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# Continuum Mechanics

Chapter 7
Linear Elasticity
C. Agelet de Saracibar
ETS Ingenieros de Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Universidad Politcnica de Catalua (UPC), Barcelona, Spain
International Center for Numerical Methods in Engineering (CIMNE), Barcelona, Spain
Linear Elasticity > Contents

Contents
Chapter 7 Linear Elasticity
1. Linear elastic model
2. Linear elastic IBVP
3. Solution of the linear elastic IBVP
4. Orthogonal curvilinear coordinates
5. Assignments
6. Linear thermoelastic model
7. Linear thermoelastic IBVP
8. Solution of the linear thermoelastic IBVP
9. Assignments
10. Plane linear elasticity

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 2

Linear Elasticity > Linear Elastic Model

## Linear Elastic Model

Infinitesimal Strains Framework
Displacements and gradient of displacements are infinitesimal
 No difference between:
o spatial and material configurations
o spatial and material coordinates
o spatial and material descriptions
o spatial and material differential operators
o spatial and material time derivatives
o spatial mass density and material mass density
 Linear functions of the gradient of displacements

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 3

Linear Elasticity > Linear Elastic Model

## Linear Elastic Model

We consider that the processes are adiabatic, such that,
r = 0, div q = 0
The internal dissipation rate per unit of volume for an adiabatic
process, given by the Clausius-Planck inequality, can be written
as,
Dint := 0 0 r + div q = 0 0

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 4

Linear Elasticity > Linear Elastic Model

## Linear Elastic Model

H2. Isothermal Processes
We consider that the processes are isothermal, such that,
 = 0
The internal dissipation rate per unit of volume for an isothermal
process, given by the Clausius-Planck inequality, can be written
as,
Dint := 0 0 r + div q
= :  0 ( e  )

( )
= :  0  +  = :  0 0

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 5

Linear Elasticity > Linear Elastic Model

## Linear Elastic Model

H3. Free Energy
We consider that the free energy per unit of volume is a function
of the infinitesimal strain tensor, such that for an isothermal
linear elastic model is a quadratic function of the strain tensor
given by,
1
0 = 0 ( ) = : C : 0
2
where C is a positive definite symmetric fourth-order tensor,
denoted as isothermal constant elastic constitutive tensor.

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 6

Linear Elasticity > Linear Elastic Model

## Linear Elastic Model

As the isothermal elastic constitutive tensor C is a symmetric
fourth-order tensor, the following symmetry condition holds,
: C : = ab Cabcd cd = ab Ccdab cd , Cabcd = Ccdab

## Furthermore, symmetry of the strain tensor yields the following

symmetry conditions,
: C : = T : C : = : C : T , Cabcd = Cbacd = Cabdc

## The symmtery conditions reduce from 81 to 21 the number of

parameters needed to define the elastic constitutive tensor.

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 7

Linear Elasticity > Linear Elastic Model

## Linear Elastic Model

Internal Dissipation Inequality
Applying the chain rule, the internal dissipation rate per unit of
volume for an isothermal process, given by the Clausius-Planck
inequality, yields,
Dint := :  0
( ) ( )
= :  0 :  = 0 :  0 

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 8

Linear Elasticity > Linear Elastic Model

## Linear Elastic Model

Constitutive Equation and Reduced Dissipation
Following Colemans method, the internal dissipation rate per
unit of volume for an isothermal process, given by the Clausius-
Planck inequality, must be satisfied for arbitrary thermodynamic
processes, i.e. arbitrary strain rates,
( )
Dint := 0 :  0 

yielding the following isothermal linear elastic constitutive
equation and zero internal reduced dissipation rate per unit of
volume, that characterizes a reversible process
( )
= 0 , Dint = 0

October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 9
Linear Elasticity > Linear Elastic Model

## Linear Elastic Model

Constitutive Equation and Reduced Dissipation
The constitutive equation and reduced internal dissipation rate
per unit o volume for an isothermal linear elastic model are given
by,
( )
= 0 = C : , ab = Cabcd cd

Dint = 0

## Note that, as the internal dissipation rate per unit of volume is

zero for a linear elastic model, any adiabatic process is also
isentropic and any isentropic process is also adiabatic.

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 10

Linear Elasticity > Linear Elastic Model

## Linear Elastic Model

Elastic Constitutive Tensor
The isothermal elastic constitutive tensor for a linear elastic
model is given by,
2 ( ) 2 ( )
C = 0 , Cabcd = 0
ab cd

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 11

Linear Elasticity > Linear Elastic Model

## Isotropic Linear Elastic Model

Isotropic Elastic Constitutive Tensor
A continuum medium is said to be isotropic if at a given point it
has the same material properties in any direction.
For an isotropic linear elastic material model, the physical
property of isotropy is translated into a mathematical property
of isotropy of the isothermal elastic constitutive tensor, yielding,

C = 1 1 + 2 I , Cabcd = ab cd + ( ac bd + ad bc )

## where 0, > 0, denoted as isothermal Lam parameters, are

the two material parameters characterizing an isothermal isotro-
pic linear elastic material model.
Isotropy reduces from 21 to 2 the number of parameters needed
to define the elastic constitutive tensor.
October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 12
Linear Elasticity > Linear Elastic Model

## Isotropic Linear Elastic Model

Free Energy for an Isotropic Linear Elastic Model
The free energy per unit of volume for an isothermal isotropic
linear elastic material model can be written as,
1 1 2
0 ( ) = : C : = ( tr ) + : 0
2 2

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 13

Linear Elasticity > Linear Elastic Model

## Isotropic Linear Elastic Model

Isotropic Linear Elastic Constitutive Equation
The isothermal constitutive equation for an isotropic linear
elastic material model can be written as,
No se puede mostrar la imagen en este momento.

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 14

Linear Elasticity > Linear Elastic Model

## Isotropic Linear Elastic Model

Isotropic Linear Elastic Constitutive Equation
The volumetric part of the constitutive equation for an isother-
mal isotropic linear elastic model can be written as,
tr = : 1 = ( tr ) 1 : 1 + 2 : 1 = ( 3 + 2 ) tr
Introducing the mean stress, volumetric deformation and iso-
thermal bulk modulus, given by,
1 2
m := tr , e := tr , K := + > 0
3 3
The volumetric part of the constitutive equation for an isother-
mal isotropic linear elastic model can be written as,
m = Ke
October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 15
Linear Elasticity > Linear Elastic Model

## Isotropic Linear Elastic Model

Isotropic Linear Elastic Constitutive Equation
The deviatoric part of the constitutive equation for an isotropic
linear elastic model can be written as,
dev = ( tr ) dev 1 + 2 dev = 2 dev

## Introducing the shear modulus given by,

G := > 0
The deviatoric part of the constitutive equation for an isotropic
linear elastic model can be written as,
dev = 2G dev

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 16

Linear Elasticity > Linear Elastic Model

## Isotropic Linear Elastic Model

Isotropic Linear Elastic Inverse Constitutive Equation
The inverse constitutive equation for an isothermal isotropic
linear elastic model can be written as,
1
tr = ( 3 + 2 ) tr
1
= ( tr ) 1 +
( 3 + 2 ) 2 2

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 17

Linear Elasticity > Linear Elastic Model

## Isotropic Linear Elastic Model

Isotropic Linear Elastic Inverse Constitutive Equation
Let us introduce the isothermal Young elastic modulus, denoted
as E > 0, isothermal Poissons coefficient, denoted as 0 1 2,
and isothermal bulk modulus, denoted as K > 0 , such that,
( 3 + 2 ) 1
E= > 0, 0 =
+ 2 ( + ) 2
E E
= 0, = G = >0
(1 + )(1 2 ) 2 (1 + )
2 E
K =+ = >0
3 3 (1 2 )

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 18

Linear Elasticity > Linear Elastic Model

## Isotropic Linear Elastic Model

Isotropic Linear Elastic Inverse Constitutive Equation
The inverse constitutive equation for an isothermal isotropic
linear elastic model can be written as,
1 + 1 +
= ( tr ) 1 + , ab = dd ab + ab
E E E E

