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Combined Heat and Power

(CHP): Applications & Best


Practices
Presenter: Christian Mueller, Sr. Sales
Engineer, MTU Onsite Energy

Sponsored by:

#MTUpower
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Speakers

Presenter:
Christian Mueller
Sr. Sales Engineer
MTU Onsite Energy

Moderator:
Jack Smith
Content Manager
Consulting-Specifying Engineer and Pure Power
GAS POWER &
CHP SYSTEMS

Christian Mueller
Sr. Sales Engineer - Gas Power Systems
MTU Onsite Energy
A Rolls Royce Power Systems Company

MTU Onsite Energy


MTU Onsite Energy GmbH
All rights reserved
All rights reserved
ROLLS-ROYCE POWER SYSTEMS
POWER GENERATION

High Speed High Speed Medium Speed


Diesel Systems Gas Systems Gas, Diesel, HFO

30 3,250 kW 100 2,500 kW 5,000 9,500 kW


AGENDA

01. Gas power systems market


02. System design and best practices
03. Controls
03. CHP sizing and economics
04. Service and lifecycle costs

Page 7 / MTU Gas Power Systems / 30.05.2017


GAS POWER SYSTEMS MARKET
FOUR UNIQUE BUSINESS CLUSTERS
GAS POWER SYSTEMS MARKET
NATURAL GAS CHP

Applications
Commercial buildings
Health care
Industrial facilities
Data Centers

Characteristics
Site specific questions
Focus on power, heat and
cooling generation 1. Electrical and thermal loads of the facility
=Total efficiency
2. Type of thermal load hot water, steam
Sizing of installation crucial to or chilling with flow rates, pressure and
allow continuous operation temperatures
GAS POWER SYSTEMS MARKET
NATURAL GAS NON-CHP

Applications Site specific questions


Peaking / demand response 1. Load factor
IPPs (Base load power plants) 2. Connected loads
Off-grid electrical users 3. Black start and starting time requirements

Market characteristics

Focus on power generation


Continuous vs. peaking
Grid parallel vs. island operation
Capital cost vs. operation cost
GAS POWER SYSTEMS MARKET
BIOGAS

Applications Market characteristics


Dairy digesters Focus on waste to energy
Food waste digesters Selling back power to the grid or
Livestock waste digesters internal consumption
Biogas quality critical H2S content
needs to be observed

Site specific questions


1. Consistency of waste stream and
therefore consistency of gas quality
and quantity
2. Thermal demand for heating of
digester and facility
3. Gas analysis showing methane and
H2S content
GAS POWER SYSTEMS MARKET
BIOGAS

Renewable material Solid feeder Digester Gas blower Biogas CHP Plant

Biogas

Heat from CHP


Auxiliary use of heat
(e.g. Heating of buildings)
Liquid manure Pre dump
Electricity for internal use

Electricity for export to grid

Liquid fertilizer Storage


basin
GAS POWER SYSTEMS MARKET
SPECIAL GASES

Applications
Sewage works (WWTP)
Landfills
Coal bed methane

Market characteristics
Site specific questions
Focus on waste to energy
1. Projection of future gas production
Selling back power to the grid
2. Gas analysis
3. Gas treatment systems Gas quality critical Gas
composition and contaminents need
to be observed
AGENDA

01. Gas power systems market


02. System design and best practices
03. Controls
03. CHP sizing and economics
04. Service and lifecycle costs

Page 14 / MTU Gas Power Systems / 30.05.2017


CHP DESIGN
INSTALLATION OF CHP Dump
cooler

Fuel
line

Heating
connection
to building

Lube Oil
Exhaust

Electrical and controls


connection
CHP DESIGN
BALANCE OF PLANT FUEL SYSTEM

Fuel system

What needs to be observed:


Gas pressure range at gas train inlet
Fuel specifications
Minimum methane number
LHV (lower heating value)
Contaminants in gas
Rate of change of gas quality/composition
Gas temperature
Gas pre-treatment may be necessary to remove;
Moisture (biogas)
H2S (digester biogas)
Siloxanes (landfills and WWTP)
CHP DESIGN
BALANCE OF PLANT FUEL SYSTEM

