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IEEE Guide for Array and Battery

Sizing in Stand-Alone Photovoltaic (PV)


Systems

IEEE Standards Coordinating Committee 21


Sponsored by the
IEEE Standards Coordinating Committee 21 on
Fuel Cells, Photovoltaics, Dispersed Generation, and Energy Storage
TM

1562

IEEE
3 Park Avenue IEEE Std 1562-2007
New York, NY 10016-5997, USA

12 May 2008

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IEEE Std 1562-2007

IEEE Guide for Array and Battery


Sizing in Stand-Alone Photovoltaic (PV)
Systems

Sponsor

IEEE Standards Coordinating Committee 21 on


Fuel Cells, Photovoltaics, Dispersed Generation, and Energy Storage

Approved 5 December 2007


IEEE-SA Standards Board

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Abstract: A method for properly sizing the PV array and battery for stand-alone PV systems
where PV is the only charging source is recommended (in conjunction with IEEE Std 1013).
Load calculations and determination of solar radiation in the sizing of the system need special
attention. Additionally, the critical nature of the load in deciding an acceptable annual availability
needs to be considered.
Keywords: battery sizing, photovoltaic systems, PV array sizing

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Copyright 2008 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.


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Introduction

This introduction is not part of IEEE Std 1562-2007, IEEE Guide for Array and Battery Sizing in Stand-Alone
Photovoltaic Systems.

This guide is intended to assist system designers and end users in sizing stand-alone photovoltaic (PV)
systems. This guide uses the Peak Sun-hour method of sizing. Systems are sized based upon the worst
case month using monthly solar irradiance and load demand. This document is not intended to be used for
grid-connected or hybrid systems, where the systems are generally designed for annual values. Refer to
IEEE Std 1561 for hybrid designs.

Two critical pieces of information are required for the proper sizing of the PV array and battery in a stand-
alone PV system: accurate load data and accurate solar radiation data. The performance of the system will
be only as good as these data.

A computer sizing program is recommended for critical applications.

The annexes contain information on photovoltaic module technology, charge controllers, module tilt
angles, and sizing examples using the System Sizing worksheet.

This guide should be used in combination with IEEE Std 1361, IEEE Guide for Selection, Charging, Test
and Evaluation of Lead-acid Batteries Used in Stand-Alone Photovoltaic Systems, and, IEEE Std 1013-
2007, IEEE Recommended Practice for Sizing Lead-acid Batteries for Photovoltaic Systems. Together,
these documents will provide the user with a general guide to sizing and designing the PV array storage
batteries for stand-alone PV systems.

Notice to users

Laws and regulations


Users of these documents should consult all applicable laws and regulations. Compliance with the
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Patents
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Participants
At the time this guide was submitted to the IEEE-SA Standards Board for approval, IEEE Standards
Coordinating Committee 21 on Fuel Cells, Photovoltaics, Dispersed Generation, and Energy Storage had
the following membership:

Richard DeBlasio, Chair


Stephen Chalmers, Vice Chair
Thomas S. Basso, Secretary

David L. Bassett Douglas C. Dawson Benjamin Kroposki


John J. Bzura Frank Goodman Robert Saint
Jay L. Chamberlin Kelvin Hecht Mallur N. Satyanarayan
James M. Daley Joseph Koepfinger Timothy P. Zgonena

At the time this guide was submitted to the IEEE-SA Standards Board for approval, the Energy Storage
Subsystems Working Group had the following membership:
Jay L. Chamberlin, Chair
Kenneth S. Sanders, Secretary

Rob Rallo, Task Leader Robert Hammond Haissam Nasrat


Howard Barikmo Thomas D. Hund Michael T. Nispel
Ced Currin Liang Ji Carl D. Parker
Jim Dunlop Peter F. McNutt Stephen L. Vechy
Lauren Giles John Wiles

The following members of the individual balloting committee voted on this guide. Balloters may have
voted for approval, disapproval, or abstention.

William J. Ackerman Randall Groves Michael Newman


Curtis Ashton Kenneth Hanus Michael T. Nispel
Ali Al Awazi Werner Hoelzl Carl D. Parker
Thomas Basso Dennis Horwitz Percy E. Pool
Wallace Binder Thomas D. Hund Vikram Punj
William G. Bloethe Hermann Koch Robert F. Rallo
Steven R. Brockschink Joseph L. Koepfinger Charles W. Rogers
William P. Cantor Jim Kulchisky Joseph R. Rostron
James Case Scott R. Lacy Kenneth S. Sanders
Jay L. Chamberlin Chung-Yiu Lam Bartien Sayogo
Keith Chow Keith N. Malmedal Herbert J. Sinnock
Mark S. Clark James Mcdowall Charles M. Whitaker
Stephen P. Conrad Peter F. Mcnutt James W. Wilson
Garth P. Corey Gary L. Michel Oren Yuen
Gary Engmann Jerry Murphy Theodore C. Zeiss
Rabiz N. Foda Haissam Nasrat James A. Ziebarth
Manuel Gonzalez Ahmed Zobaa

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When the IEEE-SA Standards Board approved this guide on 5 December 2007, it had the following
membership:

Steve M. Mills, Chair


Robert M. Grow, Vice Chair
Don Wright, Past Chair
Judith Gorman, Secretary

Richard DeBlasio Hermann Koch Narayanan Ramachandran


Alex Gelman Joseph L. Koepfinger* Greg Ratta
William R. Goldbach John Kulick Robby Robson
Arnold M. Greenspan David J. Law Anne-Marie Sahazizian
Joanna N. Guenin Glenn Parsons Virginia C. Sulzberger
Kenneth S. Hanus Ronald C. Petersen Malcolm V. Thaden
William B. Hopf Tom A. Prevost Richard L. Townsend
Richard H. Hulett Howard L. Wolfman

*Member Emeritus

Also included are the following nonvoting IEEE-SA Standards Board liaisons:

