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Chapter 7

Linear Elasticity

C. Agelet de Saracibar

ETS Ingenieros de Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Universidad Politcnica de Catalua (UPC), Barcelona, Spain

International Center for Numerical Methods in Engineering (CIMNE), Barcelona, Spain

Linear Elasticity > Contents

Contents

Chapter 7 Linear Elasticity

1. Linear elastic model

2. Linear elastic IBVP

3. Solution of the linear elastic IBVP

4. Orthogonal curvilinear coordinates

5. Assignments

6. Linear thermoelastic model

7. Linear thermoelastic IBVP

8. Solution of the linear thermoelastic IBVP

9. Assignments

10. Plane linear elasticity

Linear Elasticity > Linear Elastic Model

Infinitesimal Strains Framework

Displacements and gradient of displacements are infinitesimal

No difference between:

o spatial and material configurations

o spatial and material coordinates

o spatial and material descriptions

o spatial and material differential operators

o spatial and material time derivatives

o spatial mass density and material mass density

Linear functions of the gradient of displacements

Linear Elasticity > Linear Elastic Model

H1. Adiabatic Processes

We consider that the processes are adiabatic, such that,

r = 0, div q = 0

The internal dissipation rate per unit of volume for an adiabatic

process, given by the Clausius-Planck inequality, can be written

as,

Dint := 0 0 r + div q = 0 0

Linear Elasticity > Linear Elastic Model

H2. Isothermal Processes

We consider that the processes are isothermal, such that,

= 0

The internal dissipation rate per unit of volume for an isothermal

process, given by the Clausius-Planck inequality, can be written

as,

Dint := 0 0 r + div q

= : 0 ( e )

( )

= : 0 + = : 0 0

Linear Elasticity > Linear Elastic Model

H3. Free Energy

We consider that the free energy per unit of volume is a function

of the infinitesimal strain tensor, such that for an isothermal

linear elastic model is a quadratic function of the strain tensor

given by,

1

0 = 0 ( ) = : C : 0

2

where C is a positive definite symmetric fourth-order tensor,

denoted as isothermal constant elastic constitutive tensor.

Linear Elasticity > Linear Elastic Model

As the isothermal elastic constitutive tensor C is a symmetric

fourth-order tensor, the following symmetry condition holds,

: C : = ab Cabcd cd = ab Ccdab cd , Cabcd = Ccdab

symmetry conditions,

: C : = T : C : = : C : T , Cabcd = Cbacd = Cabdc

parameters needed to define the elastic constitutive tensor.

Linear Elasticity > Linear Elastic Model

Internal Dissipation Inequality

Applying the chain rule, the internal dissipation rate per unit of

volume for an isothermal process, given by the Clausius-Planck

inequality, yields,

Dint := : 0

( ) ( )

= : 0 : = 0 : 0

Linear Elasticity > Linear Elastic Model

Constitutive Equation and Reduced Dissipation

Following Colemans method, the internal dissipation rate per

unit of volume for an isothermal process, given by the Clausius-

Planck inequality, must be satisfied for arbitrary thermodynamic

processes, i.e. arbitrary strain rates,

( )

Dint := 0 : 0

yielding the following isothermal linear elastic constitutive

equation and zero internal reduced dissipation rate per unit of

volume, that characterizes a reversible process

( )

= 0 , Dint = 0

October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 9

Linear Elasticity > Linear Elastic Model

Constitutive Equation and Reduced Dissipation

The constitutive equation and reduced internal dissipation rate

per unit o volume for an isothermal linear elastic model are given

by,

( )

= 0 = C : , ab = Cabcd cd

Dint = 0

zero for a linear elastic model, any adiabatic process is also

isentropic and any isentropic process is also adiabatic.

Linear Elasticity > Linear Elastic Model

Elastic Constitutive Tensor

The isothermal elastic constitutive tensor for a linear elastic

model is given by,

2 ( ) 2 ( )

C = 0 , Cabcd = 0

ab cd

Linear Elasticity > Linear Elastic Model

Isotropic Elastic Constitutive Tensor

A continuum medium is said to be isotropic if at a given point it

has the same material properties in any direction.

For an isotropic linear elastic material model, the physical

property of isotropy is translated into a mathematical property

of isotropy of the isothermal elastic constitutive tensor, yielding,

C = 1 1 + 2 I , Cabcd = ab cd + ( ac bd + ad bc )

the two material parameters characterizing an isothermal isotro-

pic linear elastic material model.

Isotropy reduces from 21 to 2 the number of parameters needed

to define the elastic constitutive tensor.

October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 12

Linear Elasticity > Linear Elastic Model

Free Energy for an Isotropic Linear Elastic Model

The free energy per unit of volume for an isothermal isotropic

linear elastic material model can be written as,

1 1 2

0 ( ) = : C : = ( tr ) + : 0

2 2

Linear Elasticity > Linear Elastic Model

Isotropic Linear Elastic Constitutive Equation

The isothermal constitutive equation for an isotropic linear

elastic material model can be written as,

No se puede mostrar la imagen en este momento.

Linear Elasticity > Linear Elastic Model

Isotropic Linear Elastic Constitutive Equation

The volumetric part of the constitutive equation for an isother-

mal isotropic linear elastic model can be written as,

tr = : 1 = ( tr ) 1 : 1 + 2 : 1 = ( 3 + 2 ) tr

Introducing the mean stress, volumetric deformation and iso-

thermal bulk modulus, given by,

1 2

m := tr , e := tr , K := + > 0

3 3

The volumetric part of the constitutive equation for an isother-

mal isotropic linear elastic model can be written as,

m = Ke

October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 15

Linear Elasticity > Linear Elastic Model

Isotropic Linear Elastic Constitutive Equation

The deviatoric part of the constitutive equation for an isotropic

linear elastic model can be written as,

dev = ( tr ) dev 1 + 2 dev = 2 dev

G := > 0

The deviatoric part of the constitutive equation for an isotropic

linear elastic model can be written as,

dev = 2G dev

Linear Elasticity > Linear Elastic Model

Isotropic Linear Elastic Inverse Constitutive Equation

The inverse constitutive equation for an isothermal isotropic

linear elastic model can be written as,

1

tr = ( 3 + 2 ) tr

1

= ( tr ) 1 +

( 3 + 2 ) 2 2

Linear Elasticity > Linear Elastic Model

Isotropic Linear Elastic Inverse Constitutive Equation

Let us introduce the isothermal Young elastic modulus, denoted

as E > 0, isothermal Poissons coefficient, denoted as 0 1 2,

and isothermal bulk modulus, denoted as K > 0 , such that,

( 3 + 2 ) 1

E= > 0, 0 =

+ 2 ( + ) 2

E E

= 0, = G = >0

(1 + )(1 2 ) 2 (1 + )

2 E

K =+ = >0

3 3 (1 2 )

Linear Elasticity > Linear Elastic Model

Isotropic Linear Elastic Inverse Constitutive Equation

The inverse constitutive equation for an isothermal isotropic

linear elastic model can be written as,

1 + 1 +

= ( tr ) 1 + , ab = dd ab + ab

E E E E

Linear Elasticity > Linear Elastic Model

Isotropic Linear Elastic Inverse Constitutive Equation

Using engineering notation, the Cartesian components of the

inverse constitutive equation for an isothermal isotropic linear

elastic model can be written as,

1 1

(

x = x ( y + z ) , xy = xy

E G

)

1 1

y = ( y ( x + z ) ) , xz = xz

E G

1 1

(

z = z ( x + y ) , yz = yz

E G

)

Linear Elasticity > Linear Elastic Model

Example 7.1

Let us consider an uniaxial traction test of an isotropic linear

elastic material such that,

x > 0, y = z = xy = xz = yz = 0

y

x x

x

2) Consider as particular cases: (a) = 0 ; (b) = 1 2

Linear Elasticity > Linear Elastic Model

Example 7.1

Given a stress state such that,

x > 0, y = z = xy = xz = yz = 0

the components of the strain tensor take the form,

1

E

( 1

E

( 1

))

x = x y + z = x > 0, xy = xy = 0

G

1 1

y =

E

( ( ))

y x + z = x 0, xz = xz = 0

E G

z =

1

E

( ( ))

1

z x + y = x 0, yz = yz = 0

E G

Linear Elasticity > Linear Elastic Model

(a) Consider the case = 0 :

1

x = x > 0, y = x = 0, z = x = 0

E E E

There is no Poisson effect.

