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Triple deity

A triple deity (sometimes referred to as threefold, ancient Indo-European society conceived itself as struc-
tured around three activities: worship, war, and toil.[16] In
tripled, triplicate, tripartite, triune or triadic, or as a trin-
ity) is three deities that are worshipped as one. Such later times, when slave labor became common, the three
deities are common throughout world mythology; the functions came to be seen as separate classes, repre-
number three has a long history of mythical associa- sented each by its own god.[17] Dumzil understood this
tions. Carl Jung considered the arrangement of deities mythology as reecting and validating social structures
into triplets an archetype in the history of religion.[1] in its content: such a tripartite class system is found in
ancient Indian, Iranian, Greek and Celtic texts. In 1970
Dumzil proposed that some goddesses represented these
three qualities as dierent aspects or epithets and identi-
1 Triple goddesses ed examples in his interpretation of various deities in-
cluding the Iranian Anhit, the Vedic Sarasvat and the
In religious iconography or mythological art,[2] three sep- Roman Juno.[18]
arate beings may represent either a triad who always ap-
Vesna Petreska posits that myths including trinities of fe-
pear as a group (Greek Moirai, Charites, Erinyes; Norse
male mythical beings from Central and Eastern European
Norns; or the Irish Morrgna) or a single deity known
cultures may be evidence for an Indo-European belief in
from literary sources as having three aspects (Greek
[3] trimutive female "spinners" of destiny.[19] But according
Hecate, Diana Nemorensis). In the case of the Irish
to the linguist M. L. West, various female deities and
Brigid it can be ambiguous whether she is a single god-
[4] mythological gures in Europe show the inuence of pre-
dess or three sisters, all named Brigid. The Morrgan
Indo-European goddess-worship, and triple female fate
also appears sometimes as one being, and at other times
[5][6][7][8] divinities, typically "spinners" of destiny, are attested all
as three sisters, as do the three Irish goddesses
[9] over Europe and in Bronze Age Anatolia.[20]
of sovereignty, riu, Fdla and Banba.
The Matres or Matronae are usually represented as a
group of three but sometimes with as many as 27 (3
3 3) inscriptions. They were associated with mother- 3 Classical antiquity
hood and fertility. Inscriptions to these deities have been
found in Gaul, Spain, Italy, the Rhineland and Britain, as At her sacred grove at Aricia, on the shores of Lake
their worship was carried by Roman soldiery dating from Nemi a triplefold Diana was venerated from the late sixth
the mid 1st century to the 3rd century AD.[13] Miranda century BCE as Diana Nemorensis. Andreas Alfldi
Green observes that triplism reects a way of express- interpreted a late Republican numismatic image as the
ing the divine rather than presentation of specic god- Latin Diana conceived as a threefold unity of the divine
types. Triads or triple beings are ubiquitous in the Welsh huntress, the Moon goddess and the goddess of the nether
and Irish mythic imagery (she gives examples including world, Hekate".[21] This coin shows that the triple goddess
the Irish battle-furies, Macha, and Brigit). The religious cult image still stood in the lucus of Nemi in 43 BCE. The
iconographic repertoire of Gaul and Britain during the Lake of Nemi was Triviae lacus for Virgil (Aeneid 7.516),
Roman period includes a wide range of triple forms: the while Horace called Diana montium custos nemoremque
most common triadic depiction is that of the triple mother virgo (keeper of the mountains and virgin of Nemi) and
goddess (she lists numerous examples).[14] diva triformis (three-form goddess).[22] Diana is com-
[23] [24]
Peter H. Goodrich interprets the literary gure of Morgan monly addressed as Trivia by Virgil and Catullus.
le Fay as a manifestation of a British triple goddess in the
medieval romance Sir Gawain and the Green Knight.[15]
A modern idea of a Triple Goddess is central to the new 3.1 Greek magical papyri
religious movement of Wicca.
Spells and hymns in Greek magical papyri refer to the
goddess (called Hecate, Persephone, and Selene, among
other names) as triple-sounding, triple-headed, triple-
2 Indo-European theory voiced..., triple-pointed, triple-faced, triple-necked. In
one hymn, for instance, the Three-faced Selene is si-
Georges Dumzil's trifunctional hypothesis proposed that multaneously identied as the three Charites, the three


Terracotta relief of the Matres, from Bibracte, city of the Aedui

in Gaul.