Satish K. Aggarwal, NRC Representative


Michael H. Kelley, NIST Representative

Lorraine Patsco
IEEE Standards Program Manager, Document Development

Bill Ash
IEEE Standards Program Manager, Technical Program Development

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Contents

1. Overview .................................................................................................................................................... 1
1.1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................... 1
1.2 Purpose ................................................................................................................................................ 2

2. Normative references.................................................................................................................................. 2

3. Definitions, acronyms, and abbreviations .................................................................................................. 2


3.1 Definitions ........................................................................................................................................... 2
3.2 Acronyms and abbreviations ............................................................................................................... 3

4. Outline of sizing methodology ................................................................................................................... 4


4.1 Sun-hour method for PV array sizing .................................................................................................. 4

5. Load calculation ......................................................................................................................................... 4

6. Days of autonomy....................................................................................................................................... 5

7. Battery sizing and selection........................................................................................................................ 5

8. Solar radiation ............................................................................................................................................ 5

9. PV Array sizing .......................................................................................................................................... 5


9.1 PV module selection............................................................................................................................ 5
9.2 System losses....................................................................................................................................... 5
9.3 Determine the number of series-connected PV modules ..................................................................... 6
9.4 Determine the number of parallel strings of PV modules.................................................................... 6

10. Design verification ................................................................................................................................... 7

Annex A (informative) Photovoltaic module technologies ............................................................................ 9


A.1 General................................................................................................................................................ 9
A.2 Crystalline silicon PV modules........................................................................................................... 9
A.3 Amorphous silicon (a-Si) PV modules ............................................................................................... 9
A.4 Copper indium diselenide (CIS) PV modules................................................................................... 10
A.5 Cadmium telluride (CdTe) PV modules ........................................................................................... 10
A.6 Heterojunction with intrinsic thin layer (HIT) PV modules ............................................................. 10
A.7 Self-regulating PV modules.............................................................................................................. 10
A.8 Temperature effect on modules ........................................................................................................ 10
A.9 PV module selection ......................................................................................................................... 11

Annex B (informative) Tilt angle selection .................................................................................................. 12


B.1 Recommended tilt angle.................................................................................................................... 12
B.2 PV array orientation.......................................................................................................................... 12
B.3 Tracking structures............................................................................................................................ 12

Annex C (informative) Charge controller technologies................................................................................ 13


C.1 General.............................................................................................................................................. 13
C.2 Shunt regulator.................................................................................................................................. 14
C.3 Series regulator ................................................................................................................................. 15
C.4 PWM regulator.................................................................................................................................. 16
C.5 MPPT charge controller .................................................................................................................... 17

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Annex D (informative) Examples................................................................................................................. 18
D.1 Refrigerator/freezer for vaccine storage ........................................................................................... 18
D.2 Microwave repeater .......................................................................................................................... 20

Annex E (informative) Bibliography............................................................................................................ 22

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IEEE Guide for Array and Battery
Sizing in Stand-Alone Photovoltaic (PV)
Systems

IMPORTANT NOTICE: This standard is not intended to assure safety, security, health, or
environmental protection in all circumstances. Implementers of the standard are responsible for
determining appropriate safety, security, environmental, and health practices or regulatory
requirements.

This IEEE document is made available for use subject to important notices and legal disclaimers. These
notices and disclaimers appear in all publications containing this document and may be found under the
heading Important Notice or Important Notices and Disclaimers Concerning IEEE Documents.
They can also be obtained on request from IEEE or viewed at http://standards.ieee.org/IPR/
disclaimers.html.

1. Overview
This guide was written to provide a method for sizing the array and the battery, when used in conjunction
with IEEE Std 1013, 1 for stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) systems. Use of this document by funding
organizations, PV system integrators, and consumers should provide the means for improved system
performance and operating life. This document is intended to provide a means of sizing a stand-alone PV
system to meet the load demand in a cost-effective manner.

1.1 Scope

This guide provides information to assist in sizing the array and battery of a stand-alone photovoltaic
system. Systems considered in this guide consist of PV as the only power source and a battery for energy
storage. These systems also commonly employ controls to protect the battery from being over- or under-
charged, and may employ a power conversion subsystem (inverter or converter).

This guide is applicable to all stand-alone PV systems where PV is the only charging source. This guide
does not include PV hybrid systems nor grid-connected systems. This guide covers lead-acid batteries only;
nickel-cadmium and other battery types are not included. This guide does not include the sizing of the
system controller, inverter, wiring, or other system components.

1
Information on references can be found in Clause 2.

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IEEE Std 1562-2007
IEEE Guide for Array and Battery Sizing in Stand-Alone Photovoltaic Systems

1.2 Purpose
The purpose of this guide is to provide procedures to size the PV array and battery according to accepted
methods, to improve the performance, cost-effectiveness, and lifetimes of stand-alone PV systems. The
issues of array utilization, battery-charge efficiency, and system losses are also considered in terms of their
effect on system sizing. These procedures are intended to assist designers, manufacturers, system
integrators, users, and laboratories with information necessary for sizing, modeling, and evaluating the
performance of stand-alone PV systems.

2. Normative references
The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated
references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced
document (including any amendments or corrigenda) applies.

IEEE Std 1013-2007, IEEE Recommended Practice for Sizing Lead-Acid Batteries for Stand-Alone
Photovoltaic (PV) Systems. 2, 3

IEEE Std 1361, IEEE Guide for Selection, Charging, Test and Evaluation of Lead-Acid Batteries Used in
Stand-Alone Photovoltaic (PV) Systems.

3. Definitions, acronyms, and abbreviations

3.1 Definitions

For the purposes of this guide, the following terms and definitions apply. The Authoritative Dictionary of
IEEE Standards, Seventh Edition [B3] 4 , should be referenced for terms not defined in this clause.
3.1.1 array-to-load ratio: The average daily photovoltaic ampere hours (Ah) available divided by the
average daily load in ampere hours.

NOTEThe average daily PV ampere hours is calculated by taking the average daily solar resource for the month of
interest in kilowatt hours per square meter (kW / m2) times the array current at its maximum power point (Imp) under
standard test conditions (STC). 5

3.1.2 autonomy: The length of time that a photovoltaic (PV) system can provide energy to the load
without receiving energy from the PV array.