1 1 1

x = x > 0, y = x = x 0, z = x = x 0

E E 2E E 2E

1 1 1

e = tr = x + y + z = x x x = 0

E 2E 2E

The volumetric strain is zero, the volume is preserved, characte-

rizing an incompressible isotropic linear elastic material model.

October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 23

Linear Elasticity > Linear Elastic IBVP

Governing Equations

Let us consider the following governing equations in the space x

time domain I = [ 0,T ].

Linear momentum balance First Cauchys motion equation

2u 2 ua

div + 0b = 0 2 , ab,b + 0ba = 0 2 in I

t t

Isothermal isotropic linear elastic constitutive equation

= ( tr ) 1 + 2 , ab = dd ab + 2 ab in I

Geometrical equations

1 1

s

2

( T

2

)

= u = u + ( u ) , ab = ( ua ,b + ub,a ) in I

Linear Elasticity > Linear Elastic IBVP

Boundary Conditions

Let us consider prescribed displacements and prescribed trac-

tions boundaries, denoted as u and , respectively, such

that,

u = , u =

with the following bounday conditions for the IBVP:

Prescribed displacements boundary conditions

u = u, u a = u a on u I

Prescribed tractions boundary conditions

t = n = t , ta = ab nb = ta on I

Linear Elasticity > Linear Elastic IBVP

Initial Conditions

Let us consider the following initial conditions for the IBVP,

Initial displacements at time t=0

u t =0 = 0, ua t =0 = 0 in

Initial velocities at time t=0

u ua

= v0 , = v0a in

t t =0 t t =0

Linear Elasticity > Linear Elastic IBVP

Isotropic Linear Elastic IBVP

Find the displacements, strains and stresses in I = [ 0,T ]

such that the following equations are satisfied:

2u

div + 0b = 0 2

t

= ( tr ) 1 + 2 in I

1

2

(

= su = u + ( u )

T

)

u t =0 = 0

u = u on u I

u in

t = n = t on I = v0

t t =0

October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 27

Linear Elasticity > Linear Elastic IBVP

Unicity of the Solution of the Linear Elastic IBVP

The solution of the linear elastic IBVP is unique in strains and

stresses.

The solution of the linear elastic IBVP is unique in displacements

if the boundary conditions are such that arbitrary rigid motions

are not allowed.

Linear Elasticity > Linear Elastic IBVP

Quasistatic Linear Elastic BVP

A problem is said to be quasistatic if the acceleration term in the

first Cauchys motion equation is negligible.

A quasistatic linear elastic BVP does not involves any time

derivative, hence no time integration is involved and initial

conditions are not needed anymore.

Actions on the continuum body (forces, boundary conditions)

may still be a function of time and, then, the response

(displacements, strains, stresses) will be also a function of time.

Here the time plays the role and may be viewed as a loading

parameter.

Linear Elasticity > Linear Elastic IBVP

Quasistatic Isotropic Linear Elastic BVP

Find the displacements, strains and stresses in I = [ 0,T ]

such that the following equations are satisfied:

div + 0b = 0

= ( tr ) 1 + 2 in I

s

= u

u = u on u I

t =n = t on I

Linear Elasticity > Solution of the Linear Elastic IBVP

Isotropic Linear Elastic IBVP

Find the displacements, strains and stresses in I = [ 0,T ]

such that the following equations are satisfied:

2u

div + 0b = 0 2

t

= ( tr ) 1 + 2 in I

1

2

(

= su = u + ( u )

T

)

u t =0 = 0

u = u on u I

u in

t = n = t on I = v0

t t =0

October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 31

Linear Elasticity > Solution of the Linear Elastic IBVP

Method of Displacements: Navier Equation

Stresses can be removed from the list of unknowns of the

isothermal isotropic linear elastic IBVP using,

div = div ( ( tr ) 1 + 2 )

= grad ( tr ) + 2 div

n = ( ( tr ) 1 + 2 ) n

= ( tr ) n + 2 n

Linear Elasticity > Solution of the Linear Elastic IBVP

Method of Displacements: Navier Equation

Strains can can be removed from the list of unknowns of the

isothermal isotropic linear elastic IBVP using,

div = grad ( tr ) + 2 div

= ( + ) grad ( div u ) + div ( grad u )

n = ( tr ) n + 2 n

(

= ( div u ) n + grad u + ( grad u ) n

T

)

Linear Elasticity > Solution of the Linear Elastic IBVP

Method of Displacements: Navier Equation

The first Cauchys motion equation written in terms of the displa-

cements is denoted as Navier equation and takes the form,

2u

( + ) grad ( div u ) + div ( grad u ) + 0b = 0 2 in I

t

2 ua

( + ) ub,ba + ua ,bb + 0ba = 0 2 in I

t

Linear Elasticity > Solution of the Linear Elastic IBVP

Isotropic Linear Elastic IBVP

Find the displacements in I = [ 0,T ] such that the

following equations are satisfied:

2u

( + ) grad ( div u ) + div ( grad u ) + 0b = 0 2 in I

t

u = u on u I

( T

( div u ) n + grad u + ( grad u ) n = t on I )

u

u t =0 = 0, = v0 in

t t =0

October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 35

Linear Elasticity > Solution of the Linear Elastic IBVP

Quasistatic Isotropic Linear Elastic BVP

Find the displacements in I = [ 0,T ] such that the

following equations are satisfied:

u = u on u I

( T

( div u ) n + grad u + ( grad u ) n = t on I )

Linear Elasticity > Solution of the Linear Elastic IBVP

Isotropic Linear Elastic IBVP

While the displacements have been obtained, strains and

stresses may be obtained as a post-process of the results,

Geometrical equations

1 1

s

2

( T

2

)

= u = u + ( u ) , ab = ( ua ,b + ub,a ) in I

Isothermal isotropic linear elastic constitutive equations

= ( tr ) 1 + 2 , ab = dd ab + 2 ab in I

Linear Elasticity > Orthogonal Curvilinear Coordinates

Cylindrical and Spherical Coordinates

Linear Elasticity > Orthogonal Curvilinear Coordinates

General Remarks

The components of a vector or higher order tensor are equal

to their components in a local cartesian basis linked to the

orthogonal curvilinear coordinates.

The components of the Nabla operator have to be obtained

for each orthogonal curvilinear coordinates system.

