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Reservoir Fault Boundaries

The reservoir behaves as if it were infinite before pressure disturbance as a result of rate change

reaches a boundary. Pressure variation at the wellbore changes immediately a boundary is

encountered. In general, the Niger Delta is a highly-faulted basin with single sealing faults,

parallel faults and intersecting faults being commonly seen in most reservoirs.

Single Sealing Fault

For a well located some distance L from a single sealing fault, after the wellbore storage stage,

the reservoir behaves as an infinite system with the infinite radial acting flow regime identified.

Bourdet pointed out that once the pressure transient reaches the sealing fault, the infinite acting

radial flow regime transition into hemi-radial flow regime.

Horner in 1951 demonstrated that a plot of bottom hole pressure, against Horner time,

tp+ t
on a semi-log graph as shown in Figure x gives a straight line with a slope of m
t

during the infinite acting radial flow regime and a second straight-line with a slope of 2m during

the hemi-radial flow regime when the effect of the fault is felt. Earlougher further pointed out

that the doubling of the slope is a strict theoretical requirement and not an approximation.

The distance from the well to the fault is estimated from the intersection time ( ) of the two

slopes as shown in equation x1 or from the radius of investigation equation (x2) with time ( )

taken as the period where the initial straight-line with slope m begins to deviate.


On the derivative plot which is a representation of log on

same plot, Bourdet demonstrated that using dimensionless variables, the presence of a single

no-flow boundary or a sealing fault is observed by the doubling of the stabilization slope from

a value of 0.5 (radial acting infinite flow) to 1 (hemi-radial flow). Deruyck et al, 1992, pointed

out that for a leaky fault, after the IARF region, the derivative curve starts to rise as in the case

of a single sealing fault but then drops back to its IARF stabilization value. The time when the
derivative plot deviates from first stabilization is applied to equation x above to estimate the

distance from the well to the no-flow boundary.


= 0.012 -----------------------------------------------------------Equation x.x1


= 0.032 ----------------------------------------------------------Equation x.x2

The permeability, k is estimated from the slope, m of the initial straight line on the semi-log
plot as shown in equation xx.xx
162.6q
k= equation xx.xx
mh

and the skin, s is estimated from equation xx.xx


1 ( )
= 1.15 ( + log log 2 + 3.32)----------------------------- equation xx.xx

Where 1 is the pressure value recorded after one hour of build up


For this study, all build-ups were preceded by a multi-rate test and the Horner time is replaced

by the superposition time function as demonstrated by Houze et al in equation x below


() = 1
=1
1
([1
=1 ] )--------------------------- equation xx.xx
1

Plotting of pressure against superposition time is the general semi-log plot shown in Figure x

for well OG-2. Permeability is estimated the same way as demonstrated in single rate flow

above. However, the skin factor is estimated as stated in equation x below


= 1.151 { ( 2 ) =1 [ 1 (+1 )] + 3.23 }-equation x.x

3590

3585

3580

3575

3570

3565

-3.4 -3.2 -3 -2.8 -2.6 -2.4 -2.2 -2 -1.8 -1.6 -1.4 -1.2 -1 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2

Semi-Log plot: p [psia] vs Superposition time

As demonstrated by BourdarotX using figure x, the reservoir permeability, wellbore storage

and skin can also be estimated from the type curve and its derivative if the stabilization period

on the derivative is identified

Reservoir KH

The formation permeability is calculated using corresponding to the horizontal

stabilization period of the derivative


141.2
= x 0.5

0.5
= 141.2

Wellbore Storage
The wellbore storage, C is computed from the coordinates of any point on the unit slope

straight line as represented as 1 on by Bourdarot on figure x: P and t1

1
= 24 1

Skin

from the coordinates of any point on the unit slope straight line as represented as 1 on by

Bourdarot on figure x: Ps and ts


= 1.151 ( )
2.303 2
+ 3.23
1+

Parallel Faults or Channels

Channels represent parallel no-flow boundaries such as a sedimentary deposit or two parallel

sealing faults define by its width, l and the distance, d from the well to one of its edges. MillerX

pointed out that after the wellbore storage phase, prior to the pressure transient reaching the

channel boundary, flow is radial; however, when the pressure transient reaches the channel

boundary, flow changes from radial to linear.

Application of the image well method by Tiab and Kumar generated a response for a well

between two parallel faults with the derivative plot showing a late time straight-line with a

negative slope of 0.5. Three distinct straight-line portions also help identify the presence of two

faults from which the distance to each fault and the kh product can be determined.

As outline by Bourdarot, for well between parallel faults, the following flow regimes are

observed during a test.

Infinite acting radial flow prior to the pressure transient reaching any of the fault

boundary. represented as a straight line on the semi-log plot and a horizontal line at the

stabilization point on the derivative plot at 0.5.


When the pressure transient reaches first boundary, the response is same as that of

single no-flow boundary explained above. The slope of semi-log straight line doubles

while the stabilization on derivative plot moves from 0.5 to 1 before moving to the

unit slope straight line representing linear flow

If the well is equidistance from both edge of the channel, the pressure transient reaches

the edges simultaneously and the derivative plot transition from the horizontal radial

stabilization at 0.5 to linear flow represented by a slope of 0.5.

Bourdarot pointed out that the width of the channel and the eccentricity of the well within the

channel can be estimated by plotting the pressure drop versus the square root of time on a semi

log plot to obtain a straight line representing linear flow. The width of the channel, l is

determined from the slope of the straight-line as shown in equation xx below

8.13
=
equation xx.xx

and the distance of the well to the edge of the channel is estimated from equation xx below


= .equation xx.xx

Where e is the eccentricity of the well represented as

1
= (2 ())..

0
= 1.151 .

Po is the ordinate on the staright line at time of origin

Other parameters such as permeability, skin, wellbore storage are estimated as demostrated

under single sealing faults above

Intersecting Faults

The pressure derivative behavior for intersecting sealing faults was demostrated by Van Pool

in 1965 using the image well method. Van Pool image well method for intersecting sealing
faults was however limited to certain congigurations which include angle of intersection = /

(or 2/ for well located on the bisector), where n is an integer. Two perpendicular

intersecting faults at right angle to each other are define for = 2.

Prassad in 1975 however presented a general solution for all angles in 1975 using Green's

function that can be used for any angle of intersection.

Using conventional semi-log plots, Bourdarot pointed that:-

For a well located equidistance from both intersecting faults, the transition is as follows

Initial straight-line with a slope of m during infinite acting radial flow

Second straight-line with a slope of 2 during late time effect

For a well located closer to one fault than the other, the transition is as follows

First straight-line with a slope of m

Second straight-line with a slope of 2 when the first fault is reached

Third straight-line with a slope of 2 when the second fault is reached

The angle of intersection is estimated from the ratio of the slopes between the 2 semi-log plots

1
= 2
2

And the distance from well to closest fault can be estimated by radius of investigation

Other parameters such as permeability, skin, wellbore storage are estimated as demostrated

under single sealing faults above