3.1.3 charge controller: An electrical control device that regulates battery charging by voltage control
and/or other means. A charge controller may also incorporate one or more of the following functions:
discharge termination, regulation voltage temperature compensation, load control, and status indication.

3.1.4 loss-of-load probability (LOLP): The probability (typically expressed as a percent) of the
photovoltaic (PV) power system to have insufficient energy to support the load due to lack of solar radiation.

3.1.5 plane of array (POA): A plane that is at the same tilt angle and azimuth angle as the photovoltaic
(PV) array.

2
IEEE publications are available from the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 445 Hoes Lane, Piscataway, NJ 08854,
USA (http://standards/ieee.org/).
3
The IEEE standards or products referred to in this clause are trademarks of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.
4
The numbers in brackets correspond to those of the bibliography in Annex E.
5
Notes in text, tables, and figures are given for information only and do not contain requirements needed to implement the guide.

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IEEE Std 1562-2007
IEEE Guide for Array and Battery Sizing in Stand-Alone Photovoltaic Systems

3.1.6 solar irradiance: The instantaneous power density of sunlight measured in watts per meter squared
(W / m2).

3.1.7 solar radiation: The time integral of solar irradiance.


NOTE Solar radiation data for a geographic location is generally reported for each month as the average daily
radiation for a specific array tilt angle. A typical range for daily solar radiation is 2 to 7 kW / m2.

3.1.8 standard test conditions (STC): The accepted conditions under which PV devices are commonly
rated: 1000 W / m2 irradiance at a spectral distribution of air mass (AM) 1.5 and a 25 C PV cell
temperature.

3.1.9 sulfation, excessive or hard: The growth of lead sulfate (PbSO4) crystals on the positive and
negative plates of a lead-acid battery after an extended time in a discharged condition. Hard sulfation can
be identified by an abnormal drop in electrolyte specific gravity after an equalization charge and by a gritty
texture on the plates.

3.1.10 sun hours: Length of time in hours at a solar irradiance level of 1 kW / m2 needed to produce the
daily solar radiation obtained from the integration of irradiance over all daylight hours. Sun hours is
sometimes referred to as peak sun hours.

3.1.11 system availability: The complement of loss-of-load probability (1-LOLP), typically expressed as
a percent.

3.2 Acronyms and abbreviations

Ah ampere-hour
A:L array-to-load ratio
AM air mass
a-Si amorphous silicon
Imp maximum power current (same as Ipp)
Ipp peak power current (same as Imp)
Isc short circuit current
LOLP loss of load probability
MPPT maximum power point tracker
POA plane of array
ppm parts per million
PV photovoltaic
PWM pulse-width modulation
SOC state of charge
STC standard test conditions
VDC voltage direct current
Vmp maximum power voltage (same as Vpp)
Voc open circuit voltage
Vpp peak power voltage (same as Vmp)
VRLA valve-regulated lead-acid

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IEEE Std 1562-2007
IEEE Guide for Array and Battery Sizing in Stand-Alone Photovoltaic Systems

4. Outline of sizing methodology


Part of the process of sizing of a stand-alone PV system is to determine the required number of PV modules
and the capacity of the battery. Other sizing aspects include wire, charge controllers, inverters, etc., which
are beyond the scope of this document. The sizing is based on a combination of worst-case solar radiation,
load consumption, and system losses. This is different than sizing hybrid or grid-connected systems, where
the PV array may be sized for maximum annual availability.

The PV array is sized to replace the ampere-hour (Ah) in the battery consumed by the load and to provide
sufficient energy to overcome system losses and inefficiencies. Any additional over-sizing of the PV array
is used to recharge the battery faster after periods of low solar radiation.

The sizing methodology used in this guide is based upon the average daily load in Ah, and does not take
into account the use of maximum power point trackers (MPPT) (refer to Annex C.5 for more information
on MPPTs). MPPTs are sized based upon array wattage and may be addressed in future revisions of this
standard.

Temperature of the module is not considered because temperature has a greater effect on the operating
voltage of a PV module, rather than the current produced. Refer to Annex A.8 for more information on
temperatures effect on PV modules. The system sizing is based on the current of the PV module. The array
output voltage needs to be greater than the battery charging voltage (see 9.3).

Shading of the PV array is not addressed, and it is assumed that the PV array will not be shaded throughout
the day. If the PV array is shaded, a computer model may be needed to determine the effect of shading on
the output of the PV array.

The performance of PV systems is directly dependent on the accuracy of the solar radiation data and the
load consumption data used. Inaccuracies in either of these pieces of information will cause the system to
be over- or under-designed.

The criticality of the application or load availability is also important. If the load is not critical and a loss of
load can be tolerated, then the system can be designed more cost effectively than a critical system that
requires extremely high system availability.

4.1 Sun-hour method for PV array sizing

For the purposes of this document, the daily module output is estimated by converting the solar radiation
data on the plane of array (POA) into the equivalent number of sun hours of standard full solar irradiance at
1 kW / m2. Multiplying the number of sun hours times the rated module peak power current (from the PV
module datasheet) gives an estimate of the average available Ah / day production from the PV array. The
sun-hour method for PV array sizing is used in this document for sizing the PV array.

5. Load calculation
One of the most critical factors in properly sizing a stand-alone PV system is properly determining the load.
If the actual load is greater than the estimated load used for sizing, the system will be under-designed. If the
actual load is smaller, the system may be over-designed.

The load should be determined as per IEEE Std 1013.

If the load is not constant for all months, determine the average load for each month. This information will
be used in the calculation of monthly array-to-load (A:L) ratios (see Clause 8).

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IEEE Std 1562-2007
IEEE Guide for Array and Battery Sizing in Stand-Alone Photovoltaic Systems

6. Days of autonomy
As the array is sized to replace the Ah used by the load and system losses, the battery is sized to support the
load during times of low solar radiation.