Operations involving the Nabla operator, such as grad, div,

curl, in general, cannot be obtained as a matrix operation in

terms of their components, as it happens in cartesian

coordinates, i.e. for the divergence of a vector,

T

u [] [u]

Linear Elasticity > Orthogonal Curvilinear Coordinates

Cylindrical Coordinates

Cylindrical Coordinates

Linear Elasticity > Orthogonal Curvilinear Coordinates

Cylindrical Coordinates

Cylindrical Coordinates

Vector position

x = x ( r , , z ) = r cos e x + r sin e y + z e z

Physical basis

x

= cos e x + sin e y

r

x

= r sin e x + r cos e y

x

= ez

z

Linear Elasticity > Orthogonal Curvilinear Coordinates

Cylindrical Coordinates

Cylindrical Coordinates

Euclidean norms of the physical basis vectors

x x x

= 1, = r, = 1,

r z

e r ( ) = cos e x + sin e y

e ( ) = sin e x + cos e y

e z = e z

Linear Elasticity > Orthogonal Curvilinear Coordinates

Cylindrical Coordinates

Cylindrical Coordinates

Nabla differential operator

1

= er + e + e z

r r z

T

1

[ ] =

r r z

Linear Elasticity > Orthogonal Curvilinear Coordinates

Cylindrical Coordinates

Navier Equations

e 2G z 2 ur

( + 2G ) + 2G + 0br = 0 2

r r z t

1 e r z 2u

( + 2G ) 2G + 2G + 0b = 0 2

r z r t

e 2G ( r ) 2G r 2u z

( + 2G ) + + 0bz = 0 2

z r r r t

Linear Elasticity > Orthogonal Curvilinear Coordinates

Cylindrical Coordinates

Navier Equations

1 ( rur ) 1 u u z

e = div u = + +

r r r z

1 1 u z u

r = z =

2 r z

1 ur uz

= zr =

2 z r

1 1 ( ru ) 1 ur

z = r =

2 r r r

Linear Elasticity > Orthogonal Curvilinear Coordinates

Cylindrical Coordinates

Components of the Strain Tensor

rr r rz

[ ] = r z

rz z zz

ur 1 1 ur u u 1 ur u z

+ +

r 2 r r r 2 z r

1 1 ur u u 1 u ur 1 u 1 u z

= + + +

2 r r r r r 2 z r

1 ur u z 1 u 1 u z u z

2 z r

+

+

2 z r z

October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 46

Linear Elasticity > Orthogonal Curvilinear Coordinates

Spherical Coordinates

Spherical Coordinates

Linear Elasticity > Orthogonal Curvilinear Coordinates

Spherical Coordinates

Spherical Coordinates

Vector position

x = x ( r , , ) = r sin cos e x + r sin sin e y + r cos e z

Physical basis

x

= sin cos e x + sin sin e y

r

x

= r cos cos e x + r cos sin e y r sin e z

x

= r sin sin e x + r sin cos e y

October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 48

Linear Elasticity > Orthogonal Curvilinear Coordinates

Spherical Coordinates

Spherical Coordinates

Euclidean norms of the physical basis vectors

x x x

= sin , = r, = r sin ,

r r z

e r ( ) = cos e x + sin e y

e ( , ) = cos cos e x + cos sin e y sin e z

e ( ) = sin e x + cos e y

Linear Elasticity > Orthogonal Curvilinear Coordinates

Spherical Coordinates

Spherical Coordinates

Nabla differential operator

1 1

= er + e + e

r r r sin

T

1 1

[ ] =

r r r sin

Linear Elasticity > Orthogonal Curvilinear Coordinates

Spherical Coordinates

Navier Equations

e 2G ( sin ) 2G 2 ur

( + 2G ) + + 0br = 0 2

r r sin r sin t

1 e 2G r 2G ( r sin ) 2u

( + 2G ) + + b

0

= 0 2

r r sin r sin r t

1 e 2G ( ) 2G r

r 2

u

( + 2G ) + + 0b = 0 2

r sin r r r t

Linear Elasticity > Orthogonal Curvilinear Coordinates

Spherical Coordinates

Navier Equations

1 ( r 2

ur sin ) ( ru sin ) ( ru )

e = div u = 2 + +

r sin r

1 1 ( u sin ) 1 u

r = =

2 r sin r sin

1 1 ur 1 ( ru )

= r =

2 r sin r r

1 1 ( ) 1 ur

ru

= r =

2 r r r

October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 52

Linear Elasticity > Orthogonal Curvilinear Coordinates

Spherical Coordinates

Components of the Strain Tensor

rr r r

[ ] r

=

r

ur 1 1 ur u u

rr = r = +

r 2 r r r

1 u ur 1 1 ur u u

= + r = +

r r 2 r sin r r

1 u u ur 1 1 u 1 u u

= + cot + = + cot

r sin r r 2 r sin r r

October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 53

Linear Elasticity > Assignments

Assignments

Assignment 7.1

A uniform compression pressure, denoted as p, is applied to the

lateral surface of the cylinder of radius R of the figure. The mate-

rial of the cylinder is assumed to be isotropic linear elastic with

Lam constants = . There is an horizontal rigid surface on the

top of the cylinder at a distance a<<R.

Body forces and frictional effects are a

assumed.

p p h

(1) Plot p vs , where is the radial

displacement of the lateral surface

of the cylinder. A

A

(2) Plot p vs z at point A.

R R

October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 54

Linear Elasticity > Assignments

Assignment 7.1

Assignment 7.1

Boundary conditions will depend on the value of the applied

pressure. Let us consider the following problems,

Problem 1: The cylinder is not in contact with the top horizon-

tal surface. BC on the top surface of the cylinder are zero

tractions. The range of values of the pressure is 0 p p *

where p * is the pressure needed for the cylinder just to make

contact (without contact pressure) with the top horizontal

surface.

Problem 2: The cylinder is in contact with the top horizontal

surface. BC on the top surface of the cylinder are zero

incremental vertical displacements (measured from the

displacements at the end of Problem 1) and p p *.

October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 55

Linear Elasticity > Assignments

Assignments

Problem 1 Problem 2

0 p p* p* p

0 p = p p *

a

u u

h h

p p

p p

A A

R R R R

Linear Elasticity > Assignments

Assignment 7.1

Problem 1

We consider the following steps:

Step 1. System of coordinates.

Taking into accoun the geometry of the problem, we select a

cylindrical system of coordinates to solve the problem.

Linear Elasticity > Assignments

Assignment 7.1

Step 2. Hypotheses on the displacements

Using cylindrical coordinates the displacement field takes the

form,

T

[u] = ur ( r, , z ) u ( r , , z ) uz ( r , , z )

Taking into account the axial symmetry of the geometry, loading

and BC we consider a displacement field of the form,

T

[u] = ur ( r, z ) 0 uz ( r , z )

Furthermore, taking into account that the pressure is uniform,

and there is frictionless contact we introduce the following

additional hypotheses, yielding a displacement field of the form,

T

[u] = ur ( r ) 0 u z ( z )

October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 58

Linear Elasticity > Assignments

Assignment 7.1

Step 3. Navier equations in cylindrical coordinates.

Taking into account quasi-static conditions and body forces

negligible,

e 2G z

( + 2G ) + 2G + 0br = 0

r r z

1 e r z

( + 2G ) 2G + 2G + 0b = 0

r z r

e 2G ( r ) 2G r

( + 2G ) + + 0bz = 0

z r r r

Linear Elasticity > Assignments

Assignment 7.1

Step 3. Navier equations in cylindrical coordinates.

