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Advance Material Super Magnet NeoDeltaMagnet (Sintered Neodymium)

The neodymium (or neo) magnet was created because the previous industry standard of the
Samarium Cobalt (SmCo) magnet was becoming too expensive. A more cost-efficient magnet
was needed. Neo magnets were simultaneously discovered and created in 1983 by General
Motors and Sumitomo Special Metals. [11]
The two companies utilized different processes in creating the magnet. General Motors
created them in a powder-bonded form(NeoAlphaMagnet) while Sumitomo made them in a
sintered form (NeoDeltaMagnet). These two different methods of production resulted in
slightly varied properties for the magnets, with the sintered form exhibiting marginally
stronger magnetic properties.

Fig. A neodymium magnet, though small for its size, can hold up to 1,300 times its own weight.
(Dalvin/Wikimedia Commons)

Magnet neodymium, merupakan magnet tetap yang paling kuat. Magnet neodymium (juga
dikenal sebagai NdFeB atau magnet Neo), merupakan sejenis magnet tanah jarang, terbuat
dari campuran Neodymium-Iron-Boron. Tetragonal Nd2Fe14B memiliki struktur kristal yang
sangat tinggi uniaksial anisotropi magnetocrystalline. Senyawa ini memberikan potensi untuk
memiliki tinggi koersivitas (yaitu, ketahanan mengalami kerusakan magnetik). [8]

Sinter Nd2Fe14B cenderung rentan terhadap korosi. Secara khusus, korosi sekecil apapun
dapat menyebabkan kerusakan magnet sinter. Masalah ini dibahas dalam banyak produk
komersial dengan menyediakan lapisan pelindung. Pelapisan nikel atau dua pelapisan
tembaga berlapis nikel digunakan sebagai metode standar, meskipun pelapisan dengan logam
lainnya atau polimer dan lapisan pelindung pernis juga digunakan.

57 Fe + 8 B + 10 Fe2O3 + 7.5 Nd2O3 + 52.5 Ca -> Nd15Fe77B8 + 52.5 CaO

Normally both SmCo and NdFeB magnets are alloyed by melting. Afterwards the material
ingots are crushed and milled into fine powders, compressed under the influence of a
magnetic field and finally sintered in temp as high as 1080C below the material's melting
point, until its particles adhere to each other. Process ingots made by isostatic pressing and
then sintering in large dimensions. These ingots are then cut up using diamond saws under
water. Discs and rings are also produced with diamond tools. [1] Complex shapes are made
with electric discharge machining (EDM). Because of the high material cost, material losses
due to machining are kept to a minimum.
The magnetisation Process, after the magnet has its final shape it must be magnetised until
saturation is caused. This needs very high magnetic fields. To produce these strong magnetic
fields, charged capacitor batteries are discharged in an air-core coil. The magnet body situated
in the inner hole of the low-impedance air-core coil is magnetised until saturation by the
induced strong magnetic field when the impulse discharge and impregnated during process.
[1]
Iron Nitride (Fe16N2), Inventioned by Jian-Pinf Wang, Shihai He, Yanfeng Jiang (United State)
published on Aug 17, 2012 and Patented on Oct 9,2014. In Research Iron Nitride Permanent
Magnet And Technique For Forming Iron Nitride Permanent Magnet.
Iron Nitride (Fe16N2), the permanent magnet may be formed by a technique that includes
straining an iron wire or sheet comprising at least on iron crystal in a direction substantially
parallel to a <001> crystal axis of the iron crystal; nitridizing the iron wire or sheet; annealing
the nitridized iron wire or sheet to form Fe16N2 phase and pressing the nitridized iron wire or
sheet to form bulk permanent magnet.
Iron Nitride (Fe16N2) may provide an alternative to permanent rare earth element, Iron and
Nitrogen are abundant element, and thus are relatively inexpensive and easy to procure.
Additionally, experiment evidence gathered from thin film Fe16N2 permanent magnet suggest
that bulk Fe16N2 permanent magnet may have desirable magnetic properties, including an
energy product of as high as about 134 MegaGauss*Oerstads (MGOe), which is about two
times the energy product of NdFeB (Neodymium)

1. Ing. K.-H. Schroeter, 2007, Permanent Magnets Materials and Magnet Systems, IBSMagnet,
Edition no.13, Berlin
2. http://sciencenordic.com/super-magnets-strengthen-tomorrow%E2%80%99s-green-energy-
supplies
3. https://www.supermagnete.de/eng/supermagnete-strong-neodymium-magnets
4. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnetic_nanoparticles
5. http://spectrum.ieee.org/semiconductors/nanotechnology/the-incredible-pull-of-
nanocomposite-magnets
6. http://illumin.usc.edu/233/the-worlds-most-attractive-magnet-that-is-not-attracting-
attention/
7. https://www.duramag.com/techtalk/tech-briefs/what-is-maximum-energy-product-bhmax-
and-how-does-it-correspond-to-magnet-grade/
8. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neodymium_magnet
9. http://www.magnaworkstechnology.com/sintered-neodymium-1.html
10. http://kekuatanmagnet.blogspot.co.id/
11. Spalding, GORDON GRAFF in New York City, with B.J. The new supermagnets: More pull and
less weight. Chemical Week, vol. 61, (1985, November 20)