3.2 19th century classical scholarship

E. Cobham Brewer's 1894 Dictionary of Phrase & Fa-

ble contained the entry, "Hecate: A triple deity, called
Phoebe or the Moon in heaven, Diana on the earth, and
Hecate or Proserpine in hell, and noted that Chinese
have the triple goddess Pussa.[27] The Roman poet Ovid,
through the character of the Greek woman Medea, refers
to Hecate as the triple Goddess";[28] the earlier Greek
poet Hesiod represents her as a threefold goddess, with
a share in earth, sea, and starry heavens.[29] Hecate was
depicted variously as a single womanly form; as three
women back-to-back; as a three-headed woman, some-
times with the heads of animals; or as three upper bodies
of women springing from a single lower body (we see
three heads and shoulders and six hands, but the lower
part of her body is single, and closely resembles that of
the Ephesian Artemis[30] ).

4 Classical triple goddesses in liter-

The trinity of Asia, Panthea (All-Goddess) and the
Nereid Ione have been seen to be contrasted ironically
with the triad of the Furies in Shelleys Prometheus Un-
bound making a careful separation between the Jungian
gures of the Terrible and Good Mother.[31]

The Greek goddess Hecate portrayed in triplicate. 5 Finno-Ugric triads

In the mythology of the Smi, a triad of goddesses
Moirai, and the three Erinyes; she is further addressed are responsible for childbirth and protecting children.
by the titles of several goddesses.[25] Translation editor Shrhkka, who lives in the replace, is responsible for
Hans Dieter Betz notes: The goddess Hekate, identical pregnancy and the particular protector of girls. Juk-
with Persephone, Selene, Artemis, and the old Babylo- shkk, who lives in the area of the back doors, is re-
nian goddess Ereschigal, is one of the deities most often sponsible for turning some children into boys while they
invoked in the papyri.[26] are in the womb (there was a belief that all children are

female at the outset). Ukshkk guards the main doors, the Qudshu-Astarte-Anat plaque a triple-fusion hyposta-
and is responsible for protecting all young children.[32][33] sis, and considers Qudshu to be an epithet of Athirat by a
process of elimination, for Astarte and Anat appear after
Qudshu in the inscription.[38][39]
6 Pre-Islamic
A pagan god was worshipped in pre-Islamic Arabia and 8 Three-headed deities
Nabataea with a family of deities around him among
which was a triad of goddesses called the three daughters Further information: Polycephaly
of God": al-Lat (Mother Goddess of prosperity) Al-
Uzza (Mighty one) the youngest, and Manat (Fate)
the third, the other.[34][35] They were known collec- In Hindu mythology, Trisiras and Dattatreya are ex-
tively as the three cranes.[35] The name al-Lat is known plicitly tricephalous deities, but other instances of
from the time of the histories of Herodotus in which she three-headedness are also found in Hindu iconogra-
is named Alilat.[36][37] phy, for example in depictions of goddess Durga.

The smaller Gallehus horn has a three-headed gure,

7 Triple goddess stone holding an axe in its right hand and a rope tethered
to the leg of a horned animal in the left.

In Slavic mythology, the god Triglav, (literally

meaning three-heads) is a three-headed man,
sometimes depicted with three goat heads. He is de-
picted as representation of three major Slavic gods
that vary from one Slavic tribe to another that serve
as the representatives of the Slavic realms. Triglav
is usually described as a fusion of these gods.

The hound Cerberus in Greek mythology is often

depicted with three heads.

