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LAB-MANUAL

III Year V SEM ECE

5EC08
Microwave Engineering Lab

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS &


COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

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Experiment No. 1

Object:Study of various microwave components and instruments like frequency meter,


attenuator and detector & VSWR meter.

Apparatus Required:Gunn power supply, Klystron power supply, SWR meter, Reflex klystron,
klystron mount, Isolator, Attenuator, Direct reading frequency meter, Slotted section, Tunable probe,
Matched termination, Moveable short, Detector mount, S.S. tuner, Directional coupler, E- plane tee,
H- plane tee, Magic tee, Circulator etc.

Theory:

1.1 Gunn Power Supply:


Gunn Power Supply comprises of an electronically regulated DC Power Supply and a square
wave generator designed to operate Gunn oscillator and PIN modulator simultaneously. The DC
voltage is variable from 0 to 10 volts. The frequency of square wave can be continuously varied
from 800 to 1200 Hz. The front panel meter can read the Gunn voltage and the current drawn by
the Gunn diode.
The Power Supply is designed to protect Gunn diode from reverse voltage application from
over voltage transients and from low frequency oscillations.

1.2 Gunn Oscillator:


Gunn oscillator has been designed as a stable and spectrally pure microwave source. The
oscillator has a Gunn diode mounted in a waveguide cavity which is tunable over the range 8.5 to
11.5 GHz by a micrometer controlled tuning plunger. Output power available is 5 mW - 10 mW.

1.3 PIN Modulator:


The CW output of the Gunn oscillator can be a square wave pulse modulated by superimposing
the modulating voltage on the Gunn diode bias voltage. It is however rather difficult to achieve
good modulation due to varying impedance of Gunn diode with temperature. Moreover the
generating circuit of modulating voltage should have low output impedance and should be able
to deliver as much as 300 to 500 mA. These disadvantages can be overcome by using an
external PIN diode modulator operating on the CW output of the Gunn oscillator.
The PIN Modulator is a transmission line i.e. wave guide shunted with a PIN Diode. The
impedance of diode varies with the bias applied to it. At negative or zero bias the diode presents

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very low impedance, thus reflecting the signal. At positive bias, the diode presents very high
impedance and therefore does not affect the signal propagating along the transmission line.
Since the propagating power is reflected during the period when positive voltage is on the PIN
Diode, it is advisable to place an isolator between the Gunn Oscillator and PIN Modulator, to
protect the former.

Fig 1.1 Front Panel Control of Gunn Power Supply

Technical Specifications
Display : LCD (16 X 2)
Voltage Range : 0 to 10V
Current : 750 mA maximum
Stability : 0.1 % for + 10% mains variation
Ripple : 1.0 mV typical
Mode Select : Continuous wave
Internal Modulation (Square wave output)
Audio Modulation
PC data Modulation
Int. Modulating Frequency: 800 to 1200 Hz
Int. Modulating Voltage : 0 - 10 Vpp variable
Output Connector : BNC for Gunn Bias
PC-Interface : RS232
Dimension (mm) : 273 x 197 x 80

Switch Description

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1. Power: push switch to supply the power to the instrument.
2. Mode select: By this selection switch one can select CW/Int Modulation/PC data/ Audio
Input signal as PIN supply output.
In CW modes no signal provided from PIN supply output i.e no modulation takes place.
In Internal mode output of PIN supply is square wave.
In PC data Mode output of PIN supply is data from PC.
In Audio Mode output of PIN supply is Audio wave.
3. Audio Input : We can connect a Mic to give audio signal as a PIN
supply to PIN modulator
4. Gunn supply: 0 - 10 V Gunn supply output is available here.
5. PIN Supply: Selected output for modulation is available here.
6. PIN Bias: Amplitude control for the PIN supply (square wave) from 0 to 10Vpp.
7. Mod. Frequency: Frequency control for the PIN supply (square wave).
8. LCD Display: 16 X 2 LCD display for Gunn supply voltage and current measurements.
9. Gunn Bias: Amplitude control for Gunn supply.

1.4 Klystron Power Supply NV102

Klystron Power Supply, is a state-of the-art solid-state, regulated Power Supply for
operating low power Klystrons such as 2K25.
It incorporates a number of proprietary features:
1. Regulated Beam Supply and Repeller Supply voltages.
2. LED Digital metering for Beam voltage, current and Repeller voltage.
3. Compact and Reliable.
4. Modular construction for easy maintenance.

In addition to AM and FM modulation of Beam current, a provision for externally


modulating the Klystron supply with desired signal waveform has been provided. Klystron
Power Supply utilizes the quality components and rugged construction. A careful handling
of the instrument will provide years of trouble free service. The equipment is divided in
two parts one is high voltage unit and other is modulation unit. It makes it user friendly.