Battery capacity has a large effect on the availability of the system. The larger the battery, the greater the
days of autonomy, and typically the greater the system availability. There is a balance however; the larger
the battery the greater the risk of sulfation. As the battery can operate at a low state of charge (SOC) for
long periods of time (also called deficit charge), this risk can be reduced by increasing the A:L so that the
PV array can recharge the battery at a higher rate; this also increases the cost of the system. Conversely, a
smaller battery will cycle deeper more frequently, reducing the system availability and the life of the
battery.

The following is a general guideline for determining the number of days of autonomy. For non-critical
loads and areas with high solar irradiance, 5 to 7 days of autonomy are acceptable. For critical loads or
areas with low solar irradiance, 7 to 14 days of autonomy or greater should be used.

7. Battery sizing and selection


For battery sizing and selection refer to IEEE Std 1013-2007 and IEEE Std 1361, respectively.

8. Solar radiation
Accurate solar radiation data is as important as accurate load data. Reliable solar radiation data for the site
location (or as close as possible), should be used for proper system design. Solar radiation data is available
from several public and private sources.

If the load is constant for all months, it is recommended to use the solar radiation for the month with the
worst-case solar radiation at the optimum tilt angle (refer to Annex B for tilt-angle selection). The value is
usually represented in kWh / m2, which is equivalent to sun hours. This value will be used later in
calculations to size the PV array.

If the load is not constant for all months, the array and battery will need to be sized for each month. The
month with the lowest A:L and battery autonomy should be used as the worst case for the system design.
This will be an iterative process.

9. PV Array sizing
The array sizing is determined by the solar radiation, A:L, system losses, and load.

9.1 PV module selection

Refer to Annex A for a description of PV module technologies. Some PV modules may have advantages
over others depending upon the PV array size, performance under various irradiance conditions, and
application.

9.2 System losses

System losses need to be estimated and included in the calculation. These losses may include dust on the
array, battery coulombic efficiency, parasitic losses (from a charge controller or inverter if not included in
the average daily load Ah), etc. These losses are typically expressed as a percentage of the system load.
Typical combined values are 10% to 20% (refer to Worksheet 1System Sizing). Underestimating these

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losses may lead to reduced system performance. These values can typically be calculated with information
obtained from the component suppliers.

9.3 Determine the number of series-connected PV modules

To determine the number of series-connected PV modules, the formula is as follows in Equation (1):

NS = Vsys / Vmod (1)

where

NS is the number of series-connected PV modules


Vsys is the nominal system voltage
Vmod is the nominal module voltage

If the result is not a whole number, the result should be rounded up to the nearest whole number, or a
different module should be selected and the calculation repeated with the new nominal module voltage.
NOTESelf regulating modules (refer to Annex A) may not operate at a high enough voltage to properly charge a
battery, especially in hot climates.
Calculate the voltage drops through the PV system to ensure the module voltage is sufficient in high-
temperature conditions to charge the battery. Refer to A.8 for additional information on the temperature
effect on modules.

A charge regulator is recommended to ensure the battery is not over-charged during periods of high solar
radiation. Refer to Annex C for charge regulator technology.

9.4 Determine the number of parallel strings of PV modules

Typical values used for A:L are as follows:

For non-critical loads and areas with high and consistent solar radiation, an A:L of 1.1 to 1.2 is
typical.
For critical loads or areas with low solar irradiance, an A:L of 1.3 to 1.4 or higher is typical.

The formula is as follows in Equation (2):

NP = (LDA A:L) / ((1 SL) Imp SH) (2)

where

NP is the number of parallel strings of PV modules


LDA is the average daily load
A:L is the array-to-load ratio
SL is the system losses
Imp is the module current at maximum power
SH is the sun hours

As this result will typically not be a whole number, the result should be rounded up to the nearest whole
number. Since the number of parallel strings depends on the module selected, an alternative module may
result in a more cost-effective solution.
NOTERated module peak power current should be used for calculations. When sizing a stand-alone PV system, the
month with the lowest A:L should be used for sizing calculations.

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10. Design verification


The battery supplies energy to the loads during periods of low solar radiation. As a general rule, if the A:L
is a high value (greater than 1.3), then the availability of the system can be increased by increasing the
number of days of autonomy. Generally, increasing battery capacity increases system availability more
cost-effectively than increasing the PV array size.

The lower the A:L, the longer the time required to recharge the battery (see 6). Balance of the system
availability, system life, and system cost can be achieved by adjusting the array and battery size. A
computer-based stand-alone PV system-sizing program can assist the designer in determining this balance.

While it is outside the scope of this document, a loss of load probability (LOLP) calculation is the best way
to confirm the design and verify the annual availability of the system, and is recommended for critical
loads. Several publicly- and commercially-available software programs are available to simulate the
performance of the system.

Worksheet 1System Sizing


1) Project name and description:
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
2) Nominal system voltage: _________ VDC
3) Days of autonomy: _________ days
Determine the total daily load from IEEE Std 1013-2007
4) Total daily load from line 5c of Worksheet 1Battery Sizing, from IEEE Std 1013-2007:
_________ Ah / day
Determine the battery capacity from IEEE Std 1013-2007
5) Battery capacity from line 12 of Worksheet 1Battery Sizing, from IEEE Std 1013-2007:
________ Ah rated at the ________ hour rate.

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6) System losses

6b
6c
6a Typical
System
Description of system loss (percent of system load) percentage
loss
window

max min
%
% %

Parasitic load of controller 10 1


6
Coulombic effect of battery (refer to IEEE Std 1361, Annex B.5 and B.6 ) 25 5
Wire losses 10 0
Module mismatch losses 5 0
Module ageing 10 0
Dust 20 0
Other
Other
Other

6d) Total system losses %

7) Determine the number of peak sun hours: _________


8) Decide on an A:L: _________
9) Choose a PV module: _________
a) Peak power current (Ipp): _________ A
b) Nominal voltage: _________ VDC
10) Multiply line 4 times line 8: _________ Ah / day
11) Divide line 6d by 100 (this converts the percentage to a decimal) and subtract from 1: _________
12) Multiply line 11 times line 7 times line 9a: _________ Ah / day
13) Divide line 10 by line 12: _________
14) Round line 13 up to the nearest whole number: _________. This is the number of parallel PV
module strings required.
15) Divide line 2 by line 9b: _________. This is the number of modules to be wired in series.
16) Multiply line 14 by line 15: _________. This is the total number of PV modules required for the
system.