Geryon has been depicted as three-headed on the

Herculean Sarcophagus of Genzano currently held
at the British Museum.[40]

9 List of triple deities

9.1 Historical polytheism

The Classical Greek Olympic triad of Zeus (king of
the gods), Athena (goddess of war and intellect) and
Apollo (god of the sun, culture and music)[42][43]
Qetesh on the Triple Goddess Stone
The Delian chief triad of Leto (mother), Artemis
Qudshu-Astarte-Anat is a representation of a single (daughter) and Apollo (son)[44][45] and second
goddess who is a combination of three goddesses: Qetesh Delian triad of Athena, Zeus and Hera[46]
(Athirat Asherah), Astarte, and Anat. It was a common The Olympian demiurgic triad in platonic philoso-
practice for Canaanites and Egyptians to merge dier- phy, made up of Zeus (considered the Zeus [king
ent deities through a process of syncretization, thereby, of the gods] of the Heavens), Poseidon (Zeus of the
turning them into one single entity. This Triple God- seas) and Pluto/Hades (Zeus of the underworld), all
dess Stone, once owned by Winchester College, shows considered in the end to be a monad and the same
the goddess Qetesh with the inscription Qudshu-Astarte- Zeus, and the Titanic demiurgic triad of Helios (sun
Anat, showing their association as being one goddess, when in the sky), Apollo (sun seen in our world)
and Qetesh (Qudshu) in place of Athirat. and Dionysus (god of mysteries, sun of the under-
Religious scholar Saul M. Olyan (author of Asherah and world) (as can be seen on Plato's Phaed on the myth
the Cult of Yahweh in Israel), calls the representation on Dionysus and the Titans)[47]

The Julian triads of the early Roman Principate:

Venus Genetrix, Divus Iulius, and Clementia

Divus Iulius, Divi lius and Genius Augusti
Eastern variants of the Julian triad, e.g. in Asia
Minor: Dea Roma, Divus Iulius and Genius
Augusti (or Divi lius)

The Matres (Deae Matres/Dea Matrona) in Roman


The Fates, Moirai or Furies in Greek and Roman

mythology: Clotho or Nona the Spinner, Lachesis
or Decima the Weaver, and Atropos or Morta the
Cutter of the Threads of Life. Ones Lifeline was
Spun by Clotho, Woven into the tapestry of Life by
Lachesis, and the thread Cut by Atropos.

The Hooded Spirits or Genii Cucullati in Gallo-

Roman times

The main supranational triad of the ancient

This part of a 12th-century Swedish tapestry has been interpreted Lusitanian mythology and religion and Portuguese
to show, from left to right, the one-eyed Odin, the hammer- Neopagans made up of the couple Arentia and
wielding Thor and Freyr holding up an ear of corn.[41] Arentius and Quangeius and Trebaruna, followed by
a minor Gallaecian-Lusitanian triad of Bandua (un-
der many natures), Nabia and Reve female nature:
The Eleusinian Mysteries centered on Persephone
(daughter), Demeter (mother), and Triptolemus (to
whom Demeter taught agriculture) The sisters Ukshkk, Jukshkk and Shrhkk in
In ancient Egypt there were many triads: Smi mythology.

the Osirian (or Abydos) triad of Osiris (hus- The triad of Al-Lat, Al-Uzza, and Manat in the time
band), Isis (wife), and Horus (son),[48] of Mohammed (Holy Qu'ran (Abdullah Yusuf Ali
the Theban triad of Amun, Mut and Khonsu translation), Surah 53:19-22)[52]
the Memphite triad of Ptah, Sekhmet and Lugus (Esus, Toutatis and Taranis) in Celtic mythol-
Nefertem ogy
the Elephantine triad of Khnum (god of the
source of the Nile river), Satet (the person- Odin, Vili and Ve in Norse mythology
ication of the oods of the Nile river), and
Anuket (the Goddess of the nile river). The Norns in Norse mythology
the sungod Ra, whose form in the morning
Odin, Freyr, and Thor in Norse mythology. Odin is
was Kheper, at noon Re-Horakhty and in the
the god of war, death, poetry, and the sky, Freyr is
evening Atum, and many others.[49]
the god of summer and fertility, and Thor is the god
The Hellenistic Egypt triad of Isis, Alexandrian of thunder and destruction.
Serapis and Harpocrates (a Hellenized version of the
already referred Isis-Osiris-Horus triad), though in The Triglav in Slavic mythology
the early Ptolemaic period Serapis, Isis and Apollo
(who was though sometimes identied with Horus) Perknas (god of heaven), Patrimpas (god of earth)
were preferred[50] and Pikuolis (god of death) in Prussian mythology

