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# UNIVERSITY OF THE EAST

## COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, DEPT. OF

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

EXPERIMENT NO. 3
Magnetization Curve
of a Dynamo
(NEE419 1EC)

## Date Performed: 10 August 2017

Date Submitted: 24 August 2017

TORRES, JOAB C.
201011 53531
5TH YR BS ECE

## ENGR. ANTONIO C. REBONG

PROFESSOR
LIST OF INSTRUMENTS, EQUIPMENTS, AND THEIR DESCRIPTION

DC Machine Set

## - Provides a set of predetermined electrical and mechanical parameters for various

DC machine ratings of power (HP), DC voltage (V), rated speed (rpm), and field

voltage (V).

DC Voltmeter

- an instrument used for measuring electrical potential difference between two points

in an electric circuit.

DC Ammeter

Tachometer

## - instrument measuring the rotation speed of a shaft or disk in a motor or other

machine. The device usually displays the revolutions per minute (RPM) on a

Connecting Wires

DATA

1 1140 45.8V

2 1237.5 70.4V

3 1366.8 77.8V

4 1519.2 86.7V

5 1723.8 98.8V

6 1971.3 113.2V

## RUN 2 (Magnetization Curve)

Increasing IF Decreasing IF
Trial
IF IG IF IG

## 8 0.35 89.3 0 2.58

1. How is the generated emf of the generator affected by changes in speeds? Why?

- The generated emf is directly proportional and affected by the speed. Because when

the generator armature spins slower it cuts the flux at a slower rate there for

decreasing the voltage induced within the armature coils, while when the generator

armature spins fast it cuts the flux at a faster rate which increases the voltage

## 2. How is the generator affected by changes in field current? Why?

- The generator emf is directly affected by the field current since the field current

controls the flux flowing through the generator higher currents provide more flux

lines which will be cut by the generator armature causing the increase in the

1200 RPM.

## Since, EG1 = EG2 Therefore,

EG = k S
1 = 2
2
2 = 1 ( )
By using ratio and proportion, 1

1 2 1200
= 2 = 240 ( )
2 1 1800

=
b. At 1800 rpm, what voltage will be generated by this generator if the field flux is

reduced by 25%?

S2 = S1
2 = 0.751
1 k (0.75)2 2
=
2 1 1
Therefore,
EG2 = EG1 (0.75)
= 240 (0.75)
EG2 = 240 volts
c. At 1200 rpm, by how much must the field flux be increased to maintain the
generated emf at 240 volts?
Since, EG1 = EG2
Let, 2 = x1
Where x = unknown value
So, @100%
x 2 2
1=
1 1

1200
1=
1800

X = 1.5

## Therefore, the field flux must be increased by 50%.

4. A DC generator has four poles and a total of 600 inductor on its armature. The total
air gap flux from each pole is 1.5x106 maxwells. At 1500 rpm, find the voltage
generated if the machine is (a) simplex lap wound, (b) simplex wave wound, (c) if
the allowable current is 10 amps per path, what will be the kilo-watt generated in
each case.

## a) Simplex lap wound

a = mp = 1(4) = 4
EG = PNZ / (60a 10-8)
= [6106(4)(1500)(600)] / [60(4)10-8]
EG = 900 volts
b) Simplex wave wound
a = 2m = 2(1) = 2
EG = PNZ / (60a 10-8)
= [6106(4)(1500)(600)] / [60(2)10-8]
EG = 1800 volts
c) Kilo-watt generated for simplex lap wound
IA = 10(4) = 40
Pd = EGIA
=900(40)
Pd = 36000kW
d) Kilo-watt generated for simplex wave wound
IA = 10(2) = 20
Pd = EGIA
=900(20)
Pd = 18000kW
5. A 20 kilowatt, 200-volt series generator has an armature resistance of 0.2 ohm and a
series field resistance of 0.05 ohm. When this generator is operated at rated load
and at rated speed and voltage, calculate the following:
a. Armature Current, IA
IA = IL
= PO/VT
= 20 kW / 200
IA = 100A

## b. EMF generated by the generator, EG

EG = VT + IA (RA+RS)
= 200 + 100 (0.2+0.05)
EG =225 volts
DISCUSSION

## The DC motor is any of a class of electrical machines that converts direct

current electrical power into mechanical power. The most common types rely on the forces

produced by magnetic fields. The DC machine, as a generator was the first device used to

provide a significant amount of electrical energy. They are widely used in automobiles and

vehicles that have electric storage batteries. However, most direct current generators are

being increasingly replaced by solid state devices, which convert available alternating

current into direct current for DC drive systems and other DC applications. The field

current in a generator produces an mmf, which results in the field flux in accordance with

the magnetization curve. When the machine is driven by the prime mover an emf is

induced in the armature. The generated emf in the armature windings is proportional to

the field flux times the speed. The magnetization curve of a generator shows the relation

between the field current and the armature terminal voltage on an open circuit. The curve

is drawn with induced armature voltage on the y-axis and field current on the x-axis. The

## magnetization curve is of great importance because it represents the saturation of the

magnetic circuit of the DC machine. DC generators are classified according to the way their

flux is produced. These include separately excited generator, where the flux is derived from

a separate DC source. When certain conditions are fulfilled, the generator own armature

circuit may be employed as a source of excitation. These machines are referred to as self-

excited shunt generators, series generators and compound generators. The first condition

for self-excitation is there must be some residual magnetism in the poles of the generators.
CONCLUSION

DC generators have changed and helped shape the modern days, generators serve as

the primary source of electrical energy. The output generated voltage of a generator

depends on many factors; two of these factors are speed at which the armature core

rotates, and the magnetic field surrounding the armature core. The poles provide the

magnetic field necessary for voltage production, in which for every 1 volt to be generated a

coil should cut one weber or 108 lines of flux per second. Thats why generators are

created in such a way that the armature core is consist of slot and teeth for the armature

windings which serve as the coils cutting the generated flux by the poles. The faster the

armature core rotates means more coils are cutting the flux lines at a faster rate which

leads to higher voltages to be generated, since the magnetic flux reaches a point of

saturation speed then is the way to vary the output generated voltage.

REFERENCES

Electric Machinery, Fourth Edition, Fitzgerald, Kingsley, and Umans, McGraw-Hill Book

## Company, 1984, Chapters 2 and 5.

Electric Machines, Steady-State Theory and Dynamic Performance, Sarma, M. S., Wm. C.
Brown