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: Chandra F D Silalahi

Reg. number : 8176111006

1. Four classification of politeness by brown and levinson are:

possitive politeness : is one of politeness strategies which ususally use to the person who
close to the speaker.

Ex: you look so handsome today! Can you land me some money please?

negative politeness : is one of politeness strategies which usually use to the person who
not close to the speaker and this strategies usually use to avoid the hearer offended.

Ex: I'm sorry mam, I'm still confuse about the instruction. Could you repeat it please.

Bald on record : the strategies to say something by using implicit words, but sometimes it
can be sounds like a command.

Ex: give me your pencil.

Off record : the strategies to say something without make the hearer offended by using
explicit words.

Ex; oh my God! I forgot my pen.

2. Sub strategies

..possitive politeness ..

Strategy 1: Notice, attend to Hearer.

This output suggests that S should take notice of aspects of hearer's condition.

e.g. You must be hungry, its a long time since breakfast. How about some lunch?

Strategy 2: Exaggerate

Usually the speaker exaggerated intonation, stress, and other aspects of prosodic, as well as
with intensifying modifiers.

e. g: How wonderful!
Strategy 3: Intensify

Speaker wants to share his interest to H as a form of Ss contribution into the conversation.

e. g: she must be strong I think, Isn't it?

Strategy 4: Use in-group identity markers

S can implicitly claim the common ground with H that is carried by that definition of the group.
These include in group usages of address forms, of language or dialect, of jargon or slang, and
of ellipsis.

example: Come here, honey

Strategy 5: Seek Agreement

Safe topics. The raising of safe topics allows S to stress his agreement with H and therefore to
satisfy Hs desire to be right, or to be corroborated in his opinions.

e. g: There was flood in my hometown. Oh my God. Flood! "

Strategy 6: Avoid Disagreement

Token agreement. S may go in twisting their utterances so as to appear to agree or to hide

disagreement-to respond to a preceding utterance with yes, but..'in effect, rather than a
blatant No.

e. g. H: How the girl looked like, beautiful?

S: Yes, I think she is quite, but not really beautiful, she is certainly not really ugly.

Pseudo-agreement. Another example of apparent or pseudo-agreement is found in English in

the use of then as a conclusory marker.

e.g. Ill meet you in front of the theatre just before 8.0, then.

White lies. S may do white lie to hide disagreement. By doing this, S is saving Hs face.

e. g. In response to a request to borrow a car, Oh I cant, my father will use it


Hedging opinions. To soften FTA of suggesting, criticizing or complaining, hedges may also be

e. g.: I know you are sort of a polite person

Strategy 7: Presuppose/ raise/ assert common ground

Gossip or small talk. S is talking about unrelated topics to show that S is interested in H as the
mark of friendship and does not come only to impose him.

e. g.: You look so bright today. It must be because MU had defeated Chelsea, right? By the way,
can you take me to the airport this afternoon?

Point-of-view operations. S may claim common ground by using cooperation point of view. (S
speaks as if H were S, or Hs knowledge were equal to Ss knowledge).

e. g. I had a really hard time learning to drive, didnt I.

Presupposition manipulations. S presupposes something when he presumes that it is mutually

taken for granted.

e.g.: Wouldnt you like a drink?

Strategy 8: Jokes

Jokes can be used to stress the fact that there must be some mutual background knowledge and
values that S and H share. That is why, the strategy of joking may be useful in diminishing the
social distance between S and H.

e. g.: OK if I tackle those cookies now?

How about lending me this old heap of junk? (Hs new Cadillac)

Strategy 9: Assert or Presuppose Ss knowledge of and concerns for Hs wants.

It is the way to indicate that S and H are co-operators, and thus potentially to put pressure on H
to cooperate with S. S wants to assert and imply knowledge of Hs wants and willingness to fit
ones own wants in with them.

e. g.: I understand you can do it yourself, but this time, do what I suggested


Strategy 10: Offer or promises

S and H are good co-operators that they share some goals or S is willing to help to achieve those
goals. Promise or offer demonstrates Ss good attention in satisfying Hs positive-face wants,
even if they are false.
e. g.: Ill go there sometimes

Strategy 11: Be optimistic

S assumes that H wants Ss wants for S (or for S and H) and will help to obtain them. This usually
happens among people with close relationship.

e. g.: Youll tell your father that you did it, I hope

Strategy 12: Include both S and H in the activity

Here, S manipulates the subject of an activity is done together. S uses an inclusive we from
when S actually means you or me. Inclusive form we is usually used in the construction

e. g.: Bring us the book (i.e. me)

Lets go downtown, uh? (i. e you)

Strategy 13: Give (or ask for) reasons

S uses H as the reason why S wants something so that it will seem reasonable to the hearer. S
assumes (via optimism) that there are no good reasons why H should not or cannot cooperate.

e. g.:Why not lend me your car for the weekend?

Strategy 14: Assume or assert reciprocity

S asks H to cooperate with him by giving evidence of reciprocal rights or obligations between S
and H. Thus, S may say, in effect, Ill do x for you if you can do y for me.

e. g.:Ill tell you what it looks like if you tell me where she is now.

Strategy 15: Give gifts to H (goods, sympathy, understanding, cooperation)

S satisfies Hs Positive Face want by giving gift, not only tangible gifts, but human relation wants
which are the wants to be liked, admired, cared about,

..negative politeness..

1.Be conventionally indirect

2.Question, hedge
3.Be pessimistic

4.Minimise the imposition

5.Give deference


7.Impersonalise the speaker and hearer

8.State the face threatening action as a general rule


10.Go on record as incurring a debt

3. FTA and FSA

FTA is the way to the speaker to not avoid the obstraction of speaker interlocutors freedom of

FSA is the way to the speaker to not show the failure of the hearer.

No Title I M R D Potential
research to do

1 Cooperation The reason of the The findings of

and researcher who revealed that out of
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