Taking into account the hypotheses introduced on the displace-

ment field,

1 ( rur ) 1 u u z 1 ( rur ) u z

e = div u = + + = +

r r r z r r z

1 1 u z u

r = z = =0

2 r z

1 ur u z

= zr = =0

2 z r

1 1 ( ru ) 1 ur

z = r = =0

2 r r r

October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 60

Linear Elasticity > Assignments

Assignment 7.1

Step 3. Navier equations in cylindrical coordinates.

Then, the (non-trivial) Navier equations take the form,

e 1 ( rur ( r ) ) u z ( z ) 1 ( rur ( r ) )

= + = =0

r r r r z r r r

e 1 ( rur ( r ) ) u z ( z ) u z ( z )

= + = =0

z z r r z z z

Integrating the Navier equations yields,

1

ur ( r ) = A1r + A2 , u z ( z ) = A3 z + A4

r

Linear Elasticity > Assignments

Assignment 7.1

Step 4. Boundary conditions.

The BC on displacements for Problem 1 read,

1

ur ( r ) r = 0 = A1r + A2 =0 A2 = 0

r r =0

u z ( z ) z =0 = A3 z + A4 z =0

=0 A4 = 0

Substituting into the equations of the components of the

displacement yields,

ur ( r ) = A1r , u z ( z ) = A3 z

Linear Elasticity > Assignments

Assignment 7.1

Step 4. Boundary conditions.

The components of the strain tensor take the form,

A1 0 0

[ ] = 0 A1 0

0 0 A3

Taking into account that = , the components of the stress

tensor take the form,

4 A1 + A3 0 0

[ ] = 0 4 A1 + A3 0

0 0 2 A1 + 3 A3

October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 63

Linear Elasticity > Assignments

Assignment 7.1

Step 4. Boundary conditions.

The BC on the traction vector for Problem 1, conveniently

writting the non-trivial component in terms of the components

of the stress tensor yields,

r r=R

= ( 4 A1 + A3 ) = p

z z =h

= ( 2 A1 + 3 A3 ) = 0

3p p

A1 = , A3 =

10 5

Linear Elasticity > Assignments

Assignment 7.1

Step 5. Solution of Problem 1

The solution in displacements, strains and stresses for Problem 1

takes the form,

p T

[u] = [ 3r 0 2 z ]

10

3 0 0 p 0 0

p ,

[ ] = 0 3 0 [ ] = 0 p 0

10

0 0 2 0 0 0

Linear Elasticity > Assignments

Assignment 7.1

Step 5. Solution of Problem 1

The value of the pressure for which the cylinder comes into

contact with the top surface is given by,

p* 5 a

uz ( z ) z =h = h=a p* =

5 h

Then, the range of values of the pressure for the solution of the

Problem 1 is given by,

5 a

0 p p* =

h

Linear Elasticity > Assignments

Assignment 7.1

Step 6. Curve p-.

The curve p- for Problem 1 is given by,

3p 10

:= ur ( r ) r = R = R p=

10 3R

The stress zA for Problem 1 is zero for any value of p (within the

range of values of p defining Problem 1).

Linear Elasticity > Assignments

Assignment 7.1

Problem 2

We have to use an incremental formulation and we may use the

results obtained in Steps 1-3 from Problem 1, yielding an

increment of displacements,

1

ur ( r ) = B1r + B2 , u z ( z ) = B3 z + B4

r

Linear Elasticity > Assignments

Assignment 7.1

Step 4. Boundary conditions.

The BC on displacements for Problem 2 (imposed on the

reference or undeformed configuration) read,

1

ur ( r ) r =0 = B1r + B2 = 0 B2 = 0

r r =0

u z ( z ) z =0 = B3 z + B4 z =0

= 0 B4 = 0

u z ( z ) z = h = B3 z z = h = 0 B3 = 0

displacement yields,

ur ( r ) = B1r , u z ( z ) = 0

October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 69

Linear Elasticity > Assignments

Assignment 7.1

Step 4. Boundary conditions.

The components of the incremental strain tensor take the form,

B1 0 0

0 0

[ ]

= B1

0 0 0

Taking into account that = , the components of the

incremental stress tensor take the form,

4 B1 0 0

[ ] = 0 4 B1 0

0 0 2 B1

October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 70

Linear Elasticity > Assignments

Assignment 7.1

Step 4. Boundary conditions.

The BC on the incremental traction vector for Problem 2,

conveniently writting the non-trivial component in terms of the

component of the incremental stress tensor yields,

p

r r=R

= ( 4 B1 ) = p B1 =

4

Linear Elasticity > Assignments

Assignment 7.1

Step 5. Solution of Problem 2

The incremental solution in displacements, strains and stresses

for Problem 2 takes the form,

p T

[ u ] = [ r 0 0]

4

1 0 0 2 0 0

p , p

[ ]

= 0 1 0 [ ]

= 0 2 0

4 2

0 0 0 0 0 1

Linear Elasticity > Assignments

Assignment 7.1

Step 6. Curves p- and zA -

The curve p- for Problem 2 is given by,

p 4

:= ur ( r ) r = R = R p =

4 R

p

A

:=

z p = 2 zA

2

Linear Elasticity > Assignments

Assignment 7.1

p p

4

p =

R

5 a

p=

h 10

p=

3R

3Ra

=

2h

Linear Elasticity > Assignments

Assignment 7.1

p p

p = 2 zA

5 a

p=

h zA

zA

Linear Elasticity > Assignments

Assignment 7.2

Assignment 7.2 [Classwork]

Consider a sphere A with radius R1=R and a spherical crown B

with external radius R2=2R. The two spheres are of the same iso-

tropic linear elastic material (Young modulus E>0 and Poissons

coefficient =0). There is a small uniform gap a<<R between

them. A uniform pressure p is applied on the external surface of

the spherical crown B.

Body forces and frictional effects B p

neglected. Quasi-static conditions R 2

R 1

can be assumed.

Linear Elasticity > Assignments

Assignment 7.2

Assignment 7.2 [Classwork]

1) Obtain the value of the pressure p for which the two bodies

come into contact.

2) Plot the curve pressure-delta, where delta is defined as

minus the radial displacement of the external surface of the

spherical crown B.

Linear Elasticity > Assignments

Assignment 7.2

Step 1. Taking into account the geometry and BCs of the problem

we will use a spherical coordinates system.

blem (geometry and BCs) we introduce the following hypotheses

on the displacements (for any of the two spheres),

T

[u ] = ur ( r ) 0 0

Step 3. Using the assumed displacement field and taking into

account that body forces are negligible, the (non-trivial) Navier

equation for a quasistatic problem takes the form,

e 1 ( r 2

ur )

= 2 = 0

r r r r

October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 78

Linear Elasticity > Assignments

Assignment 7.2

Integrating the Navier equation yields,

B

ur ( r ) = Ar + 2

r

The non-zero components of the stress tensor take the form,

2B B

r ( r ) = E A 3 , ( r ) = ( r ) = E A + 3

r r

Linear Elasticity > Assignments

Assignment 7.2

Step 4. While the two bodies are not in contact, the displace-

ments, strains and stresses in the body 1 are zero and the

internal pressure on the body 2 is equal to zero. BCs for body 2,

while the two bodies are not in contact, take the form,

B 2B

(2)

r ( 2 R ) = E A 3 = p, r ( R ) = E A 3 = 0

(2)

4R R

Solving the system of equations yields,

8 4

A= p, B = pR3

7E 7E

Linear Elasticity > Assignments

Assignment 7.2

The radial displacement and normal radial stress for body 2 take

the form,

8 R 3

8 R3

ur ( r ) =

(2)

p r + 2 , r (r) =

(2)

p 1 3

7E 2r 7 r

The pressure needed for the two bodies to come into contact is

given by,

8 R 7 Ea

u (2)

r ( R) = p R + = a p=

7E 2 12 R

The solution obtained is valid for a range of values of the

pressure given by,

7 Ea

0 p

12 R

October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 81

Linear Elasticity > Assignments

Assignment 7.2

The curve p-delta for this phase of the loading will be given by,

8 R 17 7E

:= u (2)

r ( 2 R ) = p 2 R + = pR p=

7E 8 7E 17 R

p

7 Ea

p=

12 R

7E

p=

17 R

17 a

=

12

October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 82

Linear Elasticity > Assignments

Assignment 7.2

For higher values of the pressure, the two bodies will be in

contact and therefore the boundary conditions will be different.