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Fig 1.2 Front Panel of Klystron Power Supply

Technical Specifications
Beam Supply : Voltage: 240 - 420 VDC, Variable
Current: 50 mA
Regulation: 0.5 % for 10% I/P variation
Ripple:< 5m Vrms
Repeller Supply : -18V to -270V DC Variable
Regulation : 0.25%, for 10% I/P variation
Filament Supply : 6.3 VDC (adjustable on rear panel)
Over-Load Trip Current : 65mA
Modulation : AM (Square) FM (Saw-tooth)
Frequency Range 500-2000 HZ 50-150 Hz
Amplitude 0-110 Vpp 0-60 Vpp
External : For External Modulating Signal
Display : Digital display for
1. Beam voltage 2. Beam Current 3. Repelled voltage
Modulation Selector : CW/AM/FM/EXT
3 Digital Panel meter : 2V
Meter Selector : Beam Voltage (V)/ Current (I)/ Rep. (Repeller)
Connectors : a. 8-Pin Octal Socket
b. BNC for External Modulation
Power Supply : 230 V AC 10%, 50Hz
Dimensions (mm) : 345 x 283 x 153

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Switch Description:
1. Power: Push button switch for supplying the power to instrument.
2. Display: for monitoring beam voltage (in volts), Repeller voltage and beam current
(mA).
Beam voltage: 240 V to 420 V DC
Repeller voltage: -18 V to -270 V DC
Beam current: 0 to 50 mA
3. Meter Select Switch: For selecting display mode in V - shows Beam voltage (volts), I -
shows Beam current (mA) and REP - shows Repeller voltage in volts.
4. HT: Output 'On/Off' switch.
5. Beam voltage: Adjust potentiometer; it is vary from 240 to 420 V DC.
6. Repeller voltage : Adjust potentiometer, it is vary from -10V to -270V DC
7. 8 Pin octal socket: Pin 8 - 1 = Beam voltage
Pin 8 - 5 = Rep. Voltage
Pin 2 - 7 = Heater voltage
8. External mode: To provide external modulating signal.
9. FM modulation: Frequency potentiometer controls the frequency or the sweep
modulating signal (50-150 Hz). Amplitude potentiometer controls the amplitude or sweep
modulating signal ( 0 - 60Vpp)
10. AM modulation: Frequency potentiometer controls the frequency or the square wave
modulating signal (500 - 2000 Hz). Amplitude potentiometer controls the amplitude or
square wave modulating signal (0 - 110Vpp).
11. Modulation Selection switch: For selecting modulation types CW mode - No
modulation signal applied to the beam voltage. AM mode-A square wave modulating
signal is applied to the beam voltage. FM mode-A sweep modulation is applied to the
beam voltage, Ext mode-External modulating signal is accepted for modulation or beam
current through BNC connector.
12. Earphone Socket: Here we can connect a MIC to give audio signal as amodulating
signal.

Rear Panel Control


1. External /Audio: If Ext selected then you can give any external modulating

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signal to External BNC given at a front panel. If Audio is selected you can
connect a microphone for giving modulating signal to Audio input socket on
front panel.

2. FM O/P: For observing saw tooth signal which is used for FM.
3. Heater adjusts: After unsealing the cap we can change the heater
supply.

1.5 SWR Meter NV103A

The model NV 103A SWR meter is a high gain low noise, tuned voltmeter
operating at fixed frequency. It is designed for making standing wave
measurement in conjunction with a suitable detector and slotted line or wave
guide section. It may be used as null detector in bridge circuit and as fixed
frequency indicator. It is calibrated to indicate directly SWR or dB when used
with square law devices such as crystal diode. It is adjusted for operation at
980Hz to 1020 Hz to avoid harmonics of the line frequency.

Technical Specifications

Display : LCD (16 X 2)


Sensitivity : 0.1 V for 200 input impedance
Noise Level : Less than 0.02 V
Range : 0 - 60dB in 10dB steps
Input : Un-biased low and high impedance crystal
biased crystal (200 and 200K)
Display Select : SWR 1 - 9
dB 0 - 10
Modes : Normal
Audio
PC (this mode can be used only with Gunn
based bench)
Gain Control : Adjusts the reference level, variable range 0-
10dB (approximately)
Input Connector : BNC (F)
Input Frequency : 1000Hz 10%

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Power : 230 Volts AC 10%, 50Hz
Dimension (mm) : 300 222 12

Fig 1.3 Front control panel of SWR Meter

1. Power: Push button switch for supplying power to instrument.


2. Audio Output: This socket is provided for connecting headphone.

3. Mode select: This switch is given to select different modes of SWR meter.
Modes are:
Normal: In this mode the 1 KHz square wave detected output is given to input of SWR
meter. All the measurement of gain and SWR should be measure in this mode.
Audio: Select this mode if the input of pin modulator is a audio signal.
PC: Select this mode if the input of PIN modulator is PC data.
(This mode can be used only with Gunn based bench)
4. Crystal : It is an input impedance selector switch for low and high inputs i.e.
High 200K- Low 200.
5. SWR/dB: This switch provided to select display modes either it reads in dB power or
SWR of device.
6. Input: BNC (Female) connector for connecting signal to be measured.
7. Range Switch: A seven position attenuator minimum in 10 dB steps.
8. Gain Coarse: Control for adjustments of meter or any other convenient reading.
Gain Fine: Control for fine adjustments of meter or any other convenient reading.
9. LCD display in SWR &dB: LCD display, for measuring SWR and gain.

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1.5.1 Rear panel Control

1. PC Interface: This is provided for connecting RS232 cable for pc


communication.
2. Comparator Adjust: For PC to PC communication adjusts the
potentiometer such that output BNC should give the received PC signals
which are transmitted from transmitter PC.
3. Output: Detected signal can be observed on CRO from output BNC.

