not an approximation.

The distance from the well to the fault is estimated from the intersection time ( ) of the two

slopes as shown in equation x1 or from the radius of investigation equation (x2) with time ( )

taken as the period where the initial straight-line with slope m begins to deviate.

On the derivative plot which is a representation of log on

same plot, Bourdet demonstrated that using dimensionless variables, the presence of a single

no-flow boundary or a sealing fault is observed by the doubling of the stabilization slope from

a value of 0.5 (radial acting infinite flow) to 1 (hemi-radial flow). Deruyck et al, 1992, pointed

out that for a leaky fault, after the IARF region, the derivative curve starts to rise as in the case

of a single sealing fault but then drops back to its IARF stabilization value. The time when the

derivative plot deviates from first stabilization is applied to equation x above to estimate the

= 0.012 -----------------------------------------------------------Equation x.x1

= 0.032 ----------------------------------------------------------Equation x.x2

The permeability, k is estimated from the slope, m of the initial straight line on the semi-log

plot as shown in equation xx.xx

162.6q

k= equation xx.xx

mh

1 ( )

= 1.15 ( + log log 2 + 3.32)----------------------------- equation xx.xx

For this study, all build-ups were preceded by a multi-rate test and the Horner time is replaced

() = 1

=1

1

([1

=1 ] )--------------------------- equation xx.xx

1

Plotting of pressure against superposition time is the general semi-log plot shown in Figure x

for well OG-2. Permeability is estimated the same way as demonstrated in single rate flow

= 1.151 { ( 2 ) =1 [ 1 (+1 )] + 3.23 }-equation x.x

3590

3585

3580

3575

3570

3565

-3.4 -3.2 -3 -2.8 -2.6 -2.4 -2.2 -2 -1.8 -1.6 -1.4 -1.2 -1 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2

and skin can also be estimated from the type curve and its derivative if the stabilization period

Reservoir KH

The formation permeability is calculated using corresponding to the horizontal

141.2

= x 0.5

0.5

= 141.2

Wellbore Storage

The wellbore storage, C is computed from the coordinates of any point on the unit slope

1

= 24 1

Skin

from the coordinates of any point on the unit slope straight line as represented as 1 on by

= 1.151 ( )

2.303 2

+ 3.23

1+

Channels represent parallel no-flow boundaries such as a sedimentary deposit or two parallel

sealing faults define by its width, l and the distance, d from the well to one of its edges. MillerX

pointed out that after the wellbore storage phase, prior to the pressure transient reaching the

channel boundary, flow is radial; however, when the pressure transient reaches the channel

Application of the image well method by Tiab and Kumar generated a response for a well

between two parallel faults with the derivative plot showing a late time straight-line with a

negative slope of 0.5. Three distinct straight-line portions also help identify the presence of two

faults from which the distance to each fault and the kh product can be determined.

As outline by Bourdarot, for well between parallel faults, the following flow regimes are

Infinite acting radial flow prior to the pressure transient reaching any of the fault

boundary. represented as a straight line on the semi-log plot and a horizontal line at the

When the pressure transient reaches first boundary, the response is same as that of

single no-flow boundary explained above. The slope of semi-log straight line doubles

while the stabilization on derivative plot moves from 0.5 to 1 before moving to the

If the well is equidistance from both edge of the channel, the pressure transient reaches

the edges simultaneously and the derivative plot transition from the horizontal radial

Bourdarot pointed out that the width of the channel and the eccentricity of the well within the

channel can be estimated by plotting the pressure drop versus the square root of time on a semi

log plot to obtain a straight line representing linear flow. The width of the channel, l is

8.13

=

equation xx.xx

and the distance of the well to the edge of the channel is estimated from equation xx below

= .equation xx.xx

1

= (2 ())..

0

= 1.151 .

Other parameters such as permeability, skin, wellbore storage are estimated as demostrated

Intersecting Faults

The pressure derivative behavior for intersecting sealing faults was demostrated by Van Pool

in 1965 using the image well method. Van Pool image well method for intersecting sealing

faults was however limited to certain congigurations which include angle of intersection = /

(or 2/ for well located on the bisector), where n is an integer. Two perpendicular

Prassad in 1975 however presented a general solution for all angles in 1975 using Green's

For a well located equidistance from both intersecting faults, the transition is as follows

For a well located closer to one fault than the other, the transition is as follows

The angle of intersection is estimated from the ratio of the slopes between the 2 semi-log plots

1

= 2

2

And the distance from well to closest fault can be estimated by radius of investigation

Other parameters such as permeability, skin, wellbore storage are estimated as demostrated

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