180 Biogas
Associated Petroleum Gas (APG)
160
Chemical Gas
Coal Bed methane (CBM/CSM)
140
Methane number [-]

Coke Gas
Converter Gas
120
Hydrogen
Natural gas
Lean Syn Gas
100
Liquified Petroleum Gas (LPG)
Natural gas H
80 Well head gas /
Natural gas low MN
Propane LPG
Pyrolysis Gas
60
Rich Syn Gas
Sewage Gas
40
Shale Gas high quality
Shale Gas low quality
20
Biogas
Landfill Gas
0
0.00 5.00
500 10.00
1000 15.00
1500 20.00
2000 25.00
2500 30.00
3000

Syngas LHV [BTU/ft]


CHP DESIGN
BALANCE OF PLANT LUBE OIL

Lube oil system

Continuous operation requires external lube oil system to replenish


internal engine oil sump
Automatic refill of engine sump from external tank through electric lube
oil pump or gravity feed
Lube oil circulation system for extended lube oil exchange intervals
Minimum one oil tank per genset

What needs to be observed:

Lube oil exchange intervals to maintain prescribed lube oil quality


Contaminants in Bio/Sewage/Landfill gas can drastically reduced lube
oil exchange intervals regular lube oil analysis
CHP DESIGN
BALANCE OF PLANT LUBE OIL

6
10 9 10 9
12 12

5
8 11 8 11

7
4 1
2
3

1 Overfill protector engine 7 Fresh oil pump


2 Min-Max contact oil replenishment 8 Overfill protector oil tank
3 Min-contact engine 9 Max-contact oil tank
4 Non-return valve 10 Min-contact oil tank
5 Pre-lube and waste oil pump 11 Vent/breather
6 Feed solenoid valves 12 Float content display oil tank
CHP DESIGN
BALANCE OF PLANT LUBE OIL

Two 1000l lube oil


tanks installed to
extend lube oil
exchange intervals
CHP DESIGN
BALANCE OF PLANT EXHAUST & EMISSIONS

Exhaust system

What needs to be observed:


Exhaust heat recovery systems
Exhaust after treatment
Depending on location of installation and engine type, various types
of exhaust after treatment may be required
Exhaust back pressure as result of the above
CHP DESIGN
BALANCE OF PLANT EXHAUST & EMISSIONS

Rich Burn = <1% Oxygen Lean Burn = >9% Oxygen

3 way catalyst Without after treatment


Reduction of NOx Lean combustion reduces NOx
Oxidation of CO and unburnt
hydrocarbons (HC) Oxidation catalyst
Oxidation of CO and HC

Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR)


Reduction of NOx
Typical NOx Emissions
Gas engine Standard Optional After treatment

Lean burn 1g/bhphr 0.5g/bhphr * without

Rich burn 1g/bhphr 0.5g/bhphr , 0.15g/bhphr with 3 way catalyst

* Higher fuel consumption due to leaner combustion


EPA 40 CFR PART 60
SUBPART JJJJSTANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE
For stationary spark ignition internal combustion engines
Table 1 to Subpart JJJJ of Part 60NOX, CO, and VOC Emission
Standards for Stationary Non-Emergency SI Engines 100 HP
Emission standardsa
Maximum Date of g/HP-hr ppmvd at 15% O2
Engine type and fuel engine power manufacture NOX CO d
VOC NOX CO VOCd
b
Non-Emergency SI Natural Gas and 100HP<500 1/1/2011 1.0 2.0 0.7 82 270 60
b
Non-Emergency SI Lean Burn LPG