1.5.3 Auxiliary equipment required:


For SWR measurements, following equipments arerequired:

1. Signal Source :

The signal source should cover the desired frequency range and be amplitude
modulated at operating frequency of the SWR meter. Generally square wave
modulation is used which reduces to a minimum the effects of harmonic and
frequency modulation. In any application, it is necessary to minimize interaction
between the oscillator and the load. In these cases, an isolation device should be
used.

2. Cables or waveguides :

The cable or the wave guide used for connecting the source to a slotted match
the source impendence over the desired frequency range.

3. Slotted Section :

The slotted section should cover the desired frequency and be equipped with an
accurate scale or indicator.
4. Detector :

The detector should be square law (output proportional to RF power input)


device such as a Barretter or a crystal diode operated at low signal level. A
Barretter is reasonable square law when used at low signal level but in general
this cannot be said in all cases with crystal diode. However the sensitivity of
crystal is considerably better than with Barretters so that crystals are widely used

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as detectors for SWR measurements.

5. Known loads :

Various termination are required (i.e. a fixed and a movable short circuit) to
establish reference points and to aid in calibrating the test setup.

1.6 MicrowaveTest Bench Setup:

Fig 1.4 Microwave Test Bench setup

1.7 Various Microwave Waveguide Components

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Fig 1.5 Microwave Waveguide Components

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Experiment No. 2
Object:To determine the frequency and wavelength in a rectangular wave guide
working in TE10mode.

Apparatus Required:
1. Klystron tube
2. Klystron power supply
3. Klystron mount
4. Isolator
5. Frequency meter
6. Variable attenuator
7. Slotted section
8. Tunable probe
9. VSWR meter
10. Wave guide stand
11. Movable Short
12. Matched termination
Theory:
The cut-off frequency relationship shows that the physical size of the wave guide
will determine the propagation of the particular modes of specific orders
determined by values of m and n. The minimum cut-off frequency is obtained for
a rectangular wave guide having dimension a>b, for values of m=1, n=0, i.e. TE 10
mode is the dominant mode since for TMmn modes, n#0 or n#0 the lowest-order
mode possible is TE10, called the dominant mode in a rectangular wave guide for
a>b.
For dominant TE10 mode rectangular wave guide o, g and c are related as
below.
1/o = 1/g + 1/c

Where o is free space wave length


g is guide wave length

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c is cut off wave length
For TE10 mode c 2a where a is broad dimension of wave guide.
Block Diagram:

Fig 3.1 Bench setup for frequency and wavelength measurement

Procedure:
1. Set up the components and equipments as shown in figure.
2. Set up variable attenuator at minimum attenuation position.
3. Keep the control knobs of klystron power supply as below:
Beam voltage OFF
Mod-switch AM
Beam voltage knob Fully anti clock wise
Repeller voltage Fully clock wise
AM Amplitude knob Around fully clock wise
AM Frequency knob Around mid position
4. Switch ON the klystron power supply, CRO and cooling fan switch.
5. Switch ON the beam voltage switch and set beam voltage at 300V with help
of beam voltage knob.

6. Adjust the repeller voltage to get the maximum amplitude in CRO

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7. Maximize the amplitude with AM amplitude and frequency control knob of
power supply.
8. Tune the plunger of klystron mount for maximum Amplitude.
9. Tune the repeller voltage knob for maximum Amplitude.
10. Tune the frequency meter knob to get a dip on the CRO and note down the
frequency from frequency meter.
11. Replace the termination with movable short, and detune the frequency meter.
12. Move the probe along with slotted line. The amplitude in CRO will vary
.Note and record the probe position, Let it be d1.
13. Move the probe to next minimum position and record the probe position
again, let it be d2.
14. Calculate the guide wave length as twice the distance between two successive
minimum positions obtained as above.
15. Measure the wave guide inner board dimension a which will be around
22.86mm for x-band.
16. Calculate the frequency by following equation.

c 1 1
f 2 2
g c
Where C = 3x108 meter/sec. i.e. velocity of light.
17. Verify with frequency obtained by frequency modes
18. Above experiment can be verified at different frequencies.
fo = C/o => C => 3x108 m/s (i.e., velocity of light)

1/o = 1/g + 1/c


g c
0
g 2 c 2
g = 2x d
For TE10 mode => c = 2a
a wave guide inner broad dimension
a = 2.286cm (given in manual) c = 4.6cm
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Result:
Discussion: to be written by student.
Precautions:
1. No loose connection is allowed
2. Switch on the supply after checking the connections by faculty.
3. Take the observations carefully.
4. Dont touch any live wire, it may be dangerous.
5. Vary Frequency meter smoothly.
6. Avoid Parallax errors.

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Experiment No. 3
Object: Measurement of low and high VSWR using a X band slotted line setup.
Apparatus Required:
1. Klystron tube
2. Klystron power supply
3. VSWR meter
4. Klystron mount
5. Isolator
6. Frequency meter
7. Variable attenuator
8. Slotted line
9. Wave guide stand
10. Movable short/termination
11. BNC Cable
12. S-S Tuner

Theory:
Any mismatched load leads to reflected waves resulting in standing waves along
the length of the line. The ratio of maximum to minimum voltage gives the
VSWR. Hence minimum value of S is unity. If S<10 then VSWR is called low
VSWR. If S>10 then VSWR is called high VSWR. The VSWR values more
than 10 are very easily measured with this setup. It can be read off directly on the
VSWR meter calibrated. The measurement involves simply adjusting the
attenuator to give an adequate reading on the meter which is a D.C. mill volt
meter. The probe on the slotted wave guide is moved t get maximum reading on
the meter. The attenuation is now adjusted to get full scale reading. Next the
probe on the slotted line is adjusted to get minimum, reading on the meter. The
ratio of first reading to the second gives the VSWR. The meter itself can be
calibrated in terms of VSWR. Double minimum method is used to measure
VSWR greater than 10. In this method, the probe is inserted to a depth where the

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minimum can be read without difficulty. The probe is then moved to a point
where the power is twice the minimum.