The incremental radial displacement and incremental normal

radial stress fields for body 1 will be given by,

B1 2 B1

u ( r ) = A1r + 2 , r ( r ) = A1 3

(1)

r

(1)

r r

The incremental radial displacement and incremental normal

radial stress fields for body 2 will be given by,

B2 2 B2

u (2)

r ( r ) = A2 r + 2 , r ( r ) = A2 3

(2)

r r

Linear Elasticity > Assignments

Assignment 7.2

Denoting as p* the uniform contact pressure between the two

bodies, the boundary conditions for bodies 1 and take the form,

B1 2 B1

u ( r = 0 ) = A1r + 2

(1)

r = 0, (1)

r ( R ) = E A1 3 = p *

r r =0 R

2 B2 2 B2

( 2)

r ( R ) = E A2 3 = p*, r ( 2 R ) = E A2 3 = p

( 2)

R 8R

Solving the systems of equations, the constants are given by,

p*

A1 = , B1 = 0

E

1 4 R3

A2 = ( p * 8p ) , B2 = ( p * p )

7E 7E

October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 84

Linear Elasticity > Assignments

Assignment 7.2

The contact pressure p* can be determined by imposing that the

incremental radial displacement of the points of each one of the

bodies at the contact surface has to be the same, yielding,

ur(1) ( R ) = ur(2) ( R )

1 1 4

p* = ( p * 8p ) + ( p * p )

E 7E 7E

p* = p

Substituting into the expressions of the constants, yields

p

A1 = , B1 = 0

E

p

A2 = , B2 = 0

October 11, 2013

E

Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 85

Linear Elasticity > Assignments

Assignment 7.2

The incremental displacement and incremental stress fields for

bodies 1 and 2 take the form,

p

u ( r ) =

(1)

r r , r(1) ( r ) = p

E

p

ur ( r ) =

(2)

r , r(2) ( r ) = p

E

Note that the two bodies have the same incremental displace-

ment and incremental stress fields. This is because the two

bodies have the same material properties and, since they are in

contact, the two bodies deform as if they were a single sphere of

radius 2R. In fact Problem 2 could have been solved considering

the two bodies as if they were a single one.

October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 86

Linear Elasticity > Assignments

Assignment 7.2

The incremental p-incremental delta curve is given by,

2R E

:= u (2)

r ( 2 R ) = p p =

E 2R

p p

E

p =

7 Ea 2R

p=

12 R 7E

p=

17 R

17 a

=

12

October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 87

Linear Elasticity > Linear Thermoelastic Model

Free Energy

We consider a free energy per unit of volume given by a quadra-

tic function of the strain tensor and the temperature,

0 = 0 ( , ) = W ( ) + M ( , ) + T ( )

the coupled thermoelastic stored energy and T ( ) is the

thermal stored energy.

Linear Elasticity > Linear Thermoelastic Model

Elastic Stored Energy

The isothermal elastic stored energy for a linear thermoelastic

model may be written as,

1

W ( ) := : C : 0

2

where C is a positive definite fourth-order tensor, denoted as

isothermal constant elastic constitutive tensor.

Symmetry of the strain tensor yields the following symmetry

conditions on the isothermal elastic constitutive tensor C ,

: C : = T : C : = : C : T , Cabcd = Cbacd = Cabdc

Furthermore, the following symmetry conditions hold,

: C : = ab Cabcd cd = ab Ccdab cd , Cabcd = Ccdab

October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 89

Linear Elasticity > Linear Thermoelastic Model

Coupled Thermoelastic Stored Energy

The coupled thermoelastic stored energy for a linear thermo-

elastic model may be written as,

M ( , ) := ( 0 ) :

tensor, denoted as stress-temperature constitutive tensor, such

that,

= T , ab = ba

and 0 > 0 is a constant reference temperature.

Linear Elasticity > Linear Thermoelastic Model

Thermal Stored Energy

The thermal stored energy for a linear thermo-elastic model may

be written as,

1 2

T ( ) := 0c0 ( 0 )

2 0

where c0 > 0 is a positive scalar quantity denoted as specific

heat at constant strain, i.e. heat supplied per unit of mass in

order to achieve a unit temperature change while keeping the

strain constant.

Linear Elasticity > Linear Thermoelastic Model

Internal Dissipation Inequality

Applying the chain rule, the internal dissipation rate per unit of

volume, given by the Clausius-Planck inequality, yields,

Dint := : 0 ( + )

( , ) ( , )

= : 0 0 : 0

( , ) ( , )

= 0 : 0 + 0 0 ,

Linear Elasticity > Linear Thermoelastic Model

Constitutive Equations and Reduced Dissipation

Following Colemans method, the internal dissipation rate per

unit of volume, must be satisfied for arbitrary thermodynamic

processes, i.e. arbitrary strain rates and temperature rates,

( , ) ( , )

Dint := 0 : 0 + 0 0 ,

yielding the following linear thermoelastic constitutive equations

and zero internal reduced dissipation rate per unit of volume that

characterizes a reversible process,

( , ) ( , )

= 0 , 0 = 0 , Dint = 0

October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 93

Linear Elasticity > Linear Thermoelastic Model

Thermomechanical Constitutive Equations

The stress and entropy constitutive equations for a linear

thermoelastic constitutive model can be written,

( , )

= 0 = C : ( 0 )

( , ) c0

0 = 0 = : + 0 ( 0 )

0

Linear Elasticity > Linear Thermoelastic Model

Thermoelastic Constitutive Tensors

The isothermal elastic constitutive tensor, stress-temperature

tensor and specific heat for a linear thermoelastic model are

given by,

2 ( , ) 2 ( , )

C = 0 , Cabcd = 0

ab cd

2 ( , ) 2 ( , )

= 0 , ab = 0

ab

2 ( , )

c0 = 0

2

October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 95

Linear Elasticity > Linear Thermoelastic Model

Thermomechanical Constitutive Equations

Given the stress and entropy constitutive equations for a linear

thermoelastic constitutive model,

= C : ( 0 )

c0

0 = : + 0 ( 0 )

0

Using the entropy constitutive equation, the increment of

temperature may be written as,

0

1 0

0 = :

c0 0 c0

Linear Elasticity > Linear Thermoelastic Model

Thermomechanical Constitutive Equations

Taking the strain tensor and specific entropy (instead of the

temperature) as main variables, the stress and entropy

constitutive equations for a linear thermoelastic constitutive

model take the form,

0 0

= C + :

0c0 c0

0

:= C :

c0

0 0

0 = : +

0c0 c0

October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 97

Linear Elasticity > Linear Thermoelastic Model

Thermomechanical Constitutive Equations

The isentropic elastic constitutive tensor, denoted as C , and the

isothermal elastic constitutive tensor, denoted as C , are related

through the following expression,

0

C = C+

0c0

Linear Elasticity > Linear Thermoelastic Model

Internal Energy

We consider an internal energy per unit of volume given by a

quadratic function of the strain tensor and the specific entropy,

0e = 0e ( , ) = W ( ) + N ( , ) + Z ( )

the coupled entropy-elastic stored energy and Z ( ) is the

entropy stored energy.

