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The Most Comfortable HVAC System

The Most Efficient HVAC System


Safe and Sustainable
Greg Cunniff, P.E.
Manager of Application Engineering
Taco Comfort Systems

Cunniff holds undergraduate and graduate


degrees from Montana State University in aerospace
and mechanical engineering. Over the course of his
career he has been a consulting engineer, a
temperature controls contractor, a manufacturer's
rep and a design-build contractor. The author of
numerous published technical articles and white
papers, he also co-authored a college textbook,
Modern Geothermal HVAC: Engineering and
Controls Applications, published by McGraw-Hill
Education in 2013.
HYDRONICS
40% MORE EFFICIENT AND
40% COMFORTABLE THAN
VAV OR VRF SYSTEMS
System Comparison
VAV vs. Hydronics
Infosys Building Hyderabad, India
250,000 sq. ft. office building
West Side
VAV
East Side
Radiant Cooling and DOAS
System Comparison
System Comparison
Energy Conservation Measures
Better envelope
Daylighting and lighting controls
Radiant cooling HVAC system
System Efficiencies
Hydronic Radiant Cooling System 40% more efficient
than Air VAV system
System Comfort
40% Improvement in Comfort of Radiant
Cooling vs. VAV
System Costs
First Cost
System Comparison
VAV vs. Hydronics

376,000 sq. ft. call center in


Kentucky
Chilled beam system
188,000 sq. ft. office
building of similar
construction and occupancy
on same campus
VAV system
System Efficiencies
Hydronic Chilled Beam System 41% more efficient
than Air VAV system
Energy Consumption

3.5

2.5
KBTU/SQ. FT./YR

2
VAV
1.5
Chilled Beam
1

0.5

0
2008

Year
System Comfort
Hydronic Chilled Beam System 68% more comfortable
than Air VAV system
Comfort Complaints

120

100
COMPLAINTS

80

VAV
60 Chilled Beam

40

20

0
2014

YEAR
System Comparison
VRF vs. Hydronics
ASHRAE Headquarters Building - Atlanta, GA
First floor
VRF
Offices and classrooms
Second floor
Geothermal heat pump
Offices and meeting rooms
System Efficiencies

ASHRAE Headquarters Building


System Efficiencies
Hydronic Ground Source Heat Pump System
41% more efficient than Refrigerant VRF system

ASHRAE Headquarters Building


Cooling System Efficiencies

Energy Performance of
ASHRAE Headquarters
HVAC Systems
Part 1 - ASHRAE
Journal 9/14
Part 2 ASHRAE
Journal 12/14
Cooling System Efficiencies

GSHP IEER = 15.6


VRF IEER = 10.0

Constant Speed
Hydronic GSHP 36%
More Efficient Than
Variable Speed VRF
System
Cooling Season

ASHRAE Headquarters Building


Cooling System Efficiencies

Average Heat Sink


Temperatures
GSHP = 79F
Cooling Season
VRF = 79F

ASHRAE Headquarters Building


Cooling System Efficiencies
Published vs. Measured

48% Difference

ASHRAE Headquarters Building


Hydronics is More Efficient
100% Peak Power (Cooling)

76% Peak Power


Distribution
Systems - 45% Pumps 67% Peak Power
Fans Pumps
20%

Air Transport
Generation Load
Systems -55% 80%
Other Chiller
Loads
1 2 3
VAV Air Conventional Radiant Cooling
System Hydronic Chilled Beam
Systems Hydronic Systems
Distribution/Pumping Energy
Hydronic systems 15 times more efficient than refrigerant systems
Hydronic systems 10 times more efficient than air systems
Distribution/Pumping Energy
Hydronic
Air (Low Pressure VVT)
Air (Medium Pressure VAV)
Refrigerant (VRF)

35.0%
Compressor Horsepower

30.0%

25.0%
Percent of

20.0%

15.0%

10.0%

5.0%

0.0%
0 100 200 300 400 500

Pipe/Duct Length
Distribution/Pumping Energy

Maximum Velocities
Hydronic
Pipe = 6 fps
Air
Low Pressure Duct = 15 fps (900 fpm)
Medium Pressure Duct (VAV) = 40 fps (2500 fpm)
VRF
Liquid Pipe = 6 fps (360 fpm)
Suction Pipe = 66 fps (4000 fpm)
Distribution/Pumping Energy
VRF (Compressor) Horsepower
Compressor Pump HP for 200 ft. of refrigerant pipe
AHRI 1230 2013
Table 4. Refrigerant Line Length Correction Factors
Percentage of Compressor Power