Fig 4.1 Setup for Low VSWR measurement

Fig 4.2 Setup for High VSWR measurement

Procedure:
1. Set up equipment as shown in figure.
2. Keep variable attenuator in minimum attenuation position.
3. Keep control knobs of VSWR meter as below
Range dB = 40db / 50db
Input switch = low impedance
Meter switch = Normal
Gain (coarse fine) = Mid position approximately
4. Keep control knobs of klystron power supply as below.
Beam Voltage = OFF
Mod-Switch = AM
Beam Voltage Knob = fully anti clock wise
Reflection voltage knob = fully clock wise
AM-Amplitude knob = around fully clock wise

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AM frequency and amplitude knob = mid position
5. Switch ON the klystron power supply, VSWR meter and cooling fan.
6. Switch ON the beam voltage switch position and set (down) beam voltage
at 300V.
7. Rotate the reflector voltage knob to get deflection in VSWR meter.
8. Tune the O/P by turning the reflector voltage, amplitude and frequency of
AM modulation.
9. Tune plunges of klystron mount and probe for maximum deflection in VSWR
meter.
10. If required, change the range db-switch variable attenuator position and
(given) gain control knob to get deflection in the scale of VSWR meter.
11. As your move probe along the slotted line, the deflection will change.

A. Measurement of low and medium VSWR:

1. Move the probe along the slotted line to get maximum deflection in VSWR
meter.
2. Adjust the VSWR meter gain control knob or variable attenuator until the
meter indicates 1.0 on normal VSWR scale.
3. Keep all control knob as it is move the probe to next minimum position.
Read the VSWR on scale.
4. Repeat the above step for change of S-S tuner probe depth and record the
corresponding SWR.

5. If the VSWR is between 3.2 and 10, change the range 0dB switch to next
higher position and read the VSWR on second VSWR scale of 3 to 10.

B. Measurement of High VSWR: (double minimum method)

1. Set the depth of S-S tuner slightly more for maximum VSWR.
2. Move the probe along with slotted line until a minimum is indicated.
3. Adjust the VSWR meter gain control knob and variable attenuator to obtain
n a reading of 3db in the normal dB scale (0 to 10db) of VSWR meter.

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4. Move the probe to the left on slotted line until full scale deflection is obtained
on 0-10 db scale. Note and record the probe position on slotted line. Let it be
d1.
5. Repeat the step 3 and then move the probe right along the slotted line until
full scale deflection is obtained on 0-10db normal db scale. Let it be d2.
6. Replace S-S tuner and termination by movable short.
7. Measure distance between 2 successive minima positions of probe. Twice
this distance is guide wave length g.

8. Compute SWR from following equation


g
SWR = ---------------
(d1 - d2)
Observation Table:
Low VSWR
VSWR = ______
High VSWR

Beam
x1 x2 x1 x2 Avg (x1-x2) = x g=2x
Voltage
(cm) (cm) (cm) (cm) (cm) (cm)
(v)

g = 6cm
d1 d2 d1-d2
VSWR = g / (d1-d2)
(cm) (cm) (cm)

Result:
Discussion: to be written by student.

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Precautions:
1. No loose connection is allowed
2. Switch on the supply after checking the connections by faculty.
3. Take the observations carefully.
4. Dont touch any live wire, it may be dangerous.
5. Vary Frequency meter smoothly.
6. Avoid Parallax errors.

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Experiment No. 4
Object:To measure an unknown impedance using the smith chart.
Apparatus Required:
1. Klystron tube
2. Klystron power supply
3. Klystron mount
4. Isolator
5. Frequency meter
6. Variable attenuator
7. Slotted line
8. Tunable probe
9. VSWR meter
10. Wave guide stand
11. S-S tuner
12. Movable short/termination

Block Diagram

Fig 5.1 Setup for Impedance Measurement

Theory:

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The impedance at any point on a transmission line can be written in the form
R+jx.
For comparison SWR can be calculated as
1 R
S where reflection coefficient RGiven as
1 R

Z Z0
R
Z Z0
Zo = characteristics impedance of wave guide at operating frequency.
Z is the load impedance
The measurement is performed in the following way.
The unknown device is connected to the slotted line and the position of one
minima is determined. The unknown device is replaced by movable short to the
slotted line. Two successive minima portions are noted. The twice of the
difference between minima position will be guide wave length. One of the
minima is used as reference for impedance measurement. Find the difference of
reference minima and minima position obtained from unknown load. Let it be
d. Take a smith chart, taking 1 as centre, draw a circle of radius equal to S.
Mark a point on circumference of smith chart towards load side at a distance
equal to d/g.
Join the center with this point. Find the point where it cut the drawn circle. The
co-ordinates of this point will show the normalized impedance of load.
Procedure:
1. Calculate a set of Vmin values for short or movable short as load.
2. Calculate a set of Vmin values for S-S Tuner + Matched termination as a
load.
Note: Move more steps on S-S Tuner
3. From the above 2 steps calculate d = d1~d2
4. With the same setup as in step 2 but with few numbers of turns (2 or 3).
Calculate low VSWR.
Note: High VSWR can also be calculated but it results in a complex
procedure.

