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Chapter 1- p16

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Manager Roles
10 roles
Role- set of expectations for a managers behaviour
Henry Mintzberg
Description of managerial work
3 characteristics
10 roles

3 Conceptual categories
Enjoyed activities
Leading others 1. Informational(managing by information)
Networking 2. Interpersonal(managing through people)
Leading innovation 3. Decisional(managing through action)

Liked least activities


Controlling subordinates
Handling Paperwork
Managing Time Pressures

Making the Leap: Becoming a new manager

1st Line supervisors-experience most job burnout and


attrition

Star performers- Organizations promote


Indiv. Expertise in area of resp.
Work well with others

Role of manager- Builds systems rather than specific task


Generalist
Gets things done through other people
Indiv.Performer- Specialist and a "doer"
IDs with specific task
Informational roles
Relies on self
General managers-75% of time communicating
1. Monitor-seeking info from sources,scan written
materials
2. Disseminator-memos and reports(transmit inside)
3. Spokespersonspeeches,reports,memos(transmit,out)

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Interpersonal roles
1. Fiigurehead-ceremonial,symbolic,greeting
visitors,signing legal docs
-represents as head of unit
e.g. presentation of award by bank manager
2. Leader-direct and motivate,train,counsel,communicate
-Moticvate,communication and influence
3. Liaison-maintain info link(in and out),e-
mail,phone,meeting
-develop info sources inside and outside

Decisonal roles
Managerial Activities Conceptual + human skills
Characterized by 1. Enterpreneur-initiation of change
Multitasking -future and how to get there
1. Variety 2.Disturbance handler-reolving conflicts
2. Fragmentation 3. Resource allocator-hot to assign
3. Brevity prople,time,equipment,money,
<9 min spent on acivity 4.Negotiator-formal negotiation and bargaining
1st line mangrs=every 48 sec
Life on a speed dial
Fast paced and energy

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Do you really want to be a mngr


1. >workload
2. Supervising former peer
3. Responsibility
4. Being caught in the middle

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Chapter 1 page 23
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New Workplace Characteristics

Oldworkplace
Routine
Small Business Specialized task
tend to emphasize roles different from thos Standardized control procedures
of managers in large corps Indiv concentrate on specific task
Spokesperson-most important role,must Mngrs cautious of sharing info
promote company Vertical hierarchy
Entrepreneurial-also critical Decision making-Upper level
Leader & info processing role-small business
tend to rate lower

Non-profits
Unconventional bottom line e.g. "improve
public health"
Spokesperson,Leader,Resource allocator(top- New management Competencies
down allocation)-emphasis
Empowering leadership style
Experimentation and Learning- Key values
Encourage share of info
Turbulent forces

Technology- most pervasive change affecting org and


mgmnt
New Workplace
Free flowing and flexible
Flatter structures
Lower level employees empowered to make
decisions guided by org M & V
Knowledge widely shared
Virtual work
Interim managers(Contingernt managers)-not
affiliated w/ org
-project by project basis
-temporarily provide expertise in
specific area

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Chapter 2
Monday, July 11, 2016 3:25 PM

"Evolution of management thinking"

Jugaad" innovation mindset" Bureaucratic Organizations


Developed in Europe
Looked at or as a whole
Social Forces-aspect of culture that guide and influence Max Weber-"German Theorist"
people bureaucracy -org managed on
Social contract-unwritten, common rules and impersonal rational basis
perceptions aboute relationships among people and -formal structure and positions
mgmnt -competence and technical
Attitudes,ideas, and values qualifications
Gen Y (millenials)-well educated,challenge status quo Realies on rules and written records for
continuity
Positions organzized in heirarchy
Characteristics of Weberian Bureaucracy
Political forces-influence of political and legal institutions 1. Division of labor,defn of authority an
Role of govt,govt. regulation responsibility
Desirability of self govt. 2. Hierarchy of authority
Property rights 3. Rules and procedures
Contract rights 4. Mgmnt separate from ownership
Defn of justice 5. Admin acts recorded in writing
Determn of innocence and guilt of crime 6. Technical qualifications,selection

Economic Forces-availability ,production and distributiion of resources in a society Administrative principles


Focus on total orgn
Henri Fayol-"General and Industrial
Mgmnt" 14 principles of mgmnt
-Comambault french mining
engnr Comambault
14 principles e.g.
1. Unity of Command- 1 and only 1 superior
2. Division of Work-Specialitzation
3. Unity of Direction-activities grouped
together,1 manager
4. Scalar chain-authority, top to
bottom,include every employee
Basic functions/elements of mgmnt
1. Planning
2. Organizing
3. Commanding
4. Coordinating
5. Controlling