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 19

Linear Elasticity > Linear Elastic Model

## Isotropic Linear Elastic Model

Isotropic Linear Elastic Inverse Constitutive Equation
Using engineering notation, the Cartesian components of the
inverse constitutive equation for an isothermal isotropic linear
elastic model can be written as,
1 1
(
x = x ( y + z ) , xy = xy
E G
)
1 1
y = ( y ( x + z ) ) , xz = xz
E G
1 1
(
z = z ( x + y ) , yz = yz
E G
)

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 20

Linear Elasticity > Linear Elastic Model

## Isotropic Linear Elastic Model

Example 7.1
Let us consider an uniaxial traction test of an isotropic linear
elastic material such that,
x > 0, y = z = xy = xz = yz = 0
y

x x
x

## 1) Obtain the components of the strain tensor

2) Consider as particular cases: (a) = 0 ; (b) = 1 2

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 21

Linear Elasticity > Linear Elastic Model

## Isotropic Linear Elastic Model

Example 7.1
Given a stress state such that,
x > 0, y = z = xy = xz = yz = 0
the components of the strain tensor take the form,
1
E
( 1
E
( 1
))
x = x y + z = x > 0, xy = xy = 0
G
1 1
y =
E
( ( ))
y x + z = x 0, xz = xz = 0
E G

z =
1
E
( ( ))
1
z x + y = x 0, yz = yz = 0
E G

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 22

Linear Elasticity > Linear Elastic Model

## Isotropic Linear Elastic Model

(a) Consider the case = 0 :
1
x = x > 0, y = x = 0, z = x = 0
E E E
There is no Poisson effect.

## (b) Consider the case = 1 2 :

1 1 1
x = x > 0, y = x = x 0, z = x = x 0
E E 2E E 2E
1 1 1
e = tr = x + y + z = x x x = 0
E 2E 2E
The volumetric strain is zero, the volume is preserved, characte-
rizing an incompressible isotropic linear elastic material model.
October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 23
Linear Elasticity > Linear Elastic IBVP

## Isotropic Linear Elastic IBVP

Governing Equations
Let us consider the following governing equations in the space x
time domain I = [ 0,T ].
 Linear momentum balance First Cauchys motion equation
2u 2 ua
div + 0b = 0 2 , ab,b + 0ba = 0 2 in I
t t
 Isothermal isotropic linear elastic constitutive equation
= ( tr ) 1 + 2 , ab = dd ab + 2 ab in I
 Geometrical equations
1 1
s

2
( T

2
)
= u = u + ( u ) , ab = ( ua ,b + ub,a ) in I

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 24

Linear Elasticity > Linear Elastic IBVP

## Isotropic Linear Elastic IBVP

Boundary Conditions
Let us consider prescribed displacements and prescribed trac-
tions boundaries, denoted as u and , respectively, such
that,
u = , u =
with the following bounday conditions for the IBVP:
 Prescribed displacements boundary conditions
u = u, u a = u a on u I
 Prescribed tractions boundary conditions
t = n = t , ta = ab nb = ta on I

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 25

Linear Elasticity > Linear Elastic IBVP

## Isotropic Linear Elastic IBVP

Initial Conditions
Let us consider the following initial conditions for the IBVP,
 Initial displacements at time t=0
u t =0 = 0, ua t =0 = 0 in
 Initial velocities at time t=0
u ua
= v0 , = v0a in
t t =0 t t =0

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 26

Linear Elasticity > Linear Elastic IBVP

## Isotropic Linear Elastic IBVP

Isotropic Linear Elastic IBVP
Find the displacements, strains and stresses in I = [ 0,T ]
such that the following equations are satisfied:

2u
div + 0b = 0 2
t
= ( tr ) 1 + 2 in I
1
2
(
= su = u + ( u )
T

)
u t =0 = 0
u = u on u I
u in
t = n = t on I = v0
t t =0
October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 27
Linear Elasticity > Linear Elastic IBVP

## Isotropic Linear Elastic IBVP

Unicity of the Solution of the Linear Elastic IBVP
The solution of the linear elastic IBVP is unique in strains and
stresses.
The solution of the linear elastic IBVP is unique in displacements
if the boundary conditions are such that arbitrary rigid motions
are not allowed.

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 28

Linear Elasticity > Linear Elastic IBVP

## Isotropic Linear Elastic BVP

Quasistatic Linear Elastic BVP
A problem is said to be quasistatic if the acceleration term in the
first Cauchys motion equation is negligible.
A quasistatic linear elastic BVP does not involves any time
derivative, hence no time integration is involved and initial
conditions are not needed anymore.
Actions on the continuum body (forces, boundary conditions)
may still be a function of time and, then, the response
(displacements, strains, stresses) will be also a function of time.
Here the time plays the role and may be viewed as a loading
parameter.

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 29

Linear Elasticity > Linear Elastic IBVP

## Isotropic Linear Elastic BVP

Quasistatic Isotropic Linear Elastic BVP
Find the displacements, strains and stresses in I = [ 0,T ]
such that the following equations are satisfied:

div + 0b = 0

= ( tr ) 1 + 2 in I
s
= u

u = u on u I
t =n = t on I

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 30

Linear Elasticity > Solution of the Linear Elastic IBVP

## Solution of the Isotropic Linear Elastic IBVP

Isotropic Linear Elastic IBVP
Find the displacements, strains and stresses in I = [ 0,T ]
such that the following equations are satisfied:

2u
div + 0b = 0 2
t
= ( tr ) 1 + 2 in I
1
2
(
= su = u + ( u )
T

)
u t =0 = 0
u = u on u I
u in
t = n = t on I = v0
t t =0
October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 31
Linear Elasticity > Solution of the Linear Elastic IBVP

## Solution of the Isotropic Linear Elastic IBVP

Method of Displacements: Navier Equation
Stresses can be removed from the list of unknowns of the
isothermal isotropic linear elastic IBVP using,

div = div ( ( tr ) 1 + 2 )
= grad ( tr ) + 2 div
n = ( ( tr ) 1 + 2 ) n
= ( tr ) n + 2 n

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 32

Linear Elasticity > Solution of the Linear Elastic IBVP

## Solution of the Isotropic Linear Elastic IBVP

Method of Displacements: Navier Equation
Strains can can be removed from the list of unknowns of the
isothermal isotropic linear elastic IBVP using,
div = grad ( tr ) + 2 div
= ( + ) grad ( div u ) + div ( grad u )
n = ( tr ) n + 2 n

(
= ( div u ) n + grad u + ( grad u ) n
T
)

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 33

Linear Elasticity > Solution of the Linear Elastic IBVP

## Solution of the Isotropic Linear Elastic IBVP

Method of Displacements: Navier Equation
The first Cauchys motion equation written in terms of the displa-
cements is denoted as Navier equation and takes the form,
2u
( + ) grad ( div u ) + div ( grad u ) + 0b = 0 2 in I
t
2 ua
( + ) ub,ba + ua ,bb + 0ba = 0 2 in I
t

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 34

Linear Elasticity > Solution of the Linear Elastic IBVP

## Solution of the Isotropic Linear Elastic IBVP

Isotropic Linear Elastic IBVP
Find the displacements in I = [ 0,T ] such that the
following equations are satisfied:

2u
( + ) grad ( div u ) + div ( grad u ) + 0b = 0 2 in I
t
u = u on u I

( T
( div u ) n + grad u + ( grad u ) n = t on I )
u
u t =0 = 0, = v0 in
t t =0
October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 35
Linear Elasticity > Solution of the Linear Elastic IBVP

## Solution of the Isotropic Linear Elastic BVP

Quasistatic Isotropic Linear Elastic BVP
Find the displacements in I = [ 0,T ] such that the
following equations are satisfied:

## ( + ) grad ( div u ) + div ( grad u ) + 0b = 0 in I

u = u on u I

( T
( div u ) n + grad u + ( grad u ) n = t on I )

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 36

Linear Elasticity > Solution of the Linear Elastic IBVP

## Solution of the Isotropic Linear Elastic BVP

Isotropic Linear Elastic IBVP
While the displacements have been obtained, strains and
stresses may be obtained as a post-process of the results,
 Geometrical equations
1 1
s

2
( T

2
)
= u = u + ( u ) , ab = ( ua ,b + ub,a ) in I
 Isothermal isotropic linear elastic constitutive equations
= ( tr ) 1 + 2 , ab = dd ab + 2 ab in I