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5. Draw a VSWR circle on a smith chart.
6. Draw a line from center of circle to impedance value (d/g) from which
calculate admittance and Reactance (Z = R+jx)
Observation Table:

Load (short or movable short)

x1 x2 x1 x2 x1 x2
(cm) (cm) (cm) (cm) (cm) (cm)

x = ______
g = _____

Load (S.S. Tuner + Matched Termination)

S.S Tuner + Matched Termination Short or Movable Short

d1= , d2 =
d = d1 ~ d2 =
Z = d/g =
Result:
Discussion: to be written by student.
Precautions:
1. No loose connection is allowed
2. Switch on the supply after checking the connections by faculty.
3. Take the observations carefully.
4. Dont touch any live wire, it may be dangerous.

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Experiment No. 5

Object:
Study of the following characteristic of Gunn Diode
1. Output power and frequency as a function of Bias Voltage.
2. Square wave modulation through PIN diode.

Apparatus required:
1. Gunn oscillator
2. Gun Power Supply
3. PIN modulator
4. Isolator
5. Frequency meter
6. Variable attenuator
7. Detector Mount
8. Wave guide stands
9. SWR meter
10. Cables and accessories.

Block Diagram:

Fig 6.1 Setup for the study of the Gunn Oscillator

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Procedure:

1. Set the components and equipment as shown in the fig 6.1


2. Initially set the variable attenuator for maximum attenuation (for no
attenuation).
3. Keep the control knob of Gunn Power Supply as below:
Gunn Bias Knob : Fully anticlockwise
Pin bias Knob : Fully anti-clockwise
Pin Mod frequency : Mid position
Mode switch : Internal mod. Position
4. Keep the control knob of SWR meter as below:
Range dB : 50 dB position
Crystal : 200 ohm
Mode Switch : Normal Position
Gain (Course & Fine) : Mid Position
SWR/dB switch : dB position
5. Set the micrometer of Gunn oscillator for required frequency of
operation
6. Switch on the Gunn Power Supply, SWR Meter.
7. Out Put Power and Frequency as a Function of Bias Voltage.
8. Increase the Gunn bias control knob up to 10V.
9. Rotate PIN bias knob to around maximum position.
10. Tune the output in the SWR meter through frequency control knob of
modulation.
11. If necessary change the range dB switch of SWR meter to higher or lower dB
position to get reading on SWR meter display. Any level can be set through
variable attenuator and gain control knob of SWR meter.
12. Measure the frequency using frequency meter and detune it.
13. Reduce the Gunn bias voltage from 10V in the interval of 0.5V or 1.0V and
note down corresponding reading of output at SWR meter in dB and
corresponding frequency by frequency meter. (Do not keep Gunn bias knob

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position at threshold position for more than 10-15 seconds. Otherwise due to
excessive heating, Gunn Diode may burn).
14. Draw the power vs. Voltage curve and Frequency vs. Voltage curve and plot
the graph.
15. Measure the pushing factor (MHz /Volt) which is frequency sensitivity
against variation in bias voltage for an oscillator. The pushing factor should
be measured around 8 volt bias. For example

Observation Table:

Volt (V) Power (dB) Frequency (GHz)

Square Wave Modulation:

1. Move the Gunn bias voltage Knob slowly so that panel meter of Gunn
Power Supply reads 10V.
2. Keep the Gunn Power Supply in Internal modulation mode.
3. Tune the PIN modulator bias voltage and frequency knob for maximum
detected output on the oscilloscope.
4. Coincide the bottom of square wave in oscilloscope to some reference
level and note down the micrometer reading of variable attenuator.
5. Now with the help of variable attenuator coincide the top of square wave
to same reference level and note down the micrometer reading.
6. Now Connect detector mount to SWR Meter and note down the dB
reading in SWR Meter for both the micrometer reading of the variable
attenuator.

7. The difference of both dB reading of SWR meter gives the modulation


depth of PIN modulator.

Result:
Discussion: to be written by student.

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Precautions:
1. No loose connection is allowed
2. Switch on the supply after checking the connections by faculty.
3. Take the observations carefully.
4. Dont touch any live wire, it may be dangerous.
5. Vary Frequency meter smoothly.
6. Avoid Parallax errors.

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Experiment No. 6

Object:
To plot the radiation pattern & find out the gain of a waveguide Antenna.

Apparatus required:
1. Microwave source (Gunn or Klystron) with Power Supply
2. Frequency meter
3. Isolator
4. Variable attenuator
5. Detector mount antennas
6. SWR meter & accessories.

Theory:
If a transmission line propagating energy is left open at one end, there will be
radiation from this end. In case of a rectangular wave-guide this antenna presents
a mismatch of about 2:1 and it radiates in many directions. The match will
improve if the open wave-guide is a horn shape.
The Radiation pattern of an antenna is a diagram of field strength or more often
the power intensity as a function of the aspect angle at a constant distance from
the radiating antenna. An antenna pattern is of course three dimensional but for
practical reasons it is normally presented as a two dimensional pattern in one or
several planes. An antenna pattern consists of several lobes, the main lobe, side
lobes and the back lobe. The major power is concentrated in the main lobe and it
is required to keep the power in the side lobes arid back lobe as low as possible.
The power intensity at the maximum of the main lobe compared to the power
intensity achieved from an imaginary omni-directional antenna (radiating equally
in all directions) with the same power fed to the antenna is defined as gain of the
antenna.