The Roman Capitoline Triad of Jupiter (father), The Zorya or Auroras in Slavic mythology
Juno (wife), and Minerva (daughter)
The Charites or Graces in Greek mythology
The Roman pleibian triad of Ceres, Liber Pater
and Libera (or its Greek counterpart with Demeter, The One, the Thought (or Intellect) and the Soul in
Dionysos and Kore) Neoplatonism
9.6 Gnosticism 5

This is not to be understood as a belief in (or wor-

ship of) three Gods, nor as a belief that there are three
subjectively-perceived aspects in one God, both of
which the Church condemns as heresy. The Church also
rejects the notions that God is composed of its three
persons and that God is a genus containing the three

9.6 Gnosticism

Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva seated on lotuses with their consorts: The Gnostic text Trimorphic Protennoia presents a three-
Saraswati, Lakshmi, and Paravati respectively. ca 1770. fold discourse of the three forms of Divine Thought: The
Father, The Son, and The Mother (Sophia).[53]

9.2 Dharmic religions

9.7 In ction
Ayyavazhi Trinity
The Golden Goddesses of the Legend of Zelda video
Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva (Trimurti) in Puranic game series are a triad of Din, Nayru, and Farore.
Hinduism They are credited with the creation of Hyrule and
Lord Dattatreya the Triforce within the games mythology.

Mitra, Aryaman, and Varuna in early vedic Hin- In The Elder Scrolls video game series; the gods
duism Akatosh (time), Lorkhan (space) and Magnus
(magic) are considered the three gods primarily re-
Ganga, Yamuna, and Saraswati merged in one is the sponsible for creation. The series also feature three
Triveni goddess: Mara (fertility and romantic love), Dibella
(beauty and sexuality) and Kynareth (heavens, the
Saha Realm Trinity in Mahayana Buddhism
sky and wind). There is also the two variations of
(Shakyamuni, Avalokitesvara and Ksitigarbha)
the Dunmer Tribunal gods with Almalexia, Sotha
Shakti, Lakshmi, and Saraswati (Tridevi) in Puranic Sil and Vivec along with their three anticipators
Hinduism Boethiah, Azura and Mephala.

9.3 Other Eastern religions 10 List of other triads

Three Pure Ones in Taoism
Triples in legendary beings:
Fu Lu Shou in Taoism

The Ahuric Triad of Ahura Mazda, Mithra Ai Dahka (Azhi Dahaka, Dahg)
and Apam Napat in Zoroastrianism. Also, in
Achaemenid times, Mazda, Mithra and Anahita.
9.4 New religious movements Bune (Bime)
The Triple Goddess in Wicca Cerberus
Nuit, Hadit and Ra Hoor Khuit in the Thelemic spir- Ettins
itual system

9.5 Christianity The Gorgons in Greek Mythology

Main articles: Athanasian Creed and Trinity The Graeae in Greek Mythology

The Three Wise Men in Christianity

Christians profess one God in three divine persons
(God the Father, God the Son and God the Holy Ghost). Zmey Gorynych