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 37

Linear Elasticity > Orthogonal Curvilinear Coordinates

## Orthogonal Curvilinear Coordinates

Cylindrical and Spherical Coordinates

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 38

Linear Elasticity > Orthogonal Curvilinear Coordinates

## Orthogonal Curvilinear Coordinates

General Remarks
 The components of a vector or higher order tensor are equal
to their components in a local cartesian basis linked to the
orthogonal curvilinear coordinates.
 The components of the Nabla operator have to be obtained
for each orthogonal curvilinear coordinates system.
 Operations involving the Nabla operator, such as grad, div,
curl, in general, cannot be obtained as a matrix operation in
terms of their components, as it happens in cartesian
coordinates, i.e. for the divergence of a vector,
T
u [] [u]

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 39

Linear Elasticity > Orthogonal Curvilinear Coordinates

Cylindrical Coordinates
Cylindrical Coordinates

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 40

Linear Elasticity > Orthogonal Curvilinear Coordinates

Cylindrical Coordinates
Cylindrical Coordinates
 Vector position
x = x ( r , , z ) = r cos e x + r sin e y + z e z
 Physical basis
x
= cos e x + sin e y
r

x
= r sin e x + r cos e y

x
= ez

z

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 41

Linear Elasticity > Orthogonal Curvilinear Coordinates

Cylindrical Coordinates
Cylindrical Coordinates
 Euclidean norms of the physical basis vectors
x x x
= 1, = r, = 1,
r z

##  Local orthonormal basis vectors

e r ( ) = cos e x + sin e y

e ( ) = sin e x + cos e y

e z = e z

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 42

Linear Elasticity > Orthogonal Curvilinear Coordinates

Cylindrical Coordinates
Cylindrical Coordinates
 Nabla differential operator
1
= er + e + e z
r r z
T
1
[ ] =
r r z

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 43

Linear Elasticity > Orthogonal Curvilinear Coordinates

Cylindrical Coordinates
Navier Equations
e 2G z 2 ur
( + 2G ) + 2G + 0br = 0 2
r r z t
1 e r z 2u
( + 2G ) 2G + 2G + 0b = 0 2
r z r t
e 2G ( r ) 2G r 2u z
( + 2G ) + + 0bz = 0 2
z r r r t

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 44

Linear Elasticity > Orthogonal Curvilinear Coordinates

Cylindrical Coordinates
Navier Equations
1 ( rur ) 1 u u z
e = div u = + +
r r r z

1 1 u z u
r = z =
2 r z
1 ur uz
= zr =
2 z r
1 1 ( ru ) 1 ur
z = r =
2 r r r

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 45

Linear Elasticity > Orthogonal Curvilinear Coordinates

Cylindrical Coordinates
Components of the Strain Tensor
rr r rz
[ ] = r z

rz z zz
ur 1 1 ur u u 1 ur u z
+ +
r 2 r r r 2 z r

1 1 ur u u 1 u ur 1 u 1 u z
= + + +
2 r r r r r 2 z r

1 ur u z 1 u 1 u z u z
2 z r
+

+

2 z r z
October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 46
Linear Elasticity > Orthogonal Curvilinear Coordinates

Spherical Coordinates
Spherical Coordinates

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 47

Linear Elasticity > Orthogonal Curvilinear Coordinates

Spherical Coordinates
Spherical Coordinates
 Vector position
x = x ( r , , ) = r sin cos e x + r sin sin e y + r cos e z
 Physical basis
x
= sin cos e x + sin sin e y
r
x
= r cos cos e x + r cos sin e y r sin e z

x
= r sin sin e x + r sin cos e y

October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 48
Linear Elasticity > Orthogonal Curvilinear Coordinates

Spherical Coordinates
Spherical Coordinates
 Euclidean norms of the physical basis vectors
x x x
= sin , = r, = r sin ,
r r z

##  Local orthonormal basis vectors

e r ( ) = cos e x + sin e y

e ( , ) = cos cos e x + cos sin e y sin e z

e ( ) = sin e x + cos e y

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 49

Linear Elasticity > Orthogonal Curvilinear Coordinates

Spherical Coordinates
Spherical Coordinates
 Nabla differential operator
1 1
= er + e + e
r r r sin
T
1 1
[ ] =
r r r sin

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 50

Linear Elasticity > Orthogonal Curvilinear Coordinates

Spherical Coordinates
Navier Equations
e 2G ( sin ) 2G 2 ur
( + 2G ) + + 0br = 0 2
r r sin r sin t
1 e 2G r 2G ( r sin ) 2u
( + 2G ) + + b
0
= 0 2
r r sin r sin r t
1 e 2G ( ) 2G r
r 2
u
( + 2G ) + + 0b = 0 2
r sin r r r t

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 51

Linear Elasticity > Orthogonal Curvilinear Coordinates

Spherical Coordinates
Navier Equations
1 ( r 2
ur sin ) ( ru sin ) ( ru )
e = div u = 2 + +
r sin r

1 1 ( u sin ) 1 u
r = =
2 r sin r sin

1 1 ur 1 ( ru )
= r =

2 r sin r r

1 1 ( ) 1 ur
ru
= r =
2 r r r

October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 52
Linear Elasticity > Orthogonal Curvilinear Coordinates

Spherical Coordinates
Components of the Strain Tensor
rr r r

[ ] r
=
r

ur 1 1 ur u u
rr = r = +
r 2 r r r
1 u ur 1 1 ur u u
= + r = +
r r 2 r sin r r
1 u u ur 1 1 u 1 u u
= + cot + = + cot
r sin r r 2 r sin r r
October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 53
Linear Elasticity > Assignments

Assignments
Assignment 7.1
A uniform compression pressure, denoted as p, is applied to the
lateral surface of the cylinder of radius R of the figure. The mate-
rial of the cylinder is assumed to be isotropic linear elastic with
Lam constants = . There is an horizontal rigid surface on the
top of the cylinder at a distance a<<R.
Body forces and frictional effects are a

## neglected. Quasistatic conditions are

assumed.
p p h
(1) Plot p vs , where is the radial
displacement of the lateral surface
of the cylinder. A
A
(2) Plot p vs z at point A.
R R
October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 54
Linear Elasticity > Assignments

Assignment 7.1
Assignment 7.1
Boundary conditions will depend on the value of the applied
pressure. Let us consider the following problems,
 Problem 1: The cylinder is not in contact with the top horizon-
tal surface. BC on the top surface of the cylinder are zero
tractions. The range of values of the pressure is 0 p p *
where p * is the pressure needed for the cylinder just to make
contact (without contact pressure) with the top horizontal
surface.
 Problem 2: The cylinder is in contact with the top horizontal
surface. BC on the top surface of the cylinder are zero
incremental vertical displacements (measured from the
displacements at the end of Problem 1) and p p *.
October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 55
Linear Elasticity > Assignments

Assignments
Problem 1 Problem 2
0 p p* p* p
0 p = p p *
a

u u
h h
p p
p p

A A

R R R R

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 56

Linear Elasticity > Assignments

Assignment 7.1
Problem 1
We consider the following steps:
 Step 1. System of coordinates.
Taking into accoun the geometry of the problem, we select a
cylindrical system of coordinates to solve the problem.