6
This content is located in these specific clauses in IEEE Std 1361-2003. A revision of this standard could result in a change to the
content and/or clause numbers.

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Annex A

(informative)

Photovoltaic module technologies

A.1 General

Several types of commercially-available terrestrial modules are available for use in PV systems. The most
common PV modules include single- and polycrystalline (referred to generically in this annex as
crystalline) silicon and amorphous silicon with other technologies (such as copper indium diselenide,
cadmium telluride, and hybrid amorphous/single-crystalline silicon modules) entering the market. Modules
consist of from a few cells up to dozens of cells interconnected in series and/or parallel to give the desired
module voltage and current. The purpose of this annex is to give an overview of some of the performance
differences between the most common PV module technologies.

A.2 Crystalline silicon PV modules

Single- and polycrystalline silicon modules have been in use longest and make up more than 80% of the
worldwide PV market (see Maycock [B9]). Although single-crystalline cells are slightly more efficient than
polycrystalline cells, module efficiencies employing either technology are nearly the same. Crystalline-
silicon modules have efficiencies ranging from 10 to 15%. (Efficiencies published in this annex are based
on manufacturers nameplate ratings). High efficiency is an important consideration where array area is
limited, for example on the roof of a house or building. Although all module technologies perform better
when unshaded, a small amount of shading (for example from the branch of a tree or an overhead power
line) decreases the output of any module. But typically, crystalline silicon modules are more strongly
affected by shading. Crystalline-silicon modules tend to have higher temperature coefficients than
amorphous silicon (a-Si): as their temperature increases, their voltage and power output decrease more than
for a-Si. Crystalline-silicon modules range in size from the sub-watt level to over 300 W. Larger modules
mean fewer to install and fewer interconnects to potentially fail, but special equipment may be required to
lift and maneuver larger, heavier modules. Most crystalline-silicon modules contain glass and have rigid
frames, making these heavier and more fragile than some other module types.

A.3 Amorphous silicon (a-Si) PV modules

Amorphous-silicon modules are one of several types of thin-film technologies. PV manufacturers began
manufacturing thin-films to decrease module production costs. Originally, a-Si cells were single-junction
devices. With time, manufacturers developed methods of stacking two or three a-Si cells to increase the
stabilized module efficiency. Even so, the stabilized efficiency of a-Si modules ranges from about 5% to
7%about half that of crystalline-silicon modules. Lower efficiencies mean that an a-Si array must be
larger to achieve the same output as a crystalline-silicon array. Another characteristic the PV system
designer must be aware of is the output of a-Si modules drops between 15% and 25% during the first few
weeks of exposure to sunlight, after which the output stabilizes to its rated level. Amorphous-silicon
modules have some advantages over crystalline-silicon modules. All PV modules perform better under
clear skies and at colder temperatures. But at elevated operating temperatures, the output of a-Si modules
does not decrease as much as that of crystalline-silicon modules. This can be critical when PV arrays are
deployed in hot climates. Typically, at reduced irradiance levels or when partially shaded, the output of a-Si
modules decreases less than crystalline silicon modules decrease. The output from an a-Si array can also
vary seasonally: operating a-Si modules at elevated temperatures, such as during hot summer months, can
cause self annealing, partially reversing light-induced degradation. Another unique feature is that some a-Si
modules are flexibledesigned to be bonded to conventional roofing panels or even fabricated into roofing

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shingles which may make them more aesthetically appealing. Amorphous-silicon modules are available up
to 128 W.

A.4 Copper indium diselenide (CIS) PV modules

Copper indium diselenide is a relatively new technology in the PV module market, representing a little
more than 0.5% of worldwide sales. Of all the commercially-available thin-film modules, CIS has the
highest efficiency at nearly 9.5%. Modules have a flat-black appearance which may make them more
aesthetically appealing. This technology presently has a high negative temperature coefficient of voltage
and power, meaning its output will typically decrease more than other module technologies at higher
temperatures. Copper indium diselenide modules are available up to 80 W.

A.5 Cadmium telluride (CdTe) PV modules

Cadmium telluride is a relatively new technology in the PV module market representing a little more than
0.5% of worldwide sales. Cadmium-telluride modules have an efficiency of about 6.5%. They have a flat-
black appearance which may make them more aesthetically appealing. The negative temperature coefficient
for voltage and power can be comparable or slightly better than that of a-Si (depending on the operating
history of the modules), and is generally less than that of crystalline-silicon and CIS. Cadmium-telluride
modules are available up to 65 W.

A.6 Heterojunction with intrinsic thin layer (HIT) PV modules

Heterojunction with intrinsic thin layer, or an amorphous-silicon layer on a crystalline-silicon cell, modules
have captured more than 5% of worldwide PV sales. By combining both a-Si and crystalline-silicon in a
single module, more of the available sunlight is utilized, leading to higher module efficiencies, up to 16%.
Presently, the largest HIT module is 190 W.

A.7 Self-regulating PV modules

Generally, crystalline-silicon PV modules used in battery-charging applications are designed to produce a


slightly greater voltage (around 17.5 V) than that required to charge a 12 V battery (typically between 14.0
V and 15.5 V). It is expected that losses in the wiring and charge controller will reduce the voltage to the
correct level required to fully charge a battery. In a self-regulating module, fewer cells (30 versus 36) are
placed in series to reduce the operating voltage. The modules are designed to be directly wired to a battery,
thereby simplifying the system by eliminating the need for a charge controller. A system using only a self-
regulating module and no charge controller must be carefully designed. If the module operates at a
temperature that is too high, the module voltage can decrease to the point that the battery will not be fully
charged. If the load is too great for the battery and module, there is a high probability the battery can be
over-discharged.