Non-Emergency SI Lean Burn Natural 500HP<1,350 7/1/2010 1.0 2.0 0.7 82 270 60
Gas and LPG
Non-Emergency SI Natural Gas and HP500 7/1/2010 1.0 2.0 0.7 82 270 60
Non-Emergency SI Lean Burn LPG
(except lean burn 500HP<1,350)
Landfill/Digester Gas (except lean burn HP<500 1/1/2011 2.0 5.0 1.0 150 610 80
500HP<1,350)
Landfill/Digester Gas (except lean burn HP500 7/1/2010 2.0 5.0 1.0 150 610 80
500HP<1,350)

Landfill/Digester Gas Lean Burn 500HP<1,350 7/1/2010 2.0 5.0 1.0 150 610 80

Certification of stationary SI ICE to the emission standards specified in 60.4231(d) or (e),


as applicable, is voluntary.
CHP DESIGN
BALANCE OF PLANT VENTILATION SYSTEM

Ventilation system

Ventilation requirements are for combustion air and ventilation air (external
cooling of alternator and engine)

What needs to be observed:


CHP systems typically do not have vertically mounted, engine driven
radiators for cooling/ventilation

Air intake temperature regulation (for low ambient temperatures) is


required for gas engines. Modulation of flow through ventilation fans
and louvers. Combustion air pre-heating for extreme low temperatures
CHP DESIGN
BALANCE OF PLANT JW AND IC COOLING

Engine jacket water and mixture cooling

External cooling systems needed to maintain engine jacket water and


mixture cooling temperatures if heat is not fully used in CHP application

Mixture cooling temperatures need to be tightly controlled for optimum


engine performance

What needs to be observed:


Typically no engine driven pumps/radiators
Electric driven recirculating pump
Electric driven radiator
CHP DESIGN
HEAT RECOVERY SYSTEMS

There are three main types of heat recovery used in CHP systems:

Hot water heat recovery from engine jacket water and exhaust

Steam generation from exhaust heat recovery boiler

Absorption Chiller using exhaust and engine jacket water


Also known as Trigeneration
CHP DESIGN
HEAT RECOVERY SYSTEMS HOT WATER

Hot water heat recovery

CHP systems such as MTU S400 can come with pre-packaged heat exchangers:
Full heat recovery from jacket water and exhaust heat exchangers
Partial heat recovery from jacket water

Hot water heat recovery can be customized to meet temperatures and flow rates at site
Hot water is most cost effective form of heat recovery and easy to integrate into existing
centralized heating systems
Hot water can be stored

Guideline
50% of heat recoverable heat in exhaust, 50% in jacket water
CHP DESIGN
HEAT RECOVERY SYSTEMS HOT WATER
CHP DESIGN
HEAT RECOVERY SYSTEMS HOT WATER

Gas engine
Module Control Generator
MMC

Exhaust gas heat


exchanger and
silencer

Heat water inlet


Heat water outlet

MIP controls Plate heat exchanger


engine and generator
CHP DESIGN
HEAT RECOVERY SYSTEMS STEAM

Engine Exhaust 800-900F

Steam boilers come in different configurations:


- Saturated steam
- Saturated steam + Economizer
- Super heated steam

Guideline
Pressure/temperature level of steam determine how much exhaust
heat can be utilized
CHP DESIGN
HEAT RECOVERY SYSTEMS TRIGENERATION

MWh

800
700
600 Electricity

500
400
Cold
300 Heat
200
100
0
CHP DESIGN
HEAT RECOVERY SYSTEMS TRIGENERATION

Absorption Chiller

3. Separation 4.
of Condensation
Refridgerant of Refridgerant
from weak H2O- Steam
Solution with by chilled
Heat Supply Water

absorber 1. Evaporating
2. Absorption of the Refrigerant
Refridgerant (H2O) in Vacuum
(H2O - Steam)
by LiBr
Solution
CHP DESIGN
HEAT RECOVERY SYSTEMS TRIGENERATION

Absorption chillers come in different configurations:

- Hot water/steam driven chillers


- Exhaust gas driven chiller
- Hot water + exhaust gas driven chillers

Rule of thumb
For every 1 kW of electrical power, 1 kW of cooling can be generated
1 TR (ton of refrigeration) = 3.515 kW of cooling
CHP DESIGN
HEAT RECOVERY SYSTEMS STEAM

Customer Golf Resort &SPA


Location Antalya, Turkey
Gensets 1x8V & 1x20V
Total output 849 kWe & 2145 kWe
Fuel Natural Gas

In summer season, energy is used for hotel cooling.