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 57

Linear Elasticity > Assignments

Assignment 7.1
 Step 2. Hypotheses on the displacements
Using cylindrical coordinates the displacement field takes the
form,
T
[u] = ur ( r, , z ) u ( r , , z ) uz ( r , , z )
Taking into account the axial symmetry of the geometry, loading
and BC we consider a displacement field of the form,
T
[u] = ur ( r, z ) 0 uz ( r , z )
Furthermore, taking into account that the pressure is uniform,
and there is frictionless contact we introduce the following
additional hypotheses, yielding a displacement field of the form,
T
[u] = ur ( r ) 0 u z ( z )
October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 58
Linear Elasticity > Assignments

Assignment 7.1
 Step 3. Navier equations in cylindrical coordinates.
Taking into account quasi-static conditions and body forces
negligible,
e 2G z
( + 2G ) + 2G + 0br = 0
r r z
1 e r z
( + 2G ) 2G + 2G + 0b = 0
r z r
e 2G ( r ) 2G r
( + 2G ) + + 0bz = 0
z r r r

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 59

Linear Elasticity > Assignments

Assignment 7.1
 Step 3. Navier equations in cylindrical coordinates.
Taking into account the hypotheses introduced on the displace-
ment field,
1 ( rur ) 1 u u z 1 ( rur ) u z
e = div u = + + = +
r r r z r r z
1 1 u z u
r = z = =0
2 r z
1 ur u z
= zr = =0
2 z r

1 1 ( ru ) 1 ur
z = r = =0
2 r r r
October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 60
Linear Elasticity > Assignments

Assignment 7.1
 Step 3. Navier equations in cylindrical coordinates.
Then, the (non-trivial) Navier equations take the form,

e 1 ( rur ( r ) ) u z ( z ) 1 ( rur ( r ) )
= + = =0
r r r r z r r r

e 1 ( rur ( r ) ) u z ( z ) u z ( z )
= + = =0
z z r r z z z
Integrating the Navier equations yields,
1
ur ( r ) = A1r + A2 , u z ( z ) = A3 z + A4
r

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 61

Linear Elasticity > Assignments

Assignment 7.1
 Step 4. Boundary conditions.
The BC on displacements for Problem 1 read,
1
ur ( r ) r = 0 = A1r + A2 =0 A2 = 0
r r =0
u z ( z ) z =0 = A3 z + A4 z =0
=0 A4 = 0
Substituting into the equations of the components of the
displacement yields,
ur ( r ) = A1r , u z ( z ) = A3 z

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 62

Linear Elasticity > Assignments

Assignment 7.1
 Step 4. Boundary conditions.
The components of the strain tensor take the form,
A1 0 0

[ ] = 0 A1 0
0 0 A3
Taking into account that = , the components of the stress
tensor take the form,
4 A1 + A3 0 0
[ ] = 0 4 A1 + A3 0

0 0 2 A1 + 3 A3
October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 63
Linear Elasticity > Assignments

Assignment 7.1
 Step 4. Boundary conditions.
The BC on the traction vector for Problem 1, conveniently
writting the non-trivial component in terms of the components
of the stress tensor yields,
r r=R
= ( 4 A1 + A3 ) = p
z z =h
= ( 2 A1 + 3 A3 ) = 0

3p p
A1 = , A3 =
10 5

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 64

Linear Elasticity > Assignments

Assignment 7.1
 Step 5. Solution of Problem 1
The solution in displacements, strains and stresses for Problem 1
takes the form,
p T
[u] = [ 3r 0 2 z ]
10

3 0 0 p 0 0
p ,
[ ] = 0 3 0 [ ] = 0 p 0
10
0 0 2 0 0 0

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 65

Linear Elasticity > Assignments

Assignment 7.1
 Step 5. Solution of Problem 1
The value of the pressure for which the cylinder comes into
contact with the top surface is given by,
p* 5 a
uz ( z ) z =h = h=a p* =
5 h

Then, the range of values of the pressure for the solution of the
Problem 1 is given by,
5 a
0 p p* =
h

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 66

Linear Elasticity > Assignments

Assignment 7.1
 Step 6. Curve p-.
The curve p- for Problem 1 is given by,
3p 10
:= ur ( r ) r = R = R p=
10 3R

The stress zA for Problem 1 is zero for any value of p (within the
range of values of p defining Problem 1).

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 67

Linear Elasticity > Assignments

Assignment 7.1
Problem 2
We have to use an incremental formulation and we may use the
results obtained in Steps 1-3 from Problem 1, yielding an
increment of displacements,
1
ur ( r ) = B1r + B2 , u z ( z ) = B3 z + B4
r

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 68

Linear Elasticity > Assignments

Assignment 7.1
 Step 4. Boundary conditions.
The BC on displacements for Problem 2 (imposed on the
reference or undeformed configuration) read,
1
ur ( r ) r =0 = B1r + B2 = 0 B2 = 0
r r =0
u z ( z ) z =0 = B3 z + B4 z =0
= 0 B4 = 0
u z ( z ) z = h = B3 z z = h = 0 B3 = 0

## Substituting into the equations of the components of the

displacement yields,
ur ( r ) = B1r , u z ( z ) = 0
October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 69
Linear Elasticity > Assignments

Assignment 7.1
 Step 4. Boundary conditions.
The components of the incremental strain tensor take the form,
B1 0 0
0 0
[ ]
= B1
0 0 0
Taking into account that = , the components of the
incremental stress tensor take the form,
4 B1 0 0
[ ] = 0 4 B1 0
0 0 2 B1
October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 70
Linear Elasticity > Assignments

Assignment 7.1
 Step 4. Boundary conditions.
The BC on the incremental traction vector for Problem 2,
conveniently writting the non-trivial component in terms of the
component of the incremental stress tensor yields,
p
r r=R
= ( 4 B1 ) = p B1 =
4

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 71

Linear Elasticity > Assignments

Assignment 7.1
 Step 5. Solution of Problem 2
The incremental solution in displacements, strains and stresses
for Problem 2 takes the form,
p T
[ u ] = [ r 0 0]
4

1 0 0 2 0 0
p , p
[ ]
= 0 1 0 [ ]
= 0 2 0
4 2
0 0 0 0 0 1

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 72

Linear Elasticity > Assignments

Assignment 7.1
 Step 6. Curves p- and zA -
The curve p- for Problem 2 is given by,
p 4
:= ur ( r ) r = R = R p =
4 R

p
A
:=
z p = 2 zA
2

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 73

Linear Elasticity > Assignments

Assignment 7.1

p p

4
p =
R
5 a
p=
h 10
p=
3R
3Ra
=
2h

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 74

Linear Elasticity > Assignments

Assignment 7.1

p p

p = 2 zA
5 a
p=
h zA

zA

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 75

Linear Elasticity > Assignments

Assignment 7.2
Assignment 7.2 [Classwork]
Consider a sphere A with radius R1=R and a spherical crown B
with external radius R2=2R. The two spheres are of the same iso-
tropic linear elastic material (Young modulus E>0 and Poissons
coefficient =0). There is a small uniform gap a<<R between
them. A uniform pressure p is applied on the external surface of
the spherical crown B.
Body forces and frictional effects B p

## between the two spheres can be A

neglected. Quasi-static conditions R 2
R 1
can be assumed.

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 76

Linear Elasticity > Assignments

Assignment 7.2
Assignment 7.2 [Classwork]
1) Obtain the value of the pressure p for which the two bodies
come into contact.
2) Plot the curve pressure-delta, where delta is defined as
minus the radial displacement of the external surface of the
spherical crown B.

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 77

Linear Elasticity > Assignments

Assignment 7.2
Step 1. Taking into account the geometry and BCs of the problem
we will use a spherical coordinates system.

## Step 2. Taking into account the spherical symmetry of the pro-

blem (geometry and BCs) we introduce the following hypotheses
on the displacements (for any of the two spheres),
T
[u ] = ur ( r ) 0 0
Step 3. Using the assumed displacement field and taking into
account that body forces are negligible, the (non-trivial) Navier
equation for a quasistatic problem takes the form,
e 1 ( r 2
ur )
= 2 = 0

r r r r
October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 78
Linear Elasticity > Assignments

Assignment 7.2
Integrating the Navier equation yields,
B
ur ( r ) = Ar + 2
r
The non-zero components of the stress tensor take the form,
2B B
r ( r ) = E A 3 , ( r ) = ( r ) = E A + 3
r r

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 79

Linear Elasticity > Assignments

Assignment 7.2
Step 4. While the two bodies are not in contact, the displace-
ments, strains and stresses in the body 1 are zero and the
internal pressure on the body 2 is equal to zero. BCs for body 2,
while the two bodies are not in contact, take the form,
B 2B
(2)
r ( 2 R ) = E A 3 = p, r ( R ) = E A 3 = 0
(2)

4R R
Solving the system of equations yields,
8 4
A= p, B = pR3
7E 7E

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 80

Linear Elasticity > Assignments

Assignment 7.2
The radial displacement and normal radial stress for body 2 take
the form,
8 R 3
8 R3
ur ( r ) =
(2)
p r + 2 , r (r) =
(2)
p 1 3
7E 2r 7 r
The pressure needed for the two bodies to come into contact is
given by,
8 R 7 Ea
u (2)
r ( R) = p R + = a p=
7E 2 12 R
The solution obtained is valid for a range of values of the
pressure given by,
7 Ea
0 p
12 R
October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 81
Linear Elasticity > Assignments

