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1. Per Unit Representation: Per unit quantities, advantages of per unit system on line diagrams
and preparation of impedance diagram.
2. Fault Calculations: Symmetrical faults, symmetrical components, un symmetrical faults on
power system, Z-bus building algorithm, Fault calculation to generalized three phase fault.
3. Electromagnetic Relays: Basic requirements of protective relaying, classification of relays,
non directional over-current and directional over current relay, differential and protection,
distance relays, carrier current protection, power apparatus protection of bus bar, feeder, feeder
and transmission line protection; alternator and transformer protection.
4. Static Relays: Basic components of static relays, logic circuits, smoothing circuit, voltage
regulators, square-wave generator, time delay circuits, level detectors, summation devices,
sampling circuits, zero crossing detector, output devices. Amplitude comparator and phase
comparator, over current and directional over current static relay, static distance relay schemes.
Microprocessor and interfacing microprocessor based over current relay, impedance relay,
directional relay, distance relays mho and off set mho relays.
5. Circuit Breakers: Properties of arc, restriking and recovery voltage, current chopping,
interruption of capacitive current, rating of circuit breakers, Classification of circuit breaker and
their functioning, selection of circuit breakers and recent developments in circuit breakers.
6. Introduction to intelligent protection.
1. Power System Protection, Static Relays by TSM Rao
2. Power System Protection and Switchgear by Ravindernath & M Chander
3. Power System Protection and Switchgear by B Ram & DN Vishwakaram
4. Power System Protection, Static Relays by MA date, Bhuvnash Oza & NC Nair,
5. Switchgear and Protection by Sunil S Rao
6. Elements of Power System Analysis by WD Stevenson

1. Polyphase Induction Machines: Construction, principle of operation, slip, phasor diagram,
equivalent circuits, expression for torque, and output power, slip torque characteristics, effect of
variation of supply voltage and rotor resistance on the characteristics, Circle diagram.
Predetermination of characteristics from the circuit diagram, Drawing circle diagram from
design parameters and no load and blocked rotor test data. Starting of Induction motors, Direct
on line starter, Star-Delta starter and autotransformer starter for cage induction motor, Rotor
resistance starter for slip ring induction motor. Speed control of induction motor by varying
supply voltage, supply frequency and pole changing, speed control of slip ring induction motor
by varying rotor resistance.
2. Special Machines: High torque induction motor, double cage and deep bar rotor construction.
Mains operated and self excited induction generators. Hysteresis motor, Reluctance motor and
Stepper motor, brushless motors.
3. Single Phase Induction Motors: Principle of operation, double revolving field theory,
Equivalent circuit, performance calculations and characteristics, Starting methods, Maximum
starting torque conditions in single-phase induction motors.
4. Synchronous Machine: Types of Exciters for synchronous machines, MMF and EMF phasor
diagrams for cylindrical rotor synchronous machines, Armature reaction open and short circuit
characteristics, Leakage reactances, Synchronous reactance, Phasor diagram under loaded
conditions, Load characteristics, Predetermination of regulation by EMF and Portier triangle
methods for non-salient pole alternators. Steady state power flow equations, Power angle
characteristics, Constant excitation and constant power output, Circle diagram for synchronous
machines. Two reaction theory for salient pole alternators and pre-determination for regulation,
slip test, V curves, inverted V curves, Compounding curves for synchronous motors.
Synchronizing power, synchronizing torque, Hunting and its suppression, Starting of
synchronous motor, Synchronous condenser.
5. Parallel Operation of Alternators: Synchronizing, Synchroscope, Parallel operation of
alternators, Alternator on infinite bus bar, Effect of change of excitation and prime mover inputs,
Expressions for power developed as a function of torque angle, maximum power.
1. Electrical Machinery by P.S. Bhimbra.
2. Electrical Machinery by Fitzerald, Kingsley and Uman.
3. Theory of A.C. Machines by A.S.Langsdorf.
4. The performance and Design of Alternating current-machines by M.G.Say.