11 See also [11] Sarah Amelia Scull (1880). Greek Mythology System-
atized. p. 284.
List of deities
[12] Lebor Gabla renn 62, 64: Badb and Macha and
Les Lavandires Anand... were the three daughters of Ernmas the she-
farmer. "Badb and Morrigu, whose name was Anand.
[13] Takacs, Sarolta A. (2008) Vestal Virgins, Sybils, and Ma-
Thraetaona trons: Women in Roman Religion. University of Texas
Press. pp. 118121.
Three hares
[14] Green, Miranda. Back to the Future: Resonances of the
Trichotomy (philosophy) Past, pp.56-57, in Gazin-Schwartz, Amy, and Holtorf,
Cornelius (1999). Archaeology and Folklore. Routledge.
Trifunctional hypothesis
[15] Peter H. Goodrich, Ritual Sacrice and the Pre-Christian
Trita Subtext of Gawains Green Girdle, in Sir Gawain and the
Classical Tradition (McFarland, 2006), pp. 7475
[16] William Hansen, Classical Mythology: A Guide to the
Mythical World of the Greeks and Romans (Oxford Uni-
versity Press US, 2005), p. 306_308 online.

12 References [17] The Edinburgh Encyclopedia of Continental Philosophy p.

[1] Triads of gods appear very early, at the primitive level.
[18] (Nsstrm, Britt-Mari (1999) Freyja The Trivalent
The archaic triads in the religions of antiquity and of the
Goddess in Sand, Erik Reenberg & Srensen, Jrgen
East are too numerous to be mentioned here. Arrange-
Podemann (eds.) Comparative Studies in History of Re-
ment in triads is an archetype in the history of religion,
ligions: Their Aim, Scope and Validity. Museum Tuscu-
which in all probability formed the basis of the Chris-
lanum Press. pp. 62-4.)
tian Trinity. C. G. Jung. A Psychological Approach to
the Dogma of the Trinity.
[19] Petreska, Vesna (2005) Demons of Fate in Macedonian
[2] For a summary of the analogous problem of representing Folk Beliefs in Gbor Klaniczay & va Pcs (eds.) Chris-
the trinity in Christian art, see Clara Erskine Clements tian Demonology and Popular Mythology. Central Euro-
dated but useful Handbook of Legendary and Mythologi- pean Press. p. 225.
cal Art (Boston, 1900), p. 12.
[20] West, M. L. (2007) Indo-European Poetry and Myth. Ox-
[3] Virgil addresses Hecate as tergemina Hecate, tria virginis, ford University Press. pp. 140-1, 379-385.
ora Dianae (Aeneid, 4.511).
[21] Alfldi, Diana Nemorensis, American Journal of Ar-
[4] Miranda Green, The Celtic World (Routledge, 1996), p. chaeology (1960:137-44) p 141.
481; Hilary Robinson, Becoming Women: Irigaray, Ire-
land and Visual Representation, in Art, Nation and Gen- [22] Horace, Carmina 3.22.1.
der: Ethnic Landscapes, Myths and Mother-gures (Ash-
gate, 2003), p. 116. [23] Aeneid 6.35, 10.537.

[5] Sjoestedt, Marie-Louise. Celtic Gods and Heroes. Dover [24] Carmina 34.14 tu potens Trivia...
Publications. pp. 3132. ISBN 0-486-41441-8.
[25] Betz, Hans Dieter (ed.) (1989). The Greek Magical Pa-
[6] O hOgain, Daithi (1991). Myth, Legend and Romance: An pyri in Translation : Including the Demotic Spells : Texts.
Encyclopedia of the Irish Folk Tradition. Oxford: Prentice University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-04447-7.
Hall Press. pp. 307309. ISBN 0-13-275959-4. PGM IV. 2785-2890 on pp.90-91.
Triple assertions also occur in PGM IV. 1390-1495 on
[7] Davidson, Hilda Ellis (1988). Myths and symbols in pagan
p.65, PGM IV. 2441-2621 on pp.84-86, and PGM IV.
Europe: early Scandinavian and Celtic religions. Syracuse:
2708-84 on p.89.
Syracuse University Press. p. 97. ISBN 0-8156-2441-7.

[8] MacKillop, James (1998). Dictionary of Celtic mythology. [26] Betz, Hans Dieter (ed.) (1989). The Greek Magical Pa-
Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 335336. ISBN 0- pyri in Translation : Including the Demotic Spells : Texts.
19-280120-1. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-04447-7.