Assignment 7.2
The curve p-delta for this phase of the loading will be given by,
8 R 17 7E
:= u (2)
r ( 2 R ) = p 2 R + = pR p=
7E 8 7E 17 R
p

7 Ea
p=
12 R
7E
p=
17 R

17 a
=
12
October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 82
Linear Elasticity > Assignments

Assignment 7.2
For higher values of the pressure, the two bodies will be in
contact and therefore the boundary conditions will be different.
The incremental radial displacement and incremental normal
radial stress fields for body 1 will be given by,
B1 2 B1
u ( r ) = A1r + 2 , r ( r ) = A1 3
(1)
r
(1)

r r
The incremental radial displacement and incremental normal
radial stress fields for body 2 will be given by,
B2 2 B2
u (2)
r ( r ) = A2 r + 2 , r ( r ) = A2 3
(2)

r r

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 83

Linear Elasticity > Assignments

Assignment 7.2
Denoting as p* the uniform contact pressure between the two
bodies, the boundary conditions for bodies 1 and take the form,
B1 2 B1
u ( r = 0 ) = A1r + 2
(1)
r = 0, (1)
r ( R ) = E A1 3 = p *
r r =0 R
2 B2 2 B2
( 2)
r ( R ) = E A2 3 = p*, r ( 2 R ) = E A2 3 = p
( 2)

R 8R
Solving the systems of equations, the constants are given by,
p*
A1 = , B1 = 0
E
1 4 R3
A2 = ( p * 8p ) , B2 = ( p * p )
7E 7E
October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 84
Linear Elasticity > Assignments

Assignment 7.2
The contact pressure p* can be determined by imposing that the
incremental radial displacement of the points of each one of the
bodies at the contact surface has to be the same, yielding,
ur(1) ( R ) = ur(2) ( R )
1 1 4
p* = ( p * 8p ) + ( p * p )
E 7E 7E
p* = p
Substituting into the expressions of the constants, yields
p
A1 = , B1 = 0
E
p
A2 = , B2 = 0
October 11, 2013
E
Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 85
Linear Elasticity > Assignments

Assignment 7.2
The incremental displacement and incremental stress fields for
bodies 1 and 2 take the form,
p
u ( r ) =
(1)
r r , r(1) ( r ) = p
E
p
ur ( r ) =
(2)
r , r(2) ( r ) = p
E

Note that the two bodies have the same incremental displace-
ment and incremental stress fields. This is because the two
bodies have the same material properties and, since they are in
contact, the two bodies deform as if they were a single sphere of
radius 2R. In fact Problem 2 could have been solved considering
the two bodies as if they were a single one.
October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 86
Linear Elasticity > Assignments

Assignment 7.2
The incremental p-incremental delta curve is given by,
2R E
:= u (2)
r ( 2 R ) = p p =
E 2R
p p

E
p =
7 Ea 2R
p=
12 R 7E
p=
17 R
17 a
=
12
October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 87
Linear Elasticity > Linear Thermoelastic Model

## Linear Thermoelastic Model (I)

Free Energy
We consider a free energy per unit of volume given by a quadra-
tic function of the strain tensor and the temperature,
0 = 0 ( , ) = W ( ) + M ( , ) + T ( )

## where W ( ) is the isothermal elastic stored energy, M ( , ) is

the coupled thermoelastic stored energy and T ( ) is the
thermal stored energy.

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 88

Linear Elasticity > Linear Thermoelastic Model

## Linear Thermoelastic Model (I)

Elastic Stored Energy
The isothermal elastic stored energy for a linear thermoelastic
model may be written as,
1
W ( ) := : C : 0
2
where C is a positive definite fourth-order tensor, denoted as
isothermal constant elastic constitutive tensor.
Symmetry of the strain tensor yields the following symmetry
conditions on the isothermal elastic constitutive tensor C ,
: C : = T : C : = : C : T , Cabcd = Cbacd = Cabdc
Furthermore, the following symmetry conditions hold,
: C : = ab Cabcd cd = ab Ccdab cd , Cabcd = Ccdab
October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 89
Linear Elasticity > Linear Thermoelastic Model

## Linear Thermoelastic Model (I)

Coupled Thermoelastic Stored Energy
The coupled thermoelastic stored energy for a linear thermo-
elastic model may be written as,

M ( , ) := ( 0 ) :

## where is a positive semi-definite symmetric second-order

tensor, denoted as stress-temperature constitutive tensor, such
that,
= T , ab = ba
and 0 > 0 is a constant reference temperature.

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 90

Linear Elasticity > Linear Thermoelastic Model

## Linear Thermoelastic Model (I)

Thermal Stored Energy
The thermal stored energy for a linear thermo-elastic model may
be written as,
1 2
T ( ) := 0c0 ( 0 )
2 0
where c0 > 0 is a positive scalar quantity denoted as specific
heat at constant strain, i.e. heat supplied per unit of mass in
order to achieve a unit temperature change while keeping the
strain constant.

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 91

Linear Elasticity > Linear Thermoelastic Model

## Linear Thermoelastic Model (I)

Internal Dissipation Inequality
Applying the chain rule, the internal dissipation rate per unit of
volume, given by the Clausius-Planck inequality, yields,

Dint := :  0 ( +  )

 ( , ) ( , ) 
= :  0 0 :  0

( , ) ( , ) 
= 0 :  0 + 0 0 ,

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 92

Linear Elasticity > Linear Thermoelastic Model

## Linear Thermoelastic Model (I)

Constitutive Equations and Reduced Dissipation
Following Colemans method, the internal dissipation rate per
unit of volume, must be satisfied for arbitrary thermodynamic
processes, i.e. arbitrary strain rates and temperature rates,
( , ) ( , ) 
Dint := 0 :  0 + 0 0 ,

yielding the following linear thermoelastic constitutive equations
and zero internal reduced dissipation rate per unit of volume that
characterizes a reversible process,
( , ) ( , )
= 0 , 0 = 0 , Dint = 0

October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 93
Linear Elasticity > Linear Thermoelastic Model

## Linear Thermoelastic Model (I)

Thermomechanical Constitutive Equations
The stress and entropy constitutive equations for a linear
thermoelastic constitutive model can be written,
( , )
= 0 = C : ( 0 )

( , ) c0
0 = 0 = : + 0 ( 0 )
0

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 94

Linear Elasticity > Linear Thermoelastic Model

## Linear Thermoelastic Model (I)

Thermoelastic Constitutive Tensors
The isothermal elastic constitutive tensor, stress-temperature
tensor and specific heat for a linear thermoelastic model are
given by,

2 ( , ) 2 ( , )
C = 0 , Cabcd = 0
ab cd
2 ( , ) 2 ( , )
= 0 , ab = 0
ab
2 ( , )
c0 = 0
2
October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 95
Linear Elasticity > Linear Thermoelastic Model

## Linear Thermoelastic Model (I)

Thermomechanical Constitutive Equations
Given the stress and entropy constitutive equations for a linear
thermoelastic constitutive model,
= C : ( 0 )
c0
0 = : + 0 ( 0 )
0
Using the entropy constitutive equation, the increment of
temperature may be written as,
0
1 0
0 = :
c0 0 c0

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 96

Linear Elasticity > Linear Thermoelastic Model

## Linear Thermoelastic Model (I)

Thermomechanical Constitutive Equations
Taking the strain tensor and specific entropy (instead of the
temperature) as main variables, the stress and entropy
constitutive equations for a linear thermoelastic constitutive
model take the form,
0 0
= C + :
0c0 c0
0
:= C :
c0
0 0
0 = : +
0c0 c0
October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 97
Linear Elasticity > Linear Thermoelastic Model

## Linear Thermoelastic Model (I)

Thermomechanical Constitutive Equations
The isentropic elastic constitutive tensor, denoted as C , and the
isothermal elastic constitutive tensor, denoted as C , are related
through the following expression,

0
C = C+
0c0

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 98

Linear Elasticity > Linear Thermoelastic Model

## Linear Thermoelastic Model (II)

Internal Energy
We consider an internal energy per unit of volume given by a
quadratic function of the strain tensor and the specific entropy,
0e = 0e ( , ) = W ( ) + N ( , ) + Z ( )

## where W ( ) is the isentropic elastic stored energy, N ( , ) is

the coupled entropy-elastic stored energy and Z ( ) is the
entropy stored energy.