A.8 Temperature effect on modules

PV modules are almost always rated at standard test conditions (STC). In reality, modules in systems rarely
operate at a cell temperature of 25 C. Module temperatures may vary from 40 C to 80 C, depending on
ambient temperature, mounting structure, wind speed, etc. For example, a module mounted in an open rack
with air flowing around it will operate cooler versus one mounted directly on a roof. Module operating
temperature is important because all PV-module types exhibit reduced voltage and power at elevated
module temperatures. In extremely hot climates, like the desert southwest of the U.S., voltage output may
decrease to the point that an array cannot charge the system battery.

Photovoltaic-module voltage and power temperature coefficients may range from 0.1% / C to 0.6% / C,
depending on the specific module and module material. A commonly-used rule of thumb for crystalline-
silicon is 0.5% / C. The outputs of a-Si and CdTe are typically affected the least by temperature, and CIS
and crystalline-Si affected the most. Consult the module literature or manufacturer to determine the

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temperature coefficients for a particular module. A greater negative value indicates the output of a
particular technology will decrease more at higher temperatures. Conversely, at lower temperatures, PV
technologies with a greater negative temperature coefficient will have a higher module-output voltage.

To calculate the module-output voltage at a temperature other than 25 C, the translation is calculated using
Equation (3) (see Installing Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems [B8]):

Vmpnew = Vmp + (TCV (Tnew 25 C)) (3)

where

Vmpnew is the peak-power voltage at the operating temperature


Vmp is the STC rated peak-power voltage of the module
Tnew is the operating temperature of the module
TCV is the temperature coefficient of voltage

If TCV is given in V / C, then Equation (3) may be used directly. If TCV is given in % / C or parts per
million (ppm), then it must be converted to V / C.

As an example, assume a module has a Vmp of 17.0 V. The expected operating temperature, Tnew, is 55 C.
The manufacturer may give the TCV as 0.085 V / C or 0.5% / C or 5000 ppm / C.

If TCV is given as 0.085 V / C, then Vmpnew is calculated using Equation (3) directly, as shown in
Equation (4):

Vmpnew = 17.0 V + (0.085 V (55 C 25 C)) = 14.45 V (4)

If TCV were given as 0.5% / C, TCV must first be translated to V / C before using Equation (3) as shown
in Equation (5):

TCV (V / C) = TCV (% / C) (Vmp / 100%) = 0.5% / C 17.0 V / 100% = 0.085 V / C (5)

If TCV were given as 5000 ppm / C, it must first be translated to V / C before it can be used in Equation
(3), as shown in Equation (6):

TCV (V / C) = TCV (ppm / C) (Vmp / 1 000 000 ppm) = 5000 ppm / C (17.0 V /
1 000 000 ppm) = 0.085 V / C (6)

The same equations can be used if the temperature coefficients for the power or current are known.

A.9 PV module selection

Before choosing the module for a PV system, the operation of the load and the site climate must be known.
The designer must know the power required by the loads and input voltage range. Common loads include
batteries or inverters. The designer should also know the expected solar radiation and ambient temperature
for the site. If the solar radiation is typically low during the time of year the load demand is greatest, the
array size will have to be increased. With this information, the designer must calculate the maximum and
minimum expected voltages from the array to verify the array will be able to power the load under all
expected climate conditions. The designer must account for all voltage drops in the system wiring (round-
trip), fuses, connectors, charge controllers, etc., to determine if the array output will still meet the needs of
the load. For example, the voltage output of a crystalline-silicon module with a voltage at Pmax of 16.90 V,
and a temperature coefficient for voltage of 0.43% / C will drop to 15.40 V at an expected module
operating temperature of 46 C. This may be inadequate to charge a 12 V lead-acid battery.

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Annex B

(informative)

Tilt angle selection

B.1 Recommended tilt angle

It is recommended to adjust the array tilt angle for stand-alone PV systems so as to maximize solar
irradiance in the month with the lowest available radiation. Generally, for fixed-tilt arrays to optimize
performance in the winter, the array tilt angle should be the latitude plus 15 (see NREL/TP-463-5607
[B11]). The most accurate way to confirm proper tilt angle is with a computer simulation program.

NOTEPV array tilt angles for grid-connected and hybrid systems may be different in order to optimize the array
output throughout the year.

B.2 PV array orientation

To maximize the PV array output, typically the array needs to be oriented to face south in the Northern
hemisphere and north in the Southern hemisphere. However this can change within any latitude within 15
of the equator. For sites within 15 of the equator it is recommended to use a computer simulation program
to verify the PV array orientation.

When orienting the PV array on site, the magnetic declination should be considered, as true North can vary
by up to 20 versus magnetic North. The orientation is less critical at low latitudes.

B.3 Tracking structures

Single-axis and dual-axis trackers can also be used in the system sizing. A computer simulation program is
recommended (if not already included in a solar database) to calculate the monthly average solar radiation
in the POA.

Trackers have additional considerations in the system design, such as maintenance. The tracker
manufacturer should be consulted for considerations to be used in the system design.

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Annex C

(informative)

Charge controller technologies

C.1 General

The main purpose of a charge controller is to prevent the battery from being under- or overcharged.

Some additional features of charge controllers may include:

A low-voltage load disconnect to prevent the battery from being over-discharged


Metering or status indicators
Over-current protection
Adjustable settings

There are several different configurations of charge controllers; some may be better for a specific
application than others. In general, charge controllers should be voltage-controlled and should include
temperature compensation, especially if the batterys temperature deviates significantly from 25 C.

The charge controller should be sized as per the manufacturers recommendation and per local electrical
codes or standards (e.g., National Electric Code (NEC) (NFPA 70) article 690 [B1]), as different types of
charge controllers have separate sizing requirements.

All charge controllers have a parasitic load on the system. This parasitic load should be included in the
system sizing, either as part of the load or in the system losses.

Refer to IEEE Std 1361 for additional information on charge controller technology, characteristics, and
considerations.