[9] "riu. Jones Celtic Encyclopedia. 14 April 2011. [27] pp. 593 and 1246, respectively.

[10] Otto Seemann (1884). The Mythology of Greece and [28] Ovid, Metamorphoses, book 7, tr. John Dryden, et al
Rome. p. 65. (1717). Accessed 2009-09-23.
12.1 Additional sources 7

Hecate will never join in that oence: [48] The Mythological Trinity or Triad Osiris, Horus and Isis,
Unjust is the request you make, and I Wikicommons
In kindness your petition shall deny;
Yet she that grants not what you do implore, [49] Manfred Lurker, Lexikon der Gtter und Symbole der alten
Shall yet essay to give her Jason more; gypter, Scherz 1998, p. 214f.
Find means t' encrease the stock of Aesons
[50] Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics, Volume 6. Fiction -
Hyksos. Part 2. God - Heraclitus, James Hastings, John
Without retrenchment of your lifes arrears;
A. Selbie and others (Ed.s), p. 381
Provided that the triple Goddess join
A strong confed'rate in my bold design. [51] Os Principais Deuses e Deusas da Lusitnia - Panteo
Lusitano, Revvane.com
[29] Eliade, Mircea (ed.), Encyclopedia of Religion (1987 edi-
tion), Hekate entry, vol.6, p.251. [52] The Holy Qur'an/An-Najm - Wikilivres.
[30] Farnell, Lewis Richard (1896). Chapter 19, Hekate: [53] Trimorphic Protennoia -- The Nag Hammadi Library.
Representations in Art, in The Cults of the Greek States,
volume 2. Oxford: Clarendon Press. p.557.

[31] Barbara Charlesworth Gelpi, Shelleys Goddess: Mater-

12.1 Additional sources
nity, Language, Subjectivity (Oxford University Press,
1992), p. 174 online.
Jung, C. G. A Psychological Approach to the
Dogma of the Trinity (1948), in Collected Works
[32] Gods, spirits and other beings, Samisk tro og mytologi of C. G. Jung, Princeton University Press 1969, vol.
11, 2nd edition, pp. 107-200.
[33] How children were created, Samisk tro og mytologi
Brabazon, Michael. Carl Jung and the Trinitarian
[34] Khall, Shawq Ab (2003) Atlas of the Qurn: Places,
Nations, Landmarks. Darussalam Press. pp. 196-7. Self, Quodlibet Journal: Volume 4 Number 2-3,
Summer 2002. File retrieved Sept. 19, 2008.
[35] Hawting, Gerald R. (1999) The Idea of Idolatry and the
Emergence of Islam: From Polemic to History. Cambridge
University Press. pp. 130-2.

[36] Herodotus Histories 1.131; 3.8.

[37] Healey, John F. (2001) The Religion of the Nabataeans: A

Conspectus. Brill Academic Publishers. p. 112.

[38] The Ugaritic Baal cycle: Volume 2 by Mark S. Smith -

Page 295

[39] The Origins of Biblical Monotheism: Israels Polytheistic

Background and the Ugaritic Texts by Mark S. Smith -
Page 237

[40] Signes gravs sur les glises de l'Eure et du Calvados by

Asger Jorn, Volume II of the Bibliotehque Alexandrie,
published by the Scandinavian Institute of Comparative
Vandalism, 1964, p198

[41] Leiren, Terje I. (1999). From Pagan to Christian: The

Story in the 12th-Century Tapestry of the Skog Church.

[42] Chamberss Encyclopedia Volume 1

[43] The Biblical Astronomy of the Birth of Moses. Try-

god.com. Retrieved 2013-02-03.

[44] The twelve gods of Greece and Rome, Charlotte R. Long,

p. 11

[45] Religion in Hellenistic Athens Por Jon D. Mikalson, p.


[46] The twelve gods of Greece and Rome Por Charlotte R.

Long, p. 11

[47] The golden chain: an anthology of Pythagorean and Pla-

tonic philosophy, Algis Udavinys, 274

13 Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses

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