Piping length beyond Piping length beyond Cooling Capacity


minimum, X (ft) minimum, Y (m) Correction, %
3.3 < X 20 1 < Y 6.1 1%
20 < X 40 6.1 < Y 12.2 2%
40 < X 60 12.2 < Y 18.3 3%
60 < X 80 18.3 < Y 24.4 4%
80 < X 100 24.4 < Y 30.5 5%
100 < X 120 30.5 < Y 36.6 6%

Compressor Pump HP percentage of compressor HP


= 200 ft x 6%/100 ft
= 12%
Distribution/Pumping Energy
AHRI Standard 1230 for rating VRF equipment
Testing standard requires only 25 of pipe for test
installation
Distribution/Pumping Energy
Manufacturers Engineering Data
Distribution/Pumping Energy
Manufacturers Marketing Data
Cooling System Efficiencies
Published vs. Measured
VRF System
Pumping Energy
AHRI Rating Conditions 25 ft. of pipe
Operating Conditions
= 300 ft. pipe x 6%/100 ft. x 1.3 eq. length = 22%
Entering Air Conditions
AHRI Rating Conditions 80 DB/67 WB (50% RH)
Operating Conditions 73 DB/61 WB (50% RH) = 8%
Oil Recovery Cycle = 2%
Total 32%
Ground Source Heat Pump System
Entering Air Conditions
AHRI Rating Conditions 80 DB/67 WB (50% RH)
Operating Conditions 73 DB/61 WB (50% RH) = 4%
Total 4%
ASHRAE Headquarters Building
Heating System Efficiencies VRF
Heating System Efficiencies VRF
System Efficiencies

ASHRAE Headquarters Building


Heating System Efficiencies
Geothermal Heat Pump Vs. VRF

6.0

5.0

4.0
Heating COP
Measured
Published
3.0

2.0

1.0 53% Difference 26% Difference

0.0
VRF Heating COP GSHP Heating COP
(Ducted Unit)

ASHRAE Headquarters Building


Heating System Efficiencies
DOE Study

Field Performance of Inverter-Driven


Heat Pumps in Cold Climates (7
Residential Installations)
Measurement of efficiency of VRF
heat pumps
Measurement of capacity of VRF
heat pumps
Heating System Efficiencies
Published vs. Measured
The results from this monitoring effort show a wide
range of performance with many systems performing
below expectations
1st Law of Thermodynamics

1st Law of Thermodynamics as Refrigeration Cycle


Efficiency = COP (Coefficient of Performance)
= Heat rejected (from space)/Work in
= DQin from space/DWin from compressor (dimensionless)
= TA/(TR TA)
Where
TR = Temperature of heat sink for rejected heat
Efficiency of refrigeration cycle is a function of the heat
sink temperature
Lower the heat sink temperature the higher the
efficiency
1st Law of Thermodynamics

1st Law of Thermodynamics as Refrigeration Cycle


Efficiency of Heat Sinks
Air Cooled
Dry bulb air temperature (95F to 110F)
Least efficient
Water Cooled
Wet bulb air temperature (65F to 80F)
More efficient
Earth Cooled/Geothermal
Ground temperature (50F to 75F)
Most efficient
1st Law of Thermodynamics
Increase in Efficiency for Variable Speed ~20%
Equipment Efficiencies
AHRI Heat Sink Rating Conditions for Part Load
Equipment AHRI Rating Ambient Testing Conditions (F)
Standard Designation
100% 75% 50% 25%
Part Load Part Load Part Load Part Load

Chillers, Air Cooled 550/590 IPLV 95 80 65 55


Chillers, Water Cooled 550/590 IPLV 85 75 65 65
Condensing Units, Air Source 365 IPLV 95 81.5 68 65
Heat Pump, Air Source 340/360 IEER 95 81.5 68 65
Heat Pump Geothermal (Closed) Water Loop Same as IEER 85 75 65 65
550/590
Heat Pump,Geothermal (Closed) Ground Loop 13256 IEER 77 77 77 77
Heat Pump, Geothermal (Open) Ground Water 13256 IEER 59 59 59 59
Variable Refrigerant Flow, Air Cooled 1230 IEER 95 81.5 68 65
Variable Refrigerant Flow, Water Cooled 1230 IEER 85 73.5 62 55
System Efficiencies
Part Load Chiller Efficiencies at AHRI Rating Conditions
Equipment Efficiencies
AHRI Rating Weighting Conditions for Part Load