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C.2 Shunt regulator

Shunt regulators are typically solid-state. Their primary components are a transistor between the array
positive and negative lines, and a blocking diode between the battery positive and the array positive.
During normal charging, current flows from the array to the battery. When the battery voltage reaches the
array disconnect setting, the transistor is activated, shorting the array. The battery is prevented from being
shorted by the blocking diode. The blocking diode also prevents the current from flowing back into the PV
array from the battery during nighttime. When the battery voltage falls to the array reconnect setting, the
transistor is released and the current then flows to the battery again. (See Figure C.1Typical shunt
regulator.)

This type of charge controller is typically used on smaller low-voltage systems. Although short circuiting
the array does not cause damage, there can be large amounts of current flowing through the transistor. The
larger the array, the larger the current flowing through the transistor and the larger the amounts of heat the
transistor must dissipate. Additionally, voltage drop (loss) occurs across the blocking diode.

Figure C.1Typical shunt regulator

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C.3 Series regulator

Series regulators come in many variations. The basic series regulator consists of a relay (either mechanical
or solid-state) between the battery positive conductor and the array positive conductor (for a negatively
grounded system), and a voltage comparator. The negative conductors are used for a positively-grounded
system. When the battery voltage reaches the array-disconnect setting, the relay is opened, disconnecting
the flow of current to the battery. The PV array becomes open-circuited. When the battery voltage falls to
the array-reconnect setting, the relay is closed, allowing the current to flow to the battery again. (See Figure
C.2Typical series regulator)

Normally-open or normally-closed relays could be used. If normally-closed relays are used, a blocking
diode is needed to prevent the flow of current from the battery to the array at night. The relay can be solid-
state or mechanical. Typically, mercury-displacement relays are used because of their high cycle life (over
a million cycles) and are available in currents up to 100 A. The frequency with which the relay opens and
closes varies greatly and can be hours, minutes, or seconds.

A series charge controller can consist of one relay or several. By placing several relays in parallel, and
staggering the settings at which the relays open and close, the charge current from the PV array to the
battery can be somewhat tapered.

Series charge controllers are used on any size of system. Because of their use of relays, the charge
controller can be made larger or smaller by changing the relay.

Figure C.2Typical series regulator

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C.4 PWM regulator

A pulse width modulated (PWM) regulator is a variation on the series regulator. The PWM regulator is a
series regulator with a solid-state switch instead of a relay. With the solid-state switch replacing the relay,
the flow of current from the array to the battery can be switched at high speed (frequencies vary with
manufacturers, from a few Hz to kHz). By switching the solid-state switch at high speed, the battery charge
voltage can be controlled more accurately. Instead of varying the voltage to control battery charging, the
PWM regulator varies the amount of the time the solid-state switch is open or closed by modulating the
width of the pulse. (See Figure C.3Typical PWM regulator)

PWM charge controllers do not require a diode, as the solid-state switch prevents the current from flowing
back to the PV array.

PWM charge regulators are used on systems of various sizes; however, they have been known to cause
electrical noise on telecommunication systems because of the high-speed switching on the solid-state
switch.

Figure C.3Typical PWM regulator

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C.5 MPPT charge controller

The maximum power point tracker (MPPT) charge controller is a variation of the PWM charge controller.
The MPPT charge controller adjusts the PWM to allow the PV array voltage to vary from the battery
voltage. By varying the array input voltage (while maintaining the battery charge voltage), the maximum
output from the PV array can be achieved. (See Figure C.4Typical MPPT charge controller)

The MPPT charge controller is relatively new and has many advantages over other charge regulators. In
addition to getting more charge current from the PV array, some MPPT controllers allow the array to
operate at a much higher voltage than the battery. This feature can be useful to reduce wire size and voltage
drop from the PV array to the controller. Although the MPPT controller can increase the output from the
PV array, they typically have greater losses than the other controller types.

This guide does not consider system sizing with MPPT controllers, as these controllers charge the batteries
differently than the other controller types. MPPT controllers are based on charge power, whereas the other
controller types are based on charge current. When sizing systems with MPPT controllers, in addition to
sizing the system based on wattage, one must also take into account additional factors (e.g. temperature,
etc.).

Figure C.4Typical MPPT charge controller

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Annex D

(informative)

Examples

The following examples, including the parameters used, show the application of the system sizing method.
They are illustrative only and are not intended to cover all possible sizing features.

D.1 Refrigerator/freezer for vaccine storage

Example D.1 describes the system sizing for a vaccine storage refrigerator intended for remote use. The
refrigerator is to be located near the equator in a tropical climate. Vaccines are delivered quarterly. At the
same time deliveries are made, a technician is available for system maintenance.

Example D.1
Worksheet 1System Sizing
(Refer to Annex B.1 of IEEE Std 1013-2007)
1) Project name and description:
Remote refrigerator/freezer, Brazilian village, tropical climate. High availability required,
quarterly maintenance, four starts each 24 h period (including one for ice pack freezing)
2) Nominal system voltage: 12 VDC
3) Days of autonomy: 6 days
Determine the total daily load from IEEE Std 1013-2007
4) Total daily load from line 5c of Worksheet 1Battery Sizing, from IEEE Std 1013-2007:
51.4 Ah / day
Determine the battery capacity from IEEE Std 1013-2007
5) Battery capacity from line 12 of Worksheet 1Battery Sizing, from IEEE Std 1013-2007:
440 Ah rated at the 70 hour rate.

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6) System losses

6b
6c
6a Typical
System
Description of System Loss Percentage
loss
window

max min
%
% %

Parasitic load of controller 10 1 2


Coulombic effect of battery (refer to IEEE Std 1361, Annex B.5 and B.6) 25 5 5
Wire losses 10 0 3
Module mismatch losses 5 0 0
Module ageing 10 0 0
Dust 20 0 10
Other
Other
Other

6d) Total system losses 20 %

7) Determine the number of peak sun hours: 4.4 7 .


8) Decide on an A:L: 1.2 .
9) Choose a PV module: Brand XYZ, 50 W .
a) Peak power current (Ipp): 3.0 A
b) Nominal voltage: 12 VDC
10) Multiply line 4 times line 8: 61.7 Ah / day
11) Divide line 6d by 100 (this converts the percentage to a decimal) and subtract from 1: 0.8 .
12) Multiply line 11 times line 7 times line 9a: 10.6 Ah / day
13) Divide line 10 by line 12: 5.84 .
14) Round line 13 up to the nearest whole number: 6 . This is the number of parallel PV module
strings required.
15) Divide line 2 by line 9b: 1 . This is the number of modules to be wired in series.
16) Multiply line 14 by line 15: 6 . This is the total number of PV modules required for the system.

