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REVIEW OF RELATED STUDIES AND LITERATURE

This chapter covers the review for the related literature and studies
that shows partly the relationship with the previous study regarding on CSTA
Computerized Enrollment System, which also shown as a reference because
of some facts of written materials that is relevant in this study with this
proposed system, it will innovate the processing of enrollment system that
will be great benefit to all.

Related Literature
All of studies and literature are derived from the book entitled IELTS
Review Center Enrollment System published on April 2014, pages 9-16 for
the AMA University.
The researcher named (Pablio, Mark Joseph G.) said It is important
to search of reviewing foreign and local related literature that will truly give
the proponent a complete comprehension of what really their study is all
about it will provide more concepts about ways of designing and carrying
out the study effectively.

Local Literature
(1) According to S.K. Bansal in his book entitled Textbook of
information technology, 2013
File processing is adequate for many information System, and in fact.
It has been the backbone of the computer industry for many years. For some
applicants, however, it has disadvantages. First observed that the data is
duplicated such duplication is waste file space. There is an even more serious
disadvantage. When the same date is stored in two or more places, the
possibility exist that the values will come to disagree with one another.
Suppose, for example that an employee master and payroll master, the
phone number files must be changed in two files. It is changed in one but
not in the other data, a data identity problem is created.
In this simple case, it seems easy to prevent integrity problem, in more
realistic and complex situation, however, where there are thousands of
records and many files such problem can become difficult to have further,
one data integrity has been lost, it is difficult to regain.
A second disadvantage of file processing is the difficulty pf relating
records in one file to records in another, Suppose the user wants to produce
reports that have fields from two
files. With file processing, one way to do there duplicate the data from one
file in the other. This approach however, generates considerable duplicates
data and hence inefficient and impractical. Another way is a combined a data
from the two files. Since those files are separate, this will be a very difficult
task another program must be written to extract the appropriate data from
each file and combine in into a third file.
This alternative is time consuming and costly because of the problem
of duplicated data and they need for data integration, file processing is
gradually being replaced by the second type of data processing called
database processing.

(2) According to Kenneth and Julie Kendall on their book entitled


System Analysis and designed, 2011
Management information system do not replace transaction
processing system rather, all the include transaction processing.
Management information system are computerized information system that
work because of purposeful interaction between people and computers. By
requiring people software, and hardware to function in concert, management
information system supports users in accomplishing a broader spectrum of
organizational tasks than transaction process systems, including decision
analysis and decision making.
To access information, users of the management information system
share a common database. The database stores both data and Module that
help the user interact with interpret, and apply that data. management
information
system output information that is use in decision making. a management
information system can also help integrate some of the computerized
information function of a business.

(3) According to Thomas Connoly and Caroline Begg on their book


entitled Database Systems a practical approached to design, implement
and management -5th edition 2011.
Tries database is now the underlying framework of the information
system and has fundamentally changed the way many organizations
operate.
The database is now such an integral part of our day to-day life that
often we are not aware that we are using one. Database is to be a collection
of related data and database management system to the software the
manages and controls access to the database. A database application is
simply a program that interacts with the database at some point in the
execution.

(4) According to Dimitris Karagiannis on his book entitled Database


and Expert Systems Applications, 2012
A real time database has two distinguishing features: the notion of
temporally consistent data, and the ability to place real time constraint on
transactions. These features are useful to time critical application that need
to collect, modify and retrieve shared data.
Information retrieval and management has been a major field of
computing for a long time, this is evident for the rapid development and
widespread use of database management system, which are well suited for
a variety of business applications.