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 99

Linear Elasticity > Linear Thermoelastic Model

## Linear Thermoelastic Model (II)

Elastic Stored Energy
The isentropic elastic stored energy for a linear thermoelastic
model may be written as,
1
W ( ) := : C : 0
2
where C is a positive definite fourth-order tensor, denoted as
isentropic constant elastic constitutive tensor.
Symmetry of the strain tensor yields the following symmetry
conditions on the isentropic elastic constitutive tensor C,
: C : = T : C : = : C : T , Cabcd = Cbacd = Cabdc
Furthermore, the following symmetry conditions hold,
: C : = abCabcd cd = abCcdab cd , Cabcd = Ccdab
October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 100
Linear Elasticity > Linear Thermoelastic Model

## Linear Thermoelastic Model (II)

Coupled Entropy-elastic Stored Energy
The coupled entropy-elastic stored energy for a linear thermo-
elastic model may be written as,
0
N ( , ) := ( : )
c0
where is a positive semi-definite symmetric second-order
tensor, denoted as stress-temperature constitutive tensor, such
that,
= T , ab = ba
c0 > 0 is a positive scalar quantity denoted as specific heat at
constant strain, and 0 > 0 is the constant reference
temperature.
October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 101
Linear Elasticity > Linear Thermoelastic Model

## Linear Thermoelastic Model (II)

Entropy Stored Energy
The entropy stored energy for a linear thermoelastic model may
be written as,
1 00 2
Z ( ) := + 00
2 c0
where c0 > 0 is a positive scalar quantity denoted as specific
heat at constant strain, i.e. heat supplied per unit of mass in
order to achieve a unit temperature change while keeping the
strain constant.

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 102

Linear Elasticity > Linear Thermoelastic Model

## Linear Thermoelastic Model (II)

Internal Dissipation Inequality
Applying the chain rule, the internal dissipation rate per unit of
volume, given by the Clausius-Planck inequality, yields,
Dint := :  0 ( e  )
e ( , ) e ( , )
= :  + 0 0 :  0 

e ( , ) e ( , )
= 0 :  + 0 0  0 ,

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 103

Linear Elasticity > Linear Thermoelastic Model

## Linear Thermoelastic Model (II)

Constitutive Equations and Reduced Dissipation
Following Colemans method, the internal dissipation rate per
unit of volume, must be satisfied for arbitrary thermodynamic
processes, i.e. arbitrary strain rates and entropy rates,
e ( , ) e ( , )
Dint := 0 :  + 0 0  0 ,

yielding the following linear thermoelastic constitutive equations
and zero internal reduced dissipation which characterizes a
reversible process,
e ( , ) e ( , )
= 0 , 0 = 0 , Dint = 0

October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 104
Linear Elasticity > Linear Thermoelastic Model

## Linear Thermoelastic Model (II)

Thermomechanical Constitutive Equations
The stress and temperature constitutive equations for a linear
thermoelastic constitutive model may be written,
e ( , ) 0
= 0 = C :
c0
e ( , ) 0 00
0 = 0 = : + + 00
c0 c0

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 105

Linear Elasticity > Linear Thermoelastic Model

## Linear Thermoelastic Model (II)

Thermoelastic Constitutive Tensors
The isentropic elastic constitutive tensor, stress-temperature
tensor and inverse specific heat for a linear thermoelastic model
are given by,

C = 0
2
e ( , )
, Cabcd = 0
2
e ( , )
ab cd
c0
= 0
2
e ( , ) c0
, ab = 0
2
e ( , )
0 0 ab
1 1 e ( , )
2

=
c0 0 2
October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 106
Linear Elasticity > Linear Thermoelastic Model

## Isotropic Linear Thermoelastic Model

Thermoelastic Constitutive Tensors
For an isotropic linear thermoelastic material model, the physical
property of isotropy is translated into the mathematical property
of isotropy of the isothermal elastic and stress-temperature
constitutive tensors, yielding,
C = 1 1 + 2 I , Cabcd = ab cd + ( ac bd + ad bc )
= 1, ab = ab
where 0, 0, are the isothermal Lam parameters, and 0
is the stress-temperature coefficient.

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 107

Linear Elasticity > Linear Thermoelastic Model

## Isotropic Linear Thermoelastic Model

Thermoelastic Constitutive Tensors
The relationship between the isothermal and the isentropic
Lam parameters is given by,
0
C := C +
0c0
0 2 0 2
= 1 1 + 2 I + 1 1 = + 1 1 + 2 I
0c0 0c0
:= 1 1 + 2 I

0 2
:= + , :=
0c0
October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 108
Linear Elasticity > Linear Thermoelastic Model

## Isotropic Linear Thermoelastic Model

Free Energy
The free energy per unit of volume for an isotropic linear thermo-
elastic material model may be written as,
0 ( , ) = W ( ) + M ( , ) + T ( )
1 1 2
= : C : ( 0 ) : 0c0 ( 0 )
2 20
1 2 1 2
= ( tr ) + : ( 0 ) tr 0c0 ( 0 )
2 20

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 109

Linear Elasticity > Linear Thermoelastic Model

## Isotropic Linear Thermoelastic Model

Thermoelastic Constitutive Equation
The constitutive equation for an isotropic linear thermoelastic
material model may be written as,
= C : ( 0 )
( )
= 1 1 + 2 I : ( 0 ) 1
= (1 : ) 1 + 2 ( 0 ) 1
= ( tr ) 1 + 2 ( 0 ) 1

= ( tr ) 1 + 2 ( 0 ) 1

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 110

Linear Elasticity > Linear Thermoelastic Model

## Isotropic Linear Thermoelastic Model

Thermoelastic Constitutive Equation
The volumetric part of the constitutive equation for an isotropic
linear thermoelastic model may be written as,
tr = : 1 = ( tr ) 1 : 1 + 2 : 1 ( 0 ) 1 : 1
= ( 3 + 2 ) tr 3 ( 0 )
1 2
m = tr = + e ( 0 )
3 3
= Ke ( 0 )

m = Ke ( 0 )

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 111

Linear Elasticity > Linear Thermoelastic Model

## Isotropic Linear Thermoelastic Model

Thermoelastic Constitutive Equation
The deviatoric part of the constitutive equation for an isotropic
linear thermoelastic model may be written as,
dev = ( tr ) dev 1 + 2 dev ( 0 ) dev 1 = 2 dev

## Introducing the shear modulus given by,

G :=
The deviatoric part of the constitutive equation for an isotropic
linear thermoelastic model may be written as,
dev = 2G dev

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 112

Linear Elasticity > Linear Thermoelastic Model

## Isotropic Linear Thermoelastic Model

Inverse Thermoelastic Constitutive Equation
The inverse constitutive equation for an isotropic linear thermo-
elastic model may be written as,
1 1
tr = ( 3 + 2 ) tr + ( 3 + 2 ) 3 ( 0 )
1
= ( tr ) 1 + + ( 0 ) 1
( 3 + 2 ) 2 2 3 + 2

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 113

Linear Elasticity > Linear Thermoelastic Model

## Isotropic Linear Thermoelastic Model

Inverse Thermoelastic Constitutive Equation
Let us introduce the isothermal Young elastic modulus, denoted
as E > 0, isothermal Poissons coefficient, denoted as 0 1 2 ,
isothermal bulk modulus, denoted as K > 0 and thermal expan-
sion coefficient, denoted as 0, such that,
( 3 + 2 ) 1
E= > 0, 0 =
+ 2( + ) 2
E E
= 0, = G = >0
(1 + )(1 2 ) 2 (1 + )
2 E 1 2
K =+ = > 0, = = = 0
3 3 (1 2 ) 3 + 2 3K 3E
October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 114
Linear Elasticity > Linear Thermoelastic Model

## Isotropic Linear Thermoelastic Model

Inverse Thermoelastic Constitutive Equation
The inverse constitutive equation for an isotropic linear thermo-
elastic model may be written as,
1 +
= ( tr ) 1 + + ( 0 ) 1
E E