In winter season, chiller are taken off line as heat is


required

Heat: Swimming pools / sauna / spa


Cooling: Hotel air conditioning
Steam: For laundry

Hotel as ideal application using the CCHP principle


as power, heating and cooling energy is required
throughout the year.
CHP DESIGN
HEAT RECOVERY SYSTEMS STEAM

Cooling

Total steam 4564 lbs/h (saturated) @175 psi
water
Heat water
Exhaust Gas
356F 356F Steam

Steam 425F Steam 425F


Economiser Economiser
boiler boiler
444 kBTu 174 kBTu
2,750 kBTu 1,109 kBTu

~97F
Cooling
~845F 189F 189F tower
~845F
90F

194F Heat 194F Heat 42F


exchanger exchanger
JW-IC-LO JW-IC-LO Absorption
4,129 kBTu 1,648 kBTu Chiller
172F Heat
172F 54F
Cooling
167F 167F

Electrical: 2994 kW
2145 kWe 849 kWe Steam: 4564 lbs/hr
Electricity Hot Water: 5777 kBTU/hr
Cooling: 290 TR
Efficiency total > 90%
CHP DESIGN
PRE-PACKAGED SYSTEMS
CHP DESIGN
PRE-PACKAGED SYSTEMS

Location: Baltimore, Maryland 1x 12V4000L62 Natural Gas

Application: Casino Containerized package

Electrical output: 1149 kWe Cogeneration supplies hot water for heating
Heating output: 4,500 kBTU/h demand of casino. Expansion to trigeneration
for cooling demand possible in future.
AGENDA

01. Gas power systems market


02. System design and best practices
03. Controls
03. CHP sizing and economics
04. Service and lifecycle costs

Page 38 / MTU Gas Power Systems / 30.05.2017


CONTROLS
MMC + MIP

What are the core functions of a CHP control system?

1. Engine control
2. Generator control Genset
3. Paralleling and synchronizing controller
4. Remote access / software interfaces
5. Balance of plant control CHP systems
6. HMI Interface controller
CONTROLS
MMC + MIP

MMC + MIP
MTU Module Control MTU Interface Panel
CHP system controller Genset controller
CONTROLS
GENSET CONTROLLER

Engine control Genset control Accessory

Speed control Gas train control Alarm system

Mixture/Lambda Engine oil system


Data logging
control (refilling)

Synchronization MMC / MCS Interface


Ignition control (GCB / MCB) (Ethernet)

Customer Interfaces
Knocking control Generator protection
(e.g. Modbus)
Mains protection / Remote monitoring
Engine monitoring monitoring & diagnostic
Parallel / Island
Start/Stop procedure operation

Loadsharing
CONTROLS
CHP SYSTEMS CONTROLS

Lube oil system


Power set point Alarm system
control

Power export Hot water


Data logging
control tanks

Heating water HMI


Boiler control
control

Engine cooling water Visualization


Biogas control
system

Mixture cooling Customer Interfaces


Gas treatment (e.g. Modbus)
water system

Room ventilation Clock timer & Remote monitoring


system Counter evaluation & diagnostic

SMS/Email client
CONTROLS
VISUALIZATION
CONTROLS
PLANT CONTROL SYSTEMS

Remote system Master Building Switchgear Transformer Grid


control system

MIP
MIP
MMC
GCB MMC
MMC GCB
Diesel-Genset

Remote System (Ethernet) Plant communication Power-Low voltage Power-High voltage