Classical Perspective Humanistic Perspective


-rational,scientific approach Emphasis on understanding human
3000BC-Summerians and Egyptians(govt behavior,needs,attitudes,social
orgn) interxn, grp processess
Formal study of mgmnt,relatively 3 subfields
recent 1. Human relation movement
Salaried manager 2. Human resouces perspective
3. Behavioural science approach
1. Scientific management
2. Bureaucratic organization
3. Administrative principles Mary Parker Follett- common
superordinate goals for reducing
conflict in organizations
Scientific management -stressed people vs engineering
Frederick Winslow Taylor- workers retooled like machines -"Dont hug your blueprints"
- " Father of scientific mgmnt" -ethics,power, and how to
-Bethlehem steel plant lead,encourage employees to do best
-Empowerment- facilitating

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Scientific management -stressed people vs engineering
Frederick Winslow Taylor- workers retooled like machines -"Dont hug your blueprints"
- " Father of scientific mgmnt" -ethics,power, and how to
-Bethlehem steel plant lead,encourage employees to do best
Rules of thumb-> precise procedure -Empowerment- facilitating
Henry Gannt-"Gannt chart"-measures planned and completed work rather than controlling employees
Frank and Lillian Gilbret-"time and motion study"-for surgeons
Frank -"Best way to do work" Chester Barnard
Lilian-"human aspect of work""1st lady of mgmnt" -Informal orgn-occurs in all formal
Ignores social context and workers needs orgn
Focus on productivity and individual worker -cliques,social grouping
"acceptance theory of authority"
-people have free will,and
choose to follow
-people follow to percieve
+ benefit to themselves
Human Relations Movement
-effective control comes from
worker than control
-"dairy farm view of mgmnt"
Hawthorne studies- Elton
Mayo, Fritz Roethlisberger
-Human relations-factor that
increased output
Money-also matters meta-
analysis
Hawthorne effect-
researchers can effect
outcome by active
participation

Human Resources Perspective


-emphasis to daily task
Emphasis to consider daily task that people perform
Job design +motivation theory
1. Abraham Maslow-problems from inability to satisfy
needs
Hierarchy of needs
2. Douglas McGregor-Theory X-haman relations,
3. Theory Y-more realistic view
-take advantage of imagination and intellect of
employees

Behavioural science approach


Uses scientific approach
Sociology, psychology,anthro.. To develop theories
About human behaviour

Organization Dev't-bevaioural science to health and


effectiveness
Matrix orgn, self-managed teams,corporate culture

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Chapter 2 (2)
Wednesday, July 13, 2016 11:57 PM

Quantitative Perspective"Management Science" Innovative management thinking for a


World war 2 changing world
Mathematics ,statistics,and quantitative
techniques to mgmnt decisions Contemporary Management tools
Peter Drucker-"concept of the corporation" Jugaad-India,
-academic study of business and
management

1. Operations research- WW2"operational Managing the Technology Driven Workplace


research teams-UK" "Operations Research
teams-US"
2. Operations management-Physical prodn of
goods and services
-linear and non-linear programming,queing
theory,scheduling, simulation, break-even
analysis
3.Information Technology- relevant info to
managers in timely cost efficient manner

Quants-financial manager base idecn on


quantitative analysis

Recent Historical Trends

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Ability to see the distinct elements in system and
interaction
System-interrelated parts ,function as whole ,to achieve (CRM) Customer Relationship management- use the latest
common purpose (e.g. org) Information technology to keep in close touch with customers
Synergy- "whole is greater than sum of its parts" And manage data
-it is the relationship among parts that form the system
Peter senge" The fifth discipline"- reality is made up of Outsourcing
circles rather than straight lines Contracting out selected functions or activities to other orgs

Contingency View
Each situation is thought to be unique Supply chain management
One learns about mgmnt by exp. ;arge number of case Managing sequence pf suppliers and purchasers,covering all stages
problems Of processing
Supply chain- network of multiple businessess and individuals that
Classical perpective=Universalist view Are connected through the flow of products or services

Total Quality Management-managing the total orgn to deliver better quality to customers
Strongly associated with japanese companies
American WW2 influence
Edward Deming"Father of the quality movement"
4 elements
1. Employee involvement
2. Customer focus-know and meet wants,needs,and expectations
3. Benchmarking-"how others do,"managers consider highly effective in particular
4. Kaizen"continuous improvement"-small increment improvements in
all areas of the organization on an ongoing basis

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Six Sigma- nmt 3.4 defects/million

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Chapter 3
Sunday, July 17, 2016 9:54 AM

The External Environment Task Environment


includes
1. Competitors Customers
2. Resources People and oganizations in the environment
3. Technology That acquire goods or services from the organization
4. Economy Competitors
2 components Other orgs in same industry or type of business that provide
1. General Environment-influence orgs equally,do not goods or services to the same set of costumers
directly influence day-to-day operations
Social Suppliers
Economic Provide the raw materials the org uses to produce its output
Legal/political
International
Natural Labor market
Technological Labor market represents people in the environment who can
2. Task environment be hired to work for the organization
Competitors Labor market forces
Suppliers 1. Computer literate knowledge workers
Customers 2. continuous improvement in human resources
Labor markets 3. International trading blocs,automaion, outsourcing,and
shifting