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 115

Linear Elasticity > Linear Thermoelastic Model

## Isotropic Linear Thermoelastic Model

Inverse Thermoelastic Constitutive Equation
The volumetric part of the inverse constitutive equation for an
isotropic linear thermoelastic model may be written as,
1 +
e = tr = : 1 = ( tr ) 1 : 1 + : 1 + ( 0 ) 1 : 1
E E
3 1 + 1 2
= tr + tr + 3 ( 0 ) = tr + 3 ( 0 )
E E E
1 1
= tr + 3 ( 0 ) = m + 3 ( 0 )
3K K
1
e = m + 3 ( 0 )
K
October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 116
Linear Elasticity > Linear Thermoelastic IBVP

## Isotropic Linear Thermoelastic IBVP

Governing Equations
Let us consider the following governing equations in the space x
time domain I = [ 0,T ].
 Linear momentum balance First Cauchy motion equation
2u
div + 0b = 0 2 in I
t
 Isotropic linear thermoelastic constitutive equation
= ( tr ) 1 + 2 ( 0 )1 in I
 Geometrical equations
1
(
= u = u + ( u)
s

2
T
) in I

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 117

Linear Elasticity > Linear Thermoelastic IBVP

## Isotropic Linear Thermoelastic IBVP

Boundary Conditions
Let us consider prescribed displacements and prescribed trac-
tions boundaries, denoted as u and , respectively, such
that,
u = , u =
with the following bounday conditions for the IBVP:
 Prescribed displacements boundary conditions
u = u, ua = ua on u I
 Prescribed tractions boundary conditions
t = n = t , ta = ab nb = ta on I

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 118

Linear Elasticity > Linear Thermoelastic IBVP

## Isotropic Linear Thermoelastic IBVP

Initial Conditions
Let us consider the following initial conditions for the IBVP,
 Initial displacements at time t=0
u t =0 = 0, ua t =0 = 0 in
 Initial velocities at time t=0
u ua
= v0 , = v0a in
t t =0 t t =0

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 119

Linear Elasticity > Linear Thermoelastic IBVP

## Isotropic Linear Thermoelastic IBVP

Isotropic Linear Thermoelastic IBVP
Find the displacements, strains and stresses in I = [ 0,T ]
such that the following equations are satisfied:
2u
div + 0b = 0 2
t
= ( tr ) 1 + 2 ( 0 ) 1 in I
1
2
(
= su = u + ( u )
T

)
u t =0 = 0
u = u on u I
u in
t = n = t on I = v0
t t =0
October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 120
Linear Elasticity > Solution of the Linear Thermoelastic IBVP

## Solution of the Linear Thermoelastic IBVP

Method of Displacements: Navier Equation
Stresses can be removed from the list of unknowns of the
isotropic linear thermoelastic IBVP using, i.e. assuming that the
material parameters are constant,

div = div ( ( tr ) 1 + 2 ( 0 ) 1)
= grad ( tr ) + 2 div grad ( 0 )
n = ( ( tr ) 1 + 2 ( 0 ) 1) n
= ( tr ) n + 2 n ( 0 ) n

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 121

Linear Elasticity > Solution of the Linear Thermoelastic IBVP

## Solution of the Linear Thermoelastic IBVP

Method of Displacements: Navier Equation
Strains can can be removed from the list of unknowns of the
isotropic linear thermoelastic IBVP using, i.e. assuming that the
material parameters are constant,
div = grad ( tr ) + 2 div
= ( + ) grad ( div u ) + div ( grad u ) grad ( 0 )
n = ( tr ) n + 2 n

(
= ( div u ) n + grad u + ( grad u ) n ( 0 ) n
T
)

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 122

Linear Elasticity > Solution of the Linear Thermoelastic IBVP

## Solution of the Linear Thermoelastic IBVP

Method of Displacements: Navier Equation
The first Cauchy motion equation written in terms of the displa-
cements is denoted as Navier equation and takes the form,
( + ) grad ( div u ) + div ( grad u )
2u
grad ( 0 ) + 0b = 0 2 in I
t
Introducing a modified body force per unit of mass vector defi-
ned as,
b := b grad ( )
0
0
the first Cauchy motion equation may be written as,
2
u
( + ) grad ( div u ) + div ( grad u ) + 0b = 0 2 in I
October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar
t 123
Linear Elasticity > Solution of the Linear Thermoelastic IBVP

## Solution of the Linear Thermoelastic IBVP

Method of Displacements Prescribed Traction
The prescribed traction boundary condition takes the form,

(
n = ( div u ) n + grad u + ( grad u ) n ( 0 ) n = t
T
)
Introducng a modified prescribed traction vector defined as,

t := t + ( 0 ) n
the (modified) prescribed traction boundary condition may be
written as,

(
n = ( div u ) n + grad u + ( grad u ) n = t
T
)
October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 124
Linear Elasticity > Solution of the Linear Thermoelastic IBVP

## Solution of the Linear Thermoelastic IBVP

Isotropic Linear Thermoelastic IBVP
Find the displacements in I = [ 0,T ] such that the follo-
wing equations are satisfied:
2
u
( + ) grad ( div u ) + div ( grad u ) + 0b = 0 2 in I
t
u = u on u I

(
( div u ) n + grad u + ( grad u ) n = t on I
T
)
u
u t =0 = 0, = v0 in
t t =0
October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 125
Linear Elasticity > Solution of the Linear Thermoelastic IBVP

## Solution of the Linear Thermoelastic IBVP

Isotropic Linear Thermoelastic IBVP
While the displacements have been obtained, strains and
stresses may be obtained as a post-process of the results,
 Geometrical equation
1
(
= u = u + ( u)
s

2
T
) in I
 Isotropic linear thermoelastic constitutive equation
= ( tr ) 1 + 2 ( 0 ) 1 in I

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 126

Linear Elasticity > Assignments

Assignment 7.3
Assignment 7.3
A void cylinder of an isotropic linear thermoelastic material with
height h, inner radius R and outer radius 2R, is inside of a rigid
void cylinder of the same height h and inner radius 2R+a, such
that there is a gap a<<R between both of them, as it is shown in
the figure. A uniform increment of temperature is applied to
the inner cylinder.
a

2R a

A B A B
h
R

R
2R

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 127

Linear Elasticity > Assignments

Assignment 7.3
Assignment 7.3
The problem is considered as quasistatic. Body forces in the
cylinder and frictional effects are negligible. The material proper-
ties of the inner cylinder are: Young modulus E , Poissons coeffi-
cient = 0 and thermal expansion coefficient .
1) Compute the increment of temperature needed for the inner
cylinder to come into contact with the rigid one.
2) Plot the vs curve, where is the radial displacement of
the inner surface of the inner cylinder, and determine the
increment of temperature needed for the inner radius of the
cylinder to go back to its original position.
3) Plot the r vs , vs and z vs curves at the inner
and outer surfaces of the inner cylinder.
October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 128
Linear Elasticity > Assignments

Assignment 7.4
Assignment 7.4
Let us consider a sphere of material 1 and radius R1 = 1 placed
inside a void sphere of material 2, inner radius R1 = 1 and outer
radius R2 = 2 . Both spheres are initially in contact without any
pressure. An external uniform pressure p is applied to the exter-
nal surface of the void sphere and a uniform increment of tem-
perature is applied to both spheres.
Materials 1 and 2 are isotropic linear ther- B p

## moelastic with the same Young modulus E, A

R2
same Poissons coefficient = 0 and diffe- R1

## rent thermal expansion coefficients, 2 for

material 1 and for material 2.

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 129

Linear Elasticity > Assignments

Assignment 7.4
Assignment 7.4
1) Determine all the possible values of p and (positives or
negatives) such that the contact between the two spheres is
maintained. Plot the result in a p vs axis.
2) Obtain the stresses in the each one of the two spheres for
those values.

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 130

Linear Elasticity > Plane Linear Elasticity

## Plane Linear Elasticity

Plane Linear Elasticity
For some problems, i.e. geometry, loading and BCs, one of the
principal stress directions is known a priori, it does not play a
role in the formulation, and the problem may be formulated on
the plane defined by the other two principal directions.

## Considering a local Cartesian axis, taking the z-axis as the one

associated to the a-priori known principal direction, the plane
linear elastic problem may be formulated on the x,y plane.
Variables associated to the z-axis, are either known or they can
be obtained as a post-process of the 2D results.