AGENDA

01. Gas power systems market


02. System design and best practices
03. Controls
03. CHP sizing and economics
04. Service and lifecycle costs

Page 45 / MTU Gas Power Systems / 30.05.2017


CHP SIZING AND ECONOMICS
SUITABLE APPLICATIONS

1) High thermal and electric loads that occur coincidentally (Quantity)


Central heating and cooling system
Low/mid pressure steam (or thermal fluid) demand
Hot water and/or hot air demand
Chilled water

2) Temperature of thermal load (steam pressure) compatible with engine (Quality)

3) Consistent electrical, cooling or heating needs (Load Profile)


Only hot water can be stored

4) Suitable gaseous fuel available

5) Long operating hours, generally >6000 h/year


CHP SIZING AND ECONOMICS
SIZED FOR ELECTRICAL DEMAND

CHP
Site demand Site demand
output

electrical electrical electrical

thermal thermal thermal

Boiler to Excess heat


supplement cooled away
CHP
CHP SIZING AND ECONOMICS
SIZED FOR THERMAL DEMAND

Excess power
sold to grid Power
(if allowed) imported
from Grid
or power
reduction of CHP

electrical electrical electrical

thermal thermal thermal

CHP
Site demand Site demand
output
CHP SIZING AND ECONOMICS
FINANCIAL ANALYSIS

After preliminary choice of CHP system size, a financial analysis is


performed to determine the economic viability of installing a CHP system
and confirm system sizing.

Inputs into financial analysis:


Electricity consumption (kWh) and cost ($/kWh)
Gas consumption (MMBtu) and cost ($/MMBTU)
Hours of operation of CHP
Lifecycle costs for maintenance of CHP
Cost of installation
State and federal incentives
Dsire USA EPA CHP Partnership
CHP SIZING AND ECONOMICS
COSTING BENCHMARKS

Two problems are commonly associated with CHP economic modelling:

1. Averaging
Electrical and heat loads of the facility are not well understood.
Monthly/Daily averages are used which distort actual
consumption. CHP running hours are over-estimated
2. Washing away of savings
CHP systems should only be run during hours when the cost of
operation is exceed by the savings/revenue generated. Otherwise
money loosing hours will wash away the savings generated in
money making hours
AGENDA

01. Gas power systems market


02. System design and best practices
03. Controls
03. CHP sizing and economics
04. Service and lifecycle costs

Page 51 / MTU Gas Power Systems / 30.05.2017


SERVICE AND LIFE CYCLE COSTS
MAINTENANCE CONCEPT

QL1 QL3 QL4


Preventive
Basic Component Extended maintenance
maintenance maintenance component
maintenance

- Spark plugs - Turbocharger - Major overhaul


- Filter changes - Top end overhaul - Engine rebuild

QL2 Corrective
Unscheduled repair or maintenance maintenance

Lubricating oil and coolant Fluids


SERVICE AND LIFE CYCLE COSTS
LIFE CYCLE COSTS
SERVICE AND LIFE CYCLE COSTS
MAINTENANCE CONCEPT

Best Practices
Remote monitoring of control system with automatic status / alarm
messages via email / text message.
Diagnosis of engine operational trends through data logging system
Monitoring of run hours for upcoming scheduled maintenance tasks
Trained operator with certification for basic maintenance tasks (eg. filters,
oil, sparkplugs) and troubleshooting
Spare parts inventory at site for recommended consumables / parts
Regular lube oil samples and optimization of lube oil exchange intervals to
match other scheduled tasks and minimize downtime
Thank you for your attention!

Seite 55 / C.A.R.E.I. / 5/30/2017


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Archive:
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We will send an email to registered attendees with hyperlink
Can also access from www.csemag.com home page
Speakers

Presenter:
Christian Mueller
Sr. Sales Engineer
MTU Onsite Energy

Moderator:
Jack Smith
Content Manager
Consulting-Specifying Engineer and Pure Power
Combined Heat and Power
(CHP): Applications & Best
Practices
Presenter: Christian Mueller, Sr. Sales
Engineer, MTU Onsite Energy

Sponsored by:

#MTUpower