3dB Beam Width:

This is the angle between the two points on a main lobe where the power
intensity is half the maximum power intensity.
When measuring an antenna pattern, it is normally most interesting to plot the

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pattern far from the antenna.
Far field pattern is achieved at a minimum distance of

2D2 - (for rectangular Horn antenna)


0
Where
D is the size of the broad wall of horn aperture
0 is free space wave length.
It is also very important to avoid disturbing reflection. Antenna measurement are
normally made at outdoor ranges or in so called anechoic chambers made of
absorbing materials.
Antenna measurements are mostly made with unknown antenna as receiver. There
are several methods to measure the gain of antenna. One method is to compare
the unknown antenna with a standard gain antenna with known gain. Another
method is to use two identical antennas, as transmitter and other as receiver.
From following formula the gain can be calculated.

Where
Pt is transmitted power
Pr is received Power,
G1, G2 is gain of transmitting and receiving antenna
S is the radial distance between two antennas
o is free space wave length.
If both, transmitting and receiving antenna are identical having gain G then
above equation becomes.

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In the above equation Pt, Pr and S and o can be measured and gain can be computed.
As is evident from the above equation, it is not necessary to know the absolute
value of Pt and Pr only ratio is required which can be measured by SWR meter.

Block Diagram:

Fig 7.1 Setup for the Antenna Radiation Pattern Plotting

Procedure:

Antenna Radiation Pattern Plotting:


1. Set up the equipments as shown in the figure, keeping the axis of
both antennas in same axis line & for start connects horn antennas at
both the ends.
2. Energize the Microwave source for maximum output at desired
frequency with square wave modulation by tuning square wave
amplitude and frequency of modulating signal of Gunn Power
Supply or KPS and by tuning the detector as per the procedure
described in experiment1.
3. Obtain maximum reading (0 dB) at any convenient range switch
position of the SWR Meter by gain control knob of SWR meter or by
variable attenuator.
4. Rotate the receiving horn in 2 or 5 steps and note the
corresponding dBreading. When necessary change the range
switches to next higher range and add 10dB to the observed value.

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5. D a radiation pattern (power v/s angle).
r 6. Now you can replace the antenna by another given antenna at
a receiver position. From Polar plot determine 3dB beam width of the
w horn antenna.

Gain Measurement:

1. Set up the equipments as shown in figure. Both horn antennas


should be inline.
2. Keep the range dB switch of SWR meter at appropriate
position.
3. Energize the Microwave source for maximum output at desired
frequency with modulating amplitude and frequency
potentiometers and by tuning of detector.
4. Obtain maximum reading in SWR meter with variable
attenuator.
5. Replace the transmitting horn by detector mount and change the
appropriate range dB position to get the reading (do not touch the
gain control knob) Note and record the range dB position and
reading.
6. Calculate the difference in dB between the power measured in
step 4 and 5.

Convert the dB in to power ratio which will be P t/ Pr .Calculate the gain by


following
equation.

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The same set-up can be used for other frequency of operation.

Fig 7.2 Antenna Pattern Diagram

Procedure for NV9002A:


To take radiation pattern with the help of motorized unit
1. Arrange the setup as given in figure.

Fig 7.3 Setup for gain measurement

2. Connect PC interfacing cable between Motorized unit & PC comport.


3. Connect the output of detector mount to the input of Unit.
4. To observe the output, connect the output BNC of unit to CRO.
5. Energize the Microwave source for maximum output at desired frequency with square
wave modulation by tuning square wave amplitude and frequency of modulating signal
of Gunn Power Supply or KPS and by tuning the detector as per the procedure described
in experiment1
6. Adjust the square wave gain between .5 to 1V at output BNC of Unit, with the help of
DOEC/LAB MANUAL/5EC8 ME LAB
AM amplitude, Beam voltage, repeller voltage or by adjusting the distance.
7. Install the software by running setup file.
8. Open the S/W window and click the config & reset button.
9. Motor will move & come back to its home position. After reaching at home position
click the plot button.
10. Radiation pattern will display on the screen.
11. Now other parameters can be measured by using measurement button.
12. Here the polar plots of different types of antennas are given below, but these can vary
depends on, surrounding conditions and parameters adjusted.

Dielectric Antenna

E-Plane Sectorial Horn Antenna

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E-Plane Sectorial Horn Antenna

Parabolic Antenna

DOEC/LAB MANUAL/5EC8 ME LAB


Pickup Horn Antenna

Pyramidal Horn Antenna

Standard Gain Horn Antenna

DOEC/LAB MANUAL/5EC8 ME LAB


Experiment No. 7
AIM: To study insertion loss and attenuation measurement of attenuator.