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 131

Linear Elasticity > Plane Linear Elasticity

## Plane Linear Elasticity

Plane Linear Elasticity
Two cases of plane linear elastic problems may be considered,
 Plane stress problems
 Plane strain problems

## For each one of them:

(i) We will introduce the hypothesis on the appropriate field,
(ii) We will obtain the consequences on the remaining fields,
(iii) We will show up some typical examples

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 132

Linear Elasticity > Plane Linear Elasticity

## Plane Stress Linear Elasticity

Hypothesis on the Stress Field
H1. The components of the stress tensor take the form,
x xy 0
[ ] = xy y 0
0 0 0
H2. The non-zero components of the stress tensor take the form,
x = x ( x, y ) , y = y ( x, y ) , xy = xy ( x, y )

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 133

Linear Elasticity > Plane Linear Elasticity

## Plane Stress Linear Elasticity

Strain Field
Using the inverse constitutive equations, the strains take the
form,
1 1
x = ( x y ) , xy = xy
E G
1
y = ( y x ) , xz = 0
E
1
z = ( x + y ) , yz = 0
E
The following relation holds,

z =
1
( x +y )
October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 134
Linear Elasticity > Plane Linear Elasticity

## Plane Stress Linear Elasticity

Strain Field
Then, the strain field takes the form,
x 1
xy
2
0
1
[ ] = 2 xy y 0
0 0 z

such that,
x = x ( x, y ) , y = y ( x, y ) , xy = xy ( x, y )
and the following relation holds,

z ( x, y ) =
1
( ( x, y ) + ( x, y ) )
x y

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 135

Linear Elasticity > Plane Linear Elasticity

## Plane Stress Linear Elasticity

Plane Stress Constitutive Equation
The constitutive equation for plane stress linear elasticity may be
written in matrix form as,

x 1 0 x
E
y = 2
1 0 y
1 1
xy 0 0 xy
2

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 136

Linear Elasticity > Plane Linear Elasticity

## Plane Stress Linear Elasticity

Displacement Field
The in-plane components of the displacement field are obtained
integrating the in-plane components of the strain field,
ux u y ux u y
x ( x, y ) = , y ( x, y ) = , xy ( x, y ) = +
x y y x

yielding,
ux = ux ( x, y ) , u y = u y ( x, y )

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 137

Linear Elasticity > Plane Linear Elasticity

## Plane Stress Linear Elasticity

Displacement Field
The out-of-plane component of the displacements is obtained
integrating the out-of-plane component of the strain field,
u z
z ( x, y ) =
1
( x ( x, y ) + y ( x , y ) ) =
z

yielding,
u z = u z ( x, y , z )

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 138

Linear Elasticity > Plane Linear Elasticity

## Plane Stress Linear Elasticity

Displacement Field
The plane stress linear elastic problem should be viewed as an
ideal problem, which is not necessarily a particular case of the
3D linear elastic problem.
In particular, the following conditions are not necessarily
satisfied,

ux ( x, y ) uz ( x, y, z )
xz = + =0
z x
u y ( x, y ) uz ( x, y, z )
yz = + =0
z y

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 139

Linear Elasticity > Plane Linear Elasticity

## Plane Stress Linear Elasticity

Examples
t* e : t *

: t * = 0
b

+ : t * = 0

y superficie media

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 140

Linear Elasticity > Plane Linear Elasticity

## Plane Strain Linear Elasticity

Hypothesis on the Displacement Field
H1. The components of the displacement field take the form,
T
[u] = ux uy 0
H2. The non-zero components of the displacements take the
form,
u x = u x ( x, y ) , u y = u y ( x, y )

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 141

Linear Elasticity > Plane Linear Elasticity

## Plane Strain Linear Elasticity

Strain Field
Using the geometric equations, strains take the form,

ux u y ux u y
x ( x, y ) = , y ( x, y ) = , xy ( x, y ) = +
x y y x
u z
z = =0
z
ux uz u y uz
xz = + = 0, yz = + =0
z x z y

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 142

Linear Elasticity > Plane Linear Elasticity

## Plane Strain Linear Elasticity

Strain Field
Then the strain field takes the form,
x 1
2
xy 0
1
[ ] = 2 xy y 0
0 0 0

such that,
x = x ( x, y ) , y = y ( x, y ) , xy = xy ( x, y )

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 143

Linear Elasticity > Plane Linear Elasticity

## Plane Strain Linear Elasticity

Stress Field
Using the constitutive equations for linear elasticity, the stresses
take the form,
x = ( x + y ) + 2 x = ( + 2G ) x + y xy = G xy
y = ( x + y ) + 2 y = ( + 2G ) y + x xz = G xz = 0
z = ( x + y ) yz = G yz = 0

## The following relation holds,

z =
2( + )
( x + y ) = ( x + y )

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 144

Linear Elasticity > Plane Linear Elasticity

## Plane Strain Linear Elasticity

Stress Field
Then, the stress field takes the form,

x xy 0
[ ] = xy y 0
0 0 z
such that,
x = x ( x, y ) , y = y ( x, y ) , xy = xy ( x, y )

z = z ( x, y ) =
2( + )
( x + y ) = ( x + y )

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 145

Linear Elasticity > Plane Linear Elasticity

## Plane Strain Linear Elasticity

Plane Strain Constitutive Equation
The constitutive equation for plane strain linear elasticity may be
written in matrix form as,

1 1
0
x x
E (1 )
y = 1 1 0 y
(1 + )(1 2 )
xy xy
0 1 2
0
2(1 )

z = z ( x, y ) =
2( + )
( x + y ) = ( x + y )
October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 146
Linear Elasticity > Plane Linear Elasticity

## Plane Strain Linear Elasticity

Examples

Seccin transversal

Seccin
transversal

Seccin transversal

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 147

Linear Elasticity > Plane Linear Elasticity

## Plane Linear Elastic IVBP

First Cauchy Motion Equation
The first Cauchy motion equation for a plane linear elastic IBVP,
either plane stress or plane strain linear elastic IBVP, may be
written as,
x xy 2u x
+ + 0bx = 0 2
x y t
2 in I
xy y uy
+ + 0by = 0 2
x y t

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 148

Linear Elasticity > Plane Linear Elasticity

## Plane Linear Elastic IVBP

Plane Linear Elastic Constitutive Equation
The constitutive equations for a plane linear elastic IBVP, either
plane stress or plane strain linear elastic IBVP, may be written as,

x 1 0 x
E
y = 2 1 0 y
1
xy
0 0 (1 ) 2 xy

E
E = E E = 1 2
Plane stress: Plane strain:
= =

(1 )
October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 149
Linear Elasticity > Plane Linear Elasticity

## Plane Linear Elastic IVBP

Kinematic or Geometric Equations
The kinematic or geometric equations for a plane linear elastic
IBVP, either plane stress or plane strain linear elastic IBVP, may
be written as,
u x u y u x u y
x = , y = , xy = +
x y y x

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 150

Linear Elasticity > Plane Linear Elasticity

## Plane Linear Elastic IVBP

Boundary Conditions
Boundary conditions for a plane linear elastic IBVP, either plane
stress or plane strain linear elastic IBVP, may be written as,
1. Prescribed displacements

u x u *x
= * on u I
u y u y
2. Prescribed tractions

x xy nx t x ( x, y , t )
*

= * on I
xy y n y t y ( x, y , t )

October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 151
Linear Elasticity > Plane Linear Elasticity

## Plane Linear Elastic IVBP

Initial Conditions
Initial conditions for a plane linear elastic IBVP, either plane
stress or plane strain linear elastic IBVP, may be written as,
1. Initial displacements
u = 0 in
2. Initial velocities
u
= v 0 in
t

## October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 152

Linear Elasticity > Plane Linear Elasticity

## Plane Linear Elastic IVBP

Post-process of In-plane Results
While the solution for the plane linear elastic IBVP, either plane
stress or plane strain linear elastic IBVP, has been obtained the
following post-process of results yields,
1. For plane stress linear elastic IBVP (assuming u z z =0 = 0 )

z =
1
( x + y ) , uz =
1
( x +y )z

## 2. For plane strain linear elastic IBVP

z =
2( + )
( x + y ) = ( x + y )