Linear Elasticity > Linear Thermoelastic Model

Elastic Stored Energy

The isentropic elastic stored energy for a linear thermoelastic

model may be written as,

1

W ( ) := : C : 0

2

where C is a positive definite fourth-order tensor, denoted as

isentropic constant elastic constitutive tensor.

Symmetry of the strain tensor yields the following symmetry

conditions on the isentropic elastic constitutive tensor C,

: C : = T : C : = : C : T , Cabcd = Cbacd = Cabdc

Furthermore, the following symmetry conditions hold,

: C : = abCabcd cd = abCcdab cd , Cabcd = Ccdab

October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 100

Linear Elasticity > Linear Thermoelastic Model

Coupled Entropy-elastic Stored Energy

The coupled entropy-elastic stored energy for a linear thermo-

elastic model may be written as,

0

N ( , ) := ( : )

c0

where is a positive semi-definite symmetric second-order

tensor, denoted as stress-temperature constitutive tensor, such

that,

= T , ab = ba

c0 > 0 is a positive scalar quantity denoted as specific heat at

constant strain, and 0 > 0 is the constant reference

temperature.

October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 101

Linear Elasticity > Linear Thermoelastic Model

Entropy Stored Energy

The entropy stored energy for a linear thermoelastic model may

be written as,

1 00 2

Z ( ) := + 00

2 c0

where c0 > 0 is a positive scalar quantity denoted as specific

heat at constant strain, i.e. heat supplied per unit of mass in

order to achieve a unit temperature change while keeping the

strain constant.

Linear Elasticity > Linear Thermoelastic Model

Internal Dissipation Inequality

Applying the chain rule, the internal dissipation rate per unit of

volume, given by the Clausius-Planck inequality, yields,

Dint := : 0 ( e )

e ( , ) e ( , )

= : + 0 0 : 0

e ( , ) e ( , )

= 0 : + 0 0 0 ,

Linear Elasticity > Linear Thermoelastic Model

Constitutive Equations and Reduced Dissipation

Following Colemans method, the internal dissipation rate per

unit of volume, must be satisfied for arbitrary thermodynamic

processes, i.e. arbitrary strain rates and entropy rates,

e ( , ) e ( , )

Dint := 0 : + 0 0 0 ,

yielding the following linear thermoelastic constitutive equations

and zero internal reduced dissipation which characterizes a

reversible process,

e ( , ) e ( , )

= 0 , 0 = 0 , Dint = 0

October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 104

Linear Elasticity > Linear Thermoelastic Model

Thermomechanical Constitutive Equations

The stress and temperature constitutive equations for a linear

thermoelastic constitutive model may be written,

e ( , ) 0

= 0 = C :

c0

e ( , ) 0 00

0 = 0 = : + + 00

c0 c0

Linear Elasticity > Linear Thermoelastic Model

Thermoelastic Constitutive Tensors

The isentropic elastic constitutive tensor, stress-temperature

tensor and inverse specific heat for a linear thermoelastic model

are given by,

C = 0

2

e ( , )

, Cabcd = 0

2

e ( , )

ab cd

c0

= 0

2

e ( , ) c0

, ab = 0

2

e ( , )

0 0 ab

1 1 e ( , )

2

=

c0 0 2

October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 106

Linear Elasticity > Linear Thermoelastic Model

Thermoelastic Constitutive Tensors

For an isotropic linear thermoelastic material model, the physical

property of isotropy is translated into the mathematical property

of isotropy of the isothermal elastic and stress-temperature

constitutive tensors, yielding,

C = 1 1 + 2 I , Cabcd = ab cd + ( ac bd + ad bc )

= 1, ab = ab

where 0, 0, are the isothermal Lam parameters, and 0

is the stress-temperature coefficient.

Linear Elasticity > Linear Thermoelastic Model

Thermoelastic Constitutive Tensors

The relationship between the isothermal and the isentropic

Lam parameters is given by,

0

C := C +

0c0

0 2 0 2

= 1 1 + 2 I + 1 1 = + 1 1 + 2 I

0c0 0c0

:= 1 1 + 2 I

0 2

:= + , :=

0c0

October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 108

Linear Elasticity > Linear Thermoelastic Model

Free Energy

The free energy per unit of volume for an isotropic linear thermo-

elastic material model may be written as,

0 ( , ) = W ( ) + M ( , ) + T ( )

1 1 2

= : C : ( 0 ) : 0c0 ( 0 )

2 20

1 2 1 2

= ( tr ) + : ( 0 ) tr 0c0 ( 0 )

2 20

Linear Elasticity > Linear Thermoelastic Model

Thermoelastic Constitutive Equation

The constitutive equation for an isotropic linear thermoelastic

material model may be written as,

= C : ( 0 )

( )

= 1 1 + 2 I : ( 0 ) 1

= (1 : ) 1 + 2 ( 0 ) 1

= ( tr ) 1 + 2 ( 0 ) 1

= ( tr ) 1 + 2 ( 0 ) 1

Linear Elasticity > Linear Thermoelastic Model

Thermoelastic Constitutive Equation

The volumetric part of the constitutive equation for an isotropic

linear thermoelastic model may be written as,

tr = : 1 = ( tr ) 1 : 1 + 2 : 1 ( 0 ) 1 : 1

= ( 3 + 2 ) tr 3 ( 0 )

1 2

m = tr = + e ( 0 )

3 3

= Ke ( 0 )

m = Ke ( 0 )

Linear Elasticity > Linear Thermoelastic Model

Thermoelastic Constitutive Equation

The deviatoric part of the constitutive equation for an isotropic

linear thermoelastic model may be written as,

dev = ( tr ) dev 1 + 2 dev ( 0 ) dev 1 = 2 dev

G :=

The deviatoric part of the constitutive equation for an isotropic

linear thermoelastic model may be written as,

dev = 2G dev

Linear Elasticity > Linear Thermoelastic Model

Inverse Thermoelastic Constitutive Equation

The inverse constitutive equation for an isotropic linear thermo-

elastic model may be written as,

1 1

tr = ( 3 + 2 ) tr + ( 3 + 2 ) 3 ( 0 )

1

= ( tr ) 1 + + ( 0 ) 1

( 3 + 2 ) 2 2 3 + 2

Linear Elasticity > Linear Thermoelastic Model

Inverse Thermoelastic Constitutive Equation

Let us introduce the isothermal Young elastic modulus, denoted

as E > 0, isothermal Poissons coefficient, denoted as 0 1 2 ,

isothermal bulk modulus, denoted as K > 0 and thermal expan-

sion coefficient, denoted as 0, such that,

( 3 + 2 ) 1

E= > 0, 0 =

+ 2( + ) 2

E E

= 0, = G = >0

(1 + )(1 2 ) 2 (1 + )

2 E 1 2

K =+ = > 0, = = = 0

3 3 (1 2 ) 3 + 2 3K 3E

October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 114

Linear Elasticity > Linear Thermoelastic Model

Inverse Thermoelastic Constitutive Equation

The inverse constitutive equation for an isotropic linear thermo-

elastic model may be written as,

1 +

= ( tr ) 1 + + ( 0 ) 1

E E

Linear Elasticity > Linear Thermoelastic Model

Inverse Thermoelastic Constitutive Equation

The volumetric part of the inverse constitutive equation for an

isotropic linear thermoelastic model may be written as,

1 +

e = tr = : 1 = ( tr ) 1 : 1 + : 1 + ( 0 ) 1 : 1

E E

3 1 + 1 2

= tr + tr + 3 ( 0 ) = tr + 3 ( 0 )

E E E

1 1

= tr + 3 ( 0 ) = m + 3 ( 0 )

3K K

1

e = m + 3 ( 0 )

K

October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 116

Linear Elasticity > Linear Thermoelastic IBVP

Governing Equations

Let us consider the following governing equations in the space x

time domain I = [ 0,T ].