7
Solar radiation data from RETScreen Solar Resource and System Load Calculation at www.retscreen.net. (RETScreen is a
registered trademark of the Minister of Natural Resources Canada.) Location: Brasilia, Brazil. The month with the lowest radiation
was January with a tilt of 15 (equals latitude).

19
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IEEE Std 1562-2007
IEEE Guide for Array and Battery Sizing in Stand-Alone Photovoltaic Systems

D.2 Microwave repeater

Example D.2
Worksheet 1System Sizing
(Refer to Annex B.2 of IEEE Std 1013-2007)

1) Project name and description:


Communications system. High reliability required, 6 month interval between servicing, mountain
top location near Phoenix, AZ
2) Nominal system voltage: 48 VDC
3) Days of autonomy: 15 days
Determine the total daily load from IEEE Std 1013-2007
4) Total daily load from line 5c of Worksheet 1Battery Sizing, from IEEE Std 1013-2007:
17.8 Ah / day
Determine the battery capacity from IEEE Std 1013-2007
5) Battery capacity from line 12 of Worksheet 1Battery Sizing, from IEEE Std 1013-2007:
660 Ah rated at the 59 hour rate.
6) System losses

6b
6c
6a Typical
System
Description of System Loss Percentage
loss
window

max min
%
% %

Parasitic load of controller 10 1 2


Coulombic effect of battery (refer to IEEE Std 1361, Annex B.5 and B.6) 25 5 10
Wire losses 10 0 5
Module mismatch losses 5 0 3
Module ageing 10 0 5
Dust 20 0 10
Other
Other
Other

6d) Total system losses 35 %

7) Determine the number of peak sun hours: 5.3 8 .


8) Decide on an A:L: 1.3 .

8
Solar radiation data from NREL Solar Radiation Data Manual. WBAN No. 23183, Phoenix, AZ [B11]. The month with the lowest
radiation was December with a tilt of latitude +15. (http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/old_data/nsrdb/redbook/sum2/23183.txt)

20
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IEEE Std 1562-2007
IEEE Guide for Array and Battery Sizing in Stand-Alone Photovoltaic Systems

9) Choose a PV module: Brand XYZ, 120 W .


a) Peak power current (Ipp): 7.1 A
b) Nominal voltage: 12 VDC
10) Multiply line 4 times line 8: 23.1 Ah / day
11) Divide line 6d by 100 (this converts the percentage to a decimal) and subtract from 1: 0.65 .
12) Multiply line 11 times line 7 times line 9a: 24.5 Ah / day
13) Divide line 10 by line 12: 0.95 .
14) Round line 13 up to the nearest whole number: 1 . This is the number of parallel PV module
strings required.
15) Divide line 2 by line 9b: 4 . This is the number of modules to be wired in series.
16) Multiply line 14 by line 15: 4 . This is the total number of PV modules required for the
system.

21
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IEEE Std 1562-2007
IEEE Guide for Array and Battery Sizing in Stand-Alone Photovoltaic Systems

Annex E

(informative)

Bibliography

[B1] ANSI/NFPA 70, National Electrical Code (NEC). 9, 10

[B2] ASTM E 1036M-96, Standard Test Methods for Electrical Performance of Nonconcentrator
Terrestrial Photovoltaic Modules and Arrays Using Reference Cells. 11

[B3] IEEE 100, The Authoritative Dictionary of IEEE Standards Terms, Seventh Edition, New York,
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. 12

[B4] IEEE Std 450, IEEE Recommended Practice for Maintenance, Testing, and Replacement of
Vented Lead-Acid Batteries for Stationary Applications. (ANSI/BCI).

[B5] IEEE Std 484, IEEE Recommended Practice for Sizing Lead-Acid Batteries for Stationary
Applications. (ANSI/BCI).

[B6] IEEE Std 937, IEEE Recommended Practice for the Installation and Maintenance of Lead-acid
Batteries for Photovoltaic Systems (ANSI).

[B7] IEEE Std 1188, IEEE Recommended Practice for Maintenance, Testing, and Replacement of
Valve-Regulated Lead-Acid (VRLA) Batteries for Stationary Applications (ANSI/BCI).

[B8] Installing Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems. FSEC. Cocoa, FL. 1999. http://www.fsec.ucf.edu

[B9] Maycock, Paul, PV Market Update. Renewable Energy World. JulyAugust 2003.

[B10] NREL/CP-411-20379: Emery, Keith, et al., Temperature and Irradiance Behavior of Photovoltaic
Devices. Photovoltaic Performance and Reliability Workshop; Laxmi Mrig, Editor. September 1995. 13

[B11] NREL/TP-463-5607: Marion, William and Stephen Wilcox, Solar Radiation Data Manual for Flat-
plate and Concentrating Collectors. April 1994. http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/pubs/redbook/

[B12] NREL/TP-520-26909: Marion, B., B. Kroposki, et al., Validation of a Photovoltaic Module Energy
Ratings Procedure at NREL. August 1999.

9
ANSI publications are available from the Sales Department, American National Standards Institute, 25 West 43rd Street, 4th Floor,
New York, NY 10036, USA (http://www.ansi.org/).
10
The NEC is published by the National Fire Protection Association, Batterymarch Park, Quincy, MA 02269, USA
(http://www.nfpa.org/). Copies are also available from the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 445 Hoes Lane,
Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA (http://standards.ieee.org/).
11
ASTM publications are available from the American Society for Testing and Materials, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West
Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, USA (http://www.astm.org/).
12
IEEE publications are available from the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 445 Hoes Lane, P.O. Box 1331,
Piscataway, NJ 08855-1331, USA (http://standards.ieee.org/).
13
NREL publications are available from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, CO 80401.
http://rredc.nrel.gov/

22
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