Internal Environment-elements within org boundaries


1. Employees(current)
2. Mgmnt
3. Culture-employee behaviour in internal environ Organization-Environment relationship

Environmental Uncertainty
Uncertainty-managers do not have sufficient information
about environmental factors to understand and predict
environmental needs and changes

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General Environment

International Dimension
Events and opportunities in other countries
Provides new competitors,customers, and suppliers
Shapes social, technological, and economic trends

Technological
Scientific and technological advancements

Guanxi-Supportive,mutually beneficial connection between two people


1. Business is always personal.
2. Dont Skip the small talk
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3. Remember that relationships are not short term
4. Make contact frequently

Sociocultural dimension
Demographic characteristics

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4. Make contact frequently

Sociocultural dimension
Demographic characteristics
Norms
Customs
Values
-of general population
Sociocultural characteristics
1. Geographical distribution
2. Population Density
3. Age
4. Education levels
e.g senior citizen products, immirants, Gen Y

Economic Dimension
General economic health of the country or region in which the
Organization operates
1. Consumer purchasing power
2. Unemployment rate
3. Interest rates Adapting to the Environment
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Strategies
1. Boundary spanning roles
Legal-political 2. Interorganizational partnerships
Government regulations at the local,state, and federal levels, as well as 3. Mergers and joint ventures
political activities
Federal govt influences orgs through Boundary Spanning roles-link and coordinate the organization
(OSHA)-Occupational Safety and Health Administration With key elements in the external environment
(EPA)-Environmental Protection Agency 2 purposes-Detect and process information about changes in the environment
Fair trade practices Business Intelligence- using sophisticated software to search through
Libel statutes large amount of internal data to spot patterns,trends, and relationships
Allowing lawsuits against business Competitive intelligence- activities to get as much information as
Product safety requirements, import and export restrictions possible about rival
Comsumer protection,labeling requirements

Pressure groups- work within legal political framework to influence Interorganizational Partnerships-reduce boundaries and increase collaboration
Companies, in socially responsible ways(e.g, "Wake Up walmart" with other organizations.
Adverserial orientation> partnership orientation
Natural
All elements that occur naturally on earth , including pants,animals
Rocks, and natural resources(air,water,and climate)

Mergers and Joint Ventures


Merger- 2 or more orgs combine to become one(e.g wells amd Norwest)
Joint venture- strategic alliance or program by two or more orgs

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Chapter 3(2)
Sunday, July 17, 2016 9:12 PM

Internal Environment Shaping culture for innovative response


1. Corporate Culture
2. Production Technology
3. Organization Structure
4. Physical Facilities
Managing the high-performance culture
Corporate Culture"how we do things around here" "the way things
are"
Set of key values,beliefs,understandings and norms

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Symbols-object,art or event that conveys meaning to others


Rich nonverbal language that vibrantly conveys the orgs important
values
ROQ-Return on quality- measure cultural values are connected to performance
Stories- narrative based on true events and is repeated frequently
High performance culture-quadrant D
And shared among organizational employees
1. Based on solid org purpose
Heroes-figure who exemplifies the deeds, character, and attributes of a 2. Shared adaptive values and business practices
strong culture 3. Encourages individual employee ownership

Slogans- phrase or sentence that succinctly expresses a key corporate


value Kotter and Heskett " corporate culture and performance"

Ceremonies- planned activity at a special event that is conducted for


the benefit of an audience Cultural leadership
-provide dramatic examples of company values Managers must overcommunicate
Eg. Southwest airline special planes
Cultural leader- defines and uses signals and symbols to influence corporate
culture
2 key areas
Types of Culture
1. Articulates vission,that emp can believe in
External environment- has big influence on internal culture
2. Heeds day-to-day activities that reinforce cultural vision
2 dimensions
1. Extent to which external environment requires flexibility or
stability
2. Extent to which a company's strategic focus is internal or external
4 categories
1. Adaptability
2. Achievement
3. Involvement
4. Consistency

Adaptability culture

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Adaptability culture
environ,requires fast response and high-risk decision making
Encourage values that rapidly detct, interpret trranslate into new behavior

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Achievement Culture
Orgs serving specific customers in ext environ,
But without intense need for flexibility and rapid change
Competitiveness, aggressiveness,personal initiative, willingness to work long and hard to achieve
results

Involvement Culture
Intrernal focus on involvement and participation
High value on meeting needs of employees
Caring family like atmosphere
Cooperation,consideration of both employees and customers,avoidance of status
differences
e.g valero St charles

Consistency culture
Internal focus and orientation for a stable environment
Thrift,methodical,rational, orderly way of doing things
careful

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