EQUIPMENT REQUIRED:
1. Microwave source Klystron tube (2k25)
2. Isolator (xI-621)
3. Frequency meter (xF-710)
4. Variable attenuator (XA-520)
5. Slotted line (XS-651)
6. Tunable probe (XP-655)
7. Detector mount (XD-451)
8. Matched termination (XL-400)
9. Test attenuator
a) Fixed
b) Variable
10. Klystron power supply & Klystron mount
11. Cooling fan
12. BNC-BNC cable
13. VSWR or CRO

DOEC/LAB MANUAL/5EC8 ME LAB


THEORY:
The attenuator is a two port bidirectional device which attenuates some power when inserted into
a transmission line.
Attenuation A (dB) = 10 log (P1/P2)
Where P1 = Power detected by the load without the attenuator in the line
P2 = Power detected by the load with the attenuator in the line.

PROCEDURE:
1. Connect the equipments as shown in the above figure.
2. Energize the microwave source for maximum power at any frequency of operation
3. Connect the detector mount to the slotted line and tune the detector mount also for max
deflection on VSWR or on CRO
4. Set any reference level on the VSWR meter or on CRO with the help of variable attenuator.
Let it be P1.
5. Carefully disconnect the detector mount from the slotted line without disturbing any position
on the setup place the test variable attenuator to the slotted line and detector mount to O/P
port of test variable attenuator. Keep the micrometer reading of text variable attenuator to
zero and record the readings of VSWR meter or on CRO. Let it to be P2. Then the insertion
loss of test attenuator will be P1-P2 db.
6. For measurement of attenuation of fixed and variable attenuator. Place the test attenuator to
the slotted line and detector mount at the other port of test attenuator. Record the reading of
VSWR meter or on CRO. Let it be P3 then the attenuation value of variable attenuator for
particular position of micrometer reading of will be P1-P3 db.
7. In case the variable attenuator change the micro meter reading and record the VSWR meter
or CRO reading. Find out attenuation value for different position of micrometer reading and
plot a graph.
8. Now change the operating frequency and all steps should be repeated for finding frequency
sensitivity of fixed and variable attenuator.
Note:1. For measuring frequency sensitivity of variable attenuator the position of micrometer
reading of the variable attenuator should be same for all frequencies of operation.
EXPECTED GRAPH:

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OBSERVATION TABLE:

P1 P2 Attenuation = P1-P2
Micrometer reading
(dB) (dB) (dB)

RESULT:

DOEC/LAB MANUAL/5EC8 ME LAB


Experiment no. 9
AIM: To study the function of multi-hole directional coupler by measuring the following
parameters.
1. The Coupling factor, Insertion Loss and Directivity of the Directional coupler
EQUIPMENT REQUIRED:
1. Microwave Source (Klystron or Gunn-Diode)
2. Isolator, Frequency Meter
3. Variable Attenuator
4. Slotted Line
5. Tunable Probe
6. Detector Mount Matched Termination
7. MHD Coupler
8. Waveguide Stand
9. Cables and Accessories
10. CRO.

DOEC/LAB MANUAL/5EC8 ME LAB


THEORY:
A directional coupler is a device with which it is possible to measure the incident and reflected
wave separately. It consist of two transmission lines the main arm and auxiliary arm,
electromagnetically coupled to each other Refer to the Fig.1. The power entering, in the main-
arm gets divided between port 2 and 3, and almost no power comes out in port (4) Power
entering at port 2 is divided between port 1 and 4.
The coupling factor is defined as
Coupling (db) = 10 log10 [P1/P3] where port 2 is terminated, Isolation (dB) = 10 log10 [P2/P3]
where P1 is matched.

With built-in termination and power entering at Port 1, the directivity of the coupler is a measure
of separation between incident wave and the reflected wave. Directivity is measured indirectly
as follows:
Hence Directivity D (db) = I-C = 10 log10 [P2/P1]

Main line VSWR is SWR measured, looking into the main-line input terminal when the matched
loads are placed at all other ports.
Auxiliary live VSWR is SWR measured in the auxiliary line looking into the output terminal
when the matched loads are placed on other terminals.
Main line insertion loss is the attenuation introduced in the transmission line by insertion of
coupler, it is defined as:
Insertion Loss (dB) = 10 log10 [P1/P2]
EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE:
1. Set up the equipments as shown in the Figure.
2. Energize the microwave source for particular operation of frequency .
3. Remove the multi hole directional coupler and connect the detector mount to the slotted
section.
4. Set maximum amplitude in CRO with the help of variable attenuator, Let it be X.
5. Insert the directional coupler between the slotted line and detector mount. Keeping port 1 to
slotted line, detector mount to the auxiliary port 3 and matched termination to port 2 without
changing the position of variable attenuator.
6. Note down the amplitude using CRO, Let it be Y.
7. Calculate the Coupling factor X-Y in dB.

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8. Now carefully disconnect the detector mount from the auxiliary port 3 and matched
termination from port 2 , without disturbing the setup.
9. Connect the matched termination to the auxiliary port 3 and detector mount to port 2 and
measure the amplitude on CRO, Let it be Z.
10. Compute Insertion Loss= X Z in dB.
11. Repeat the steps from 1 to 4.
12. Connect the directional coupler in the reverse direction i.e., port 2 to slotted section, matched
termination to port 1 and detector mount to port 3, without disturbing the position of the
variable attenuator.
13. Measure and note down the amplitude using CRO, Let it be Y0.
14. Compute the Directivity as Y-Y0 in dB.

PRECAUTIONS:
1. Avoid loose connections.
2. Avoid Parallax errors.

RESULT:

DOEC/LAB MANUAL/5EC8 ME LAB


Experiment no. 10
AIM: To Study the operation of Magic Tee and calculate Coupling Co-efficient and Isolation.