Linear momentum balance First Cauchy motion equation

2u

div + 0b = 0 2 in I

t

Isotropic linear thermoelastic constitutive equation

= ( tr ) 1 + 2 ( 0 )1 in I

Geometrical equations

1

(

= u = u + ( u)

s

2

T

) in I

Linear Elasticity > Linear Thermoelastic IBVP

Boundary Conditions

Let us consider prescribed displacements and prescribed trac-

tions boundaries, denoted as u and , respectively, such

that,

u = , u =

with the following bounday conditions for the IBVP:

Prescribed displacements boundary conditions

u = u, ua = ua on u I

Prescribed tractions boundary conditions

t = n = t , ta = ab nb = ta on I

Linear Elasticity > Linear Thermoelastic IBVP

Initial Conditions

Let us consider the following initial conditions for the IBVP,

Initial displacements at time t=0

u t =0 = 0, ua t =0 = 0 in

Initial velocities at time t=0

u ua

= v0 , = v0a in

t t =0 t t =0

Linear Elasticity > Linear Thermoelastic IBVP

Isotropic Linear Thermoelastic IBVP

Find the displacements, strains and stresses in I = [ 0,T ]

such that the following equations are satisfied:

2u

div + 0b = 0 2

t

= ( tr ) 1 + 2 ( 0 ) 1 in I

1

2

(

= su = u + ( u )

T

)

u t =0 = 0

u = u on u I

u in

t = n = t on I = v0

t t =0

October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 120

Linear Elasticity > Solution of the Linear Thermoelastic IBVP

Method of Displacements: Navier Equation

Stresses can be removed from the list of unknowns of the

isotropic linear thermoelastic IBVP using, i.e. assuming that the

material parameters are constant,

div = div ( ( tr ) 1 + 2 ( 0 ) 1)

= grad ( tr ) + 2 div grad ( 0 )

n = ( ( tr ) 1 + 2 ( 0 ) 1) n

= ( tr ) n + 2 n ( 0 ) n

Linear Elasticity > Solution of the Linear Thermoelastic IBVP

Method of Displacements: Navier Equation

Strains can can be removed from the list of unknowns of the

isotropic linear thermoelastic IBVP using, i.e. assuming that the

material parameters are constant,

div = grad ( tr ) + 2 div

= ( + ) grad ( div u ) + div ( grad u ) grad ( 0 )

n = ( tr ) n + 2 n

(

= ( div u ) n + grad u + ( grad u ) n ( 0 ) n

T

)

Linear Elasticity > Solution of the Linear Thermoelastic IBVP

Method of Displacements: Navier Equation

The first Cauchy motion equation written in terms of the displa-

cements is denoted as Navier equation and takes the form,

( + ) grad ( div u ) + div ( grad u )

2u

grad ( 0 ) + 0b = 0 2 in I

t

Introducing a modified body force per unit of mass vector defi-

ned as,

b := b grad ( )

0

0

the first Cauchy motion equation may be written as,

2

u

( + ) grad ( div u ) + div ( grad u ) + 0b = 0 2 in I

October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar

t 123

Linear Elasticity > Solution of the Linear Thermoelastic IBVP

Method of Displacements Prescribed Traction

The prescribed traction boundary condition takes the form,

(

n = ( div u ) n + grad u + ( grad u ) n ( 0 ) n = t

T

)

Introducng a modified prescribed traction vector defined as,

t := t + ( 0 ) n

the (modified) prescribed traction boundary condition may be

written as,

(

n = ( div u ) n + grad u + ( grad u ) n = t

T

)

October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 124

Linear Elasticity > Solution of the Linear Thermoelastic IBVP

Isotropic Linear Thermoelastic IBVP

Find the displacements in I = [ 0,T ] such that the follo-

wing equations are satisfied:

2

u

( + ) grad ( div u ) + div ( grad u ) + 0b = 0 2 in I

t

u = u on u I

(

( div u ) n + grad u + ( grad u ) n = t on I

T

)

u

u t =0 = 0, = v0 in

t t =0

October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 125

Linear Elasticity > Solution of the Linear Thermoelastic IBVP

Isotropic Linear Thermoelastic IBVP

While the displacements have been obtained, strains and

stresses may be obtained as a post-process of the results,

Geometrical equation

1

(

= u = u + ( u)

s

2

T

) in I

Isotropic linear thermoelastic constitutive equation

= ( tr ) 1 + 2 ( 0 ) 1 in I

Linear Elasticity > Assignments

Assignment 7.3

Assignment 7.3

A void cylinder of an isotropic linear thermoelastic material with

height h, inner radius R and outer radius 2R, is inside of a rigid

void cylinder of the same height h and inner radius 2R+a, such

that there is a gap a<<R between both of them, as it is shown in

the figure. A uniform increment of temperature is applied to

the inner cylinder.

a

2R a

A B A B

h

R

R

2R

Linear Elasticity > Assignments

Assignment 7.3

Assignment 7.3

The problem is considered as quasistatic. Body forces in the

cylinder and frictional effects are negligible. The material proper-

ties of the inner cylinder are: Young modulus E , Poissons coeffi-

cient = 0 and thermal expansion coefficient .

1) Compute the increment of temperature needed for the inner

cylinder to come into contact with the rigid one.

2) Plot the vs curve, where is the radial displacement of

the inner surface of the inner cylinder, and determine the

increment of temperature needed for the inner radius of the

cylinder to go back to its original position.

3) Plot the r vs , vs and z vs curves at the inner

and outer surfaces of the inner cylinder.

October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 128

Linear Elasticity > Assignments

Assignment 7.4

Assignment 7.4

Let us consider a sphere of material 1 and radius R1 = 1 placed

inside a void sphere of material 2, inner radius R1 = 1 and outer

radius R2 = 2 . Both spheres are initially in contact without any

pressure. An external uniform pressure p is applied to the exter-

nal surface of the void sphere and a uniform increment of tem-

perature is applied to both spheres.

Materials 1 and 2 are isotropic linear ther- B p

R2

same Poissons coefficient = 0 and diffe- R1

material 1 and for material 2.

Linear Elasticity > Assignments

Assignment 7.4

Assignment 7.4

1) Determine all the possible values of p and (positives or

negatives) such that the contact between the two spheres is

maintained. Plot the result in a p vs axis.

2) Obtain the stresses in the each one of the two spheres for

those values.