Equipment AHRI Rating Weighting Factors


Standard Designation
100% 75% 50% 25%
Part Load Part Load Part Load Part Load

Chillers, Air Cooled 550/590 IPLV 0.01 0.42 0.45 0.12


Chillers, Water Cooled 550/590 IPLV 0.01 0.42 0.45 0.12
Condensing Unit, Air Cooled 365 IPLV 0.01 0.42 0.45 0.12
Heat Pump, Air Source 340/360 IEER 0.02 0.617 0.238 0.125
Variable Refrigerant Flow, Air Cooled 1230 IEER 0.02 0.617 0.238 0.125
Variable Refrigerant Flow, Water Cooled 1230 IEER 0.02 0.617 0.238 0.125
Equipment Efficiencies
AHRI Energy Source Inclusion for Part Load
Equipment AHRI Rating Energy Source Inclusion
Standard Designation
Condenser Evaporator Chilled Refrigerant Condenser Cooling
Fan Fan Water Pump Water Pump Tower
Pump Fan and
Pump

Chillers, Air Cooled 550/590 IPLV Yes No No


Chillers, Water Cooled 550/590 IPLV No No No No
Condensing Units, Air Cooled 365 IPLV Yes No
Heat Pump, Air Source 340/360 IEER Yes Yes
Heat Pump, Water Source 13256 IEER Yes No No
Heat Pump, Geothermal (Closed) Gound Loop 13256 IEER Yes No
Heat Pump, Geothermal (Open) Ground Water 13256 IEER Yes No
Rooftop Units 340/360 IEER Yes Yes
Variable Refrigerant Flow, Air Cooled 1230 IEER Yes Yes Minimal
Variable Refrigerant Flow, Water Cooled 1230 IEER Yes Minimal
Equipment Efficiencies
Energy Source Rerating for System IEER

Equipment AHRI Rating Energy Source Not Included


Standard Designation
Condenser Evaporator Chilled Refrigerant Condenser Cooling Total
Fan Fan Water Pump Water Pump Tower
(Constant Pump Fan and
Speed) Pump

Chillers, Air Cooled 550/590 IPLV 3.8% 2.9% 6.7%


Chillers, Water Cooled 550/590 IPLV 7.7% 5.7% 5.2% 0.6% 19.2%
Condensing Units, Air Cooled 365 IPLV 3.5% 3.5%
Heat Pump, Air Source 340/360 IEER 0.0%
Heat Pump, Water Source 13256 IEER 4.8% 0.6% 5.4%
Heat Pump, Geothermal (Closed) Gound Loop 13256 IEER 6.9% 6.9%
Heat Pump, Geothermal (Open) Ground Water 13256 IEER 14.0% 14.0%
Rooftop Units 340/360 IEER 0.0% 0.0%
Variable Refrigerant Flow, Air Cooled 1230 IEER 15.6% 15.6%
Variable Refrigerant Flow, Water Cooled 1230 IEER 15.6% 2.8% 0.3% 18.8%
System Efficiencies
Cooling Cooling Cooling Heating
Equip. Equip. System System
System EER IPLV IEER IEER HSPF

Air Cooled Systems

Condensing Units
Constant Speed 11 14 13
Rooftop Units
Constant Speed 11 13 12
Variable Speed 13 19 18
Chillers
Constant Speed 12 16 15
Variable Speed 12 20 19
VRF
Variable Speed 13 20 16 8
System Efficiencies
Cooling Cooling Cooling Heating
Equip. Equip. System System
System EER IPLV IEER IEER HSPF

Water Cooled Systems

Chillers
Constant Speed 24 30 23
Variable Speed 25 40 31
Heat Pumps
Constant Speed 22 28 25 19
Variable Speed 22 33 30 19
VRF
Variable Speed 14 24 20 8
System Efficiencies
Cooling Cooling Cooling Heating
Equip. Equip. System System
System EER IPLV IEER IEER HSPF

Earth/Geothermal Cooled Systems

Heat Pumps
Closed Loop
Constant Speed 22 28 26 14
Variable Speed 34 34 32 15
Open Loop
Constant Speed 22 35 30 14
Variable Speed 34 46 40 15
QUESTIONS?