EQUIPMENT REQUIRED:
1. Microwave source : Klystron tube (2k25)
2. Isolator (XI-621)
3. Frequency meter (XF-710)
4. Variable Attenuator (XA-520)
5. Slotted line (SX-651)
6. Tunable probe (XP-655)
7. Detector Mount (XD-451)
8. Matched Termination (XL-400)
9. Magic Tee (XE-345/350)
10. Klystron Power Supply + Klystron Mount
11. Wave guide stands and accessories

DOEC/LAB MANUAL/5EC8 ME LAB


Fig: Magic Tee
THEORY:
The device Magic Tee is a combination of E and H plane Tee. Arm 3 is the H-arm and arm 4 is
the E-arm. If the power is fed, into arm 3 (H-arm) the electric field divides equally between
arm1 and 2 with the same phase and no electric field exists in the arm 4. If power is fed in arm 4
(E-arm) it divides equally into arm 1 and 2 but out of phase with no power to arm 3, further, if
the power is fed in arm 1 and 2 simultaneously it is added in arm 3 (H-arm) and it is subtracted in
E-arm i.e., arm 4.
A. Isolation:
The Isolation between E and H arm is defined as the ratio of the power supplied by the
generator connected to the E-arm (port 4) to the power detected at H-arm (port 3) when side arm
1 and 2 terminated in matched load.
Isolation (dB) = 10 log10 [P4/P3]
Similarly, Isolation between other ports may be defined.
B. Coupling Factor:
It is defined as Cij = 10 /20
Where is attenuation / isolation in dB when i' is input arm and j is output arm.
Thus, = 10 log10 [P4/P3]
Where P3 is the power delivered to arm i and P4 is power detected at j arm.

DOEC/LAB MANUAL/5EC8 ME LAB


EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE:

1. Setup the components and equipments as shown in figure.


2. Energize the microwave source for particular frequency of operation and tune the detector
mount for maximum output.
3. With the help of variable frequency of operation and tune the detector mount for maximum
output attenuator, set any reference in the CRO let it be V3.
4. Without disturbing the position of the variable attenuator, carefully place the Magic Tee after
the slotted line, keeping H-arm to slotted line, detector mount to E-arm and matched
termination to Port-1 and Port-2.
5. Note down the amplitude using CRO, Let it be V4.
6. Determine the Isolation between Port-3 and Port-4 as V3-V4.
7. Determine the coupling co-efficient from the equation given in theory part.
8. The same experiment may be repeated for other Ports also.

OBSERVATIONS:
Ports Power
(W)

Calculations:
Coupling Co-efficient:
Vi
= 10 log
Vj
Therefore C = 10 /20

RESULT:

DOEC/LAB MANUAL/5EC8 ME LAB


Experiment no. 11

AIM: To study the Isolator and circulators and measure the Insertion Loss and Isolation of
Circulator.
EQUIPMENT REQUIRED:
1. Microwave Source (Klystron or Gunn-Diode)
2. Isolator, Frequency Meter
3. Variable Attenuator
4. Slotted Line
5. Tunable Probe
6. Detector Mount Matched Termination
7. Circulator
8. Waveguide Stand
9. Cables and Accessories
10. VSWR Meter.

CIRCULATOR:
Circulator is defined as device with ports arranged such that energy entering a port is coupled to
an adjacent port but not coupled to the other ports. This is depicted in figure circulator can have
any number of ports.

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ISOLATOR:
An Isolator is a two-port device that transfers energy from input to output with little attenuation
and from output to input with very high attenuation.

The isolator, shown in Fig. can be derived from a three-port circulator by simply placing a
matched load (reflection less termination) on one port.
The important circulator and isolator parameters are:
A. Insertion Loss
Insertion Loss is the ratio of power detected at the output port to the power supplied by source to
the input port, measured with other orts terminated in the matched Load. It is expressed in dB.
B. Isolation
Isolation is the ratio of power applied to the output to that measured at the input. This ratio is
expressed in db. The isolation of a circulator is measured with the third port terminated in a
matched load.

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE:
Measurement of insertion
1. Remove the isolator or circulator from slotted line and connect the detector mount to the
slotted section. The output of the detector mount should be connected with CRO.
2. Energize the microwave source for maximum output for a particular frequency of operation.
Tune the detector mount for maximum output in the CRO.
3. Set any reference level of output in CRO with the help of variable attenuator, Let it be V1.
4. Carefully remove the detector mount from slotted line without disturbing the position of the
set up. Insert the isolator/circulator between slotted line and detector mount. Keep input port
to slotted line and detector its output port. A matched termination should be placed at third
port in case of Circulator.

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5. Record the output in CRO, Let it be V2.
6. Compute Insertion loss given as V1-V2 in db.
Measurement of Isolation:
7. For measurement of isolation, the isolator or circulator has to be connected in reverse i.e.
output port to slotted line and detector to input port with other port terminated by matched
termination (for circulator).
8. Record the output of CRO and let it be V3.
9. Compute Isolation as V1-V3 in db.
10. The same experiment can be done for other ports of circulator.
11. Repeat the above experiment for other frequency if needed.

PRECAUTIONS:
1. Avoid loose connections.
2. Avoid Parallax errors.

RESULT:

DOEC/LAB MANUAL/5EC8 ME LAB