Linear Elasticity > Plane Linear Elasticity

Plane Linear Elasticity

For some problems, i.e. geometry, loading and BCs, one of the

principal stress directions is known a priori, it does not play a

role in the formulation, and the problem may be formulated on

the plane defined by the other two principal directions.

associated to the a-priori known principal direction, the plane

linear elastic problem may be formulated on the x,y plane.

Variables associated to the z-axis, are either known or they can

be obtained as a post-process of the 2D results.

Linear Elasticity > Plane Linear Elasticity

Plane Linear Elasticity

Two cases of plane linear elastic problems may be considered,

Plane stress problems

Plane strain problems

(i) We will introduce the hypothesis on the appropriate field,

(ii) We will obtain the consequences on the remaining fields,

(iii) We will show up some typical examples

Linear Elasticity > Plane Linear Elasticity

Hypothesis on the Stress Field

H1. The components of the stress tensor take the form,

x xy 0

[ ] = xy y 0

0 0 0

H2. The non-zero components of the stress tensor take the form,

x = x ( x, y ) , y = y ( x, y ) , xy = xy ( x, y )

Linear Elasticity > Plane Linear Elasticity

Strain Field

Using the inverse constitutive equations, the strains take the

form,

1 1

x = ( x y ) , xy = xy

E G

1

y = ( y x ) , xz = 0

E

1

z = ( x + y ) , yz = 0

E

The following relation holds,

z =

1

( x +y )

October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 134

Linear Elasticity > Plane Linear Elasticity

Strain Field

Then, the strain field takes the form,

x 1

xy

2

0

1

[ ] = 2 xy y 0

0 0 z

such that,

x = x ( x, y ) , y = y ( x, y ) , xy = xy ( x, y )

and the following relation holds,

z ( x, y ) =

1

( ( x, y ) + ( x, y ) )

x y

Linear Elasticity > Plane Linear Elasticity

Plane Stress Constitutive Equation

The constitutive equation for plane stress linear elasticity may be

written in matrix form as,

x 1 0 x

E

y = 2

1 0 y

1 1

xy 0 0 xy

2

Linear Elasticity > Plane Linear Elasticity

Displacement Field

The in-plane components of the displacement field are obtained

integrating the in-plane components of the strain field,

ux u y ux u y

x ( x, y ) = , y ( x, y ) = , xy ( x, y ) = +

x y y x

yielding,

ux = ux ( x, y ) , u y = u y ( x, y )

Linear Elasticity > Plane Linear Elasticity

Displacement Field

The out-of-plane component of the displacements is obtained

integrating the out-of-plane component of the strain field,

u z

z ( x, y ) =

1

( x ( x, y ) + y ( x , y ) ) =

z

yielding,

u z = u z ( x, y , z )

Linear Elasticity > Plane Linear Elasticity

Displacement Field

The plane stress linear elastic problem should be viewed as an

ideal problem, which is not necessarily a particular case of the

3D linear elastic problem.

In particular, the following conditions are not necessarily

satisfied,

ux ( x, y ) uz ( x, y, z )

xz = + =0

z x

u y ( x, y ) uz ( x, y, z )

yz = + =0

z y

Linear Elasticity > Plane Linear Elasticity

Examples

t* e : t *

: t * = 0

b

+ : t * = 0

y superficie media

Linear Elasticity > Plane Linear Elasticity

Hypothesis on the Displacement Field

H1. The components of the displacement field take the form,

T

[u] = ux uy 0

H2. The non-zero components of the displacements take the

form,

u x = u x ( x, y ) , u y = u y ( x, y )

Linear Elasticity > Plane Linear Elasticity

Strain Field

Using the geometric equations, strains take the form,

ux u y ux u y

x ( x, y ) = , y ( x, y ) = , xy ( x, y ) = +

x y y x

u z

z = =0

z

ux uz u y uz

xz = + = 0, yz = + =0

z x z y

Linear Elasticity > Plane Linear Elasticity

Strain Field

Then the strain field takes the form,

x 1

2

xy 0

1

[ ] = 2 xy y 0

0 0 0

such that,

x = x ( x, y ) , y = y ( x, y ) , xy = xy ( x, y )

Linear Elasticity > Plane Linear Elasticity

Stress Field

Using the constitutive equations for linear elasticity, the stresses

take the form,

x = ( x + y ) + 2 x = ( + 2G ) x + y xy = G xy

y = ( x + y ) + 2 y = ( + 2G ) y + x xz = G xz = 0

z = ( x + y ) yz = G yz = 0

z =

2( + )

( x + y ) = ( x + y )

Linear Elasticity > Plane Linear Elasticity

Stress Field

Then, the stress field takes the form,

x xy 0

[ ] = xy y 0

0 0 z

such that,

x = x ( x, y ) , y = y ( x, y ) , xy = xy ( x, y )

z = z ( x, y ) =

2( + )

( x + y ) = ( x + y )

Linear Elasticity > Plane Linear Elasticity

Plane Strain Constitutive Equation

The constitutive equation for plane strain linear elasticity may be

written in matrix form as,

1 1

0

x x

E (1 )

y = 1 1 0 y

(1 + )(1 2 )

xy xy

0 1 2

0

2(1 )

z = z ( x, y ) =

2( + )

( x + y ) = ( x + y )

October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 146

Linear Elasticity > Plane Linear Elasticity

Examples

Seccin transversal

Seccin

transversal

Seccin transversal

Linear Elasticity > Plane Linear Elasticity

First Cauchy Motion Equation

The first Cauchy motion equation for a plane linear elastic IBVP,

either plane stress or plane strain linear elastic IBVP, may be

written as,

x xy 2u x

+ + 0bx = 0 2

x y t

2 in I

xy y uy

+ + 0by = 0 2

x y t

Linear Elasticity > Plane Linear Elasticity

Plane Linear Elastic Constitutive Equation

The constitutive equations for a plane linear elastic IBVP, either

plane stress or plane strain linear elastic IBVP, may be written as,

x 1 0 x

E

y = 2 1 0 y

1

xy

0 0 (1 ) 2 xy

E

E = E E = 1 2

Plane stress: Plane strain:

= =

(1 )

October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 149

Linear Elasticity > Plane Linear Elasticity

Kinematic or Geometric Equations

The kinematic or geometric equations for a plane linear elastic

IBVP, either plane stress or plane strain linear elastic IBVP, may

be written as,

u x u y u x u y

x = , y = , xy = +

x y y x

Linear Elasticity > Plane Linear Elasticity

Boundary Conditions

Boundary conditions for a plane linear elastic IBVP, either plane

stress or plane strain linear elastic IBVP, may be written as,

1. Prescribed displacements

u x u *x

= * on u I

u y u y

2. Prescribed tractions

x xy nx t x ( x, y , t )

*

= * on I

xy y n y t y ( x, y , t )

October 11, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 151

Linear Elasticity > Plane Linear Elasticity

Initial Conditions

Initial conditions for a plane linear elastic IBVP, either plane

stress or plane strain linear elastic IBVP, may be written as,

1. Initial displacements

u = 0 in

2. Initial velocities

u

= v 0 in

t

Linear Elasticity > Plane Linear Elasticity

Post-process of In-plane Results

While the solution for the plane linear elastic IBVP, either plane

stress or plane strain linear elastic IBVP, has been obtained the

following post-process of results yields,

1. For plane stress linear elastic IBVP (assuming u z z =0 = 0 )

z =

1

( x + y ) , uz =

1

( x +y )z

z =

2( + )

( x + y ) = ( x + y )

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