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Experimental Research of Vibration Characteristics of

Shunt Reactor
S. Chen, F. H. Wang L. Su
Department of Electrical Engineering Condition Evaluation Center
Shanghai Jiaotong University Shanghai Electric Power Research Institute
Shanghai, China Shanghai, China
csongsk@126.com dsy_sul@ec.sgcc.com.cn

AbstractThe widely developed and used HVDC transmission DC bias [2]. DC current intruding the windings will distort the
systems will cause DC bias phenomenon occurred in some magnetic field intensity of the reactor core and alter the
electromagnetic facilities of power grids with the results of working point of the reactor core, which can cause high order
several negative effects on the secure and reliable operation, harmonic in the grid, severe vibration, great noise and high
including vibrations and noises. However, there has been few temperature of the reactor. There are mainly two reasons
studies regarding the influence DC bias has on shunt reactors. responsible for the vibration of a reactor: magnetostriction and
To fully explore the vibration characteristic of a shunt reactor magnetic force [3], and a mechanical model of a shunt reactor
and then reduce its vibration, this paper discusses the shows that the vibration frequency is the same as the
experimental results of a shunt reactor under different voltages,
frequency of the magnetic force [4]. The design and testing of
currents and additional DC currents. Through the experiment
and following analysis, we found that the vibration intensity
high-voltage shunt reactors is discussed [5]. Vibration analysis
rises with the increase of voltage, current and additional DC and methods to reduce vibrations is discussed [6]. The
current and the frequency spectrum of vibration changes as well. vibration analysis of an air-core type shunt reactor and design
Then a characteristic quantity of the vibration frequency is technology for vibration control is developed [7]. Some
introduced to reflect the working condition of a shunt reactor. analyses regarding the DC bias phenomenon on transformers
This experimental analysis is helpful for developing on-line are discussed [8]-[10]. But few researches have been done
monitoring system for shunt reactors. involving the DC bias phenomenon on a shunt reactor. This
paper analysis the vibration characteristics of a shunt reactor
Index Terms--DC Bias, FFT, shunt reactor, vibrations under different conditions and find a way to monitor the
reactor through its vibrations.
I. INTRODUCTION Since vibrations are one of the important parameters of

T HE higher voltage class the power grid is, the more


capacitive reactive power the power grid will produce,
which will cause voltage rise of the transmission lines. In
reactor concerned by manufacturer and electric utilities,
several experiments are designed and made for a 10kV reactor
to obtain its vibration features under different DC current. The
order to optimize the voltage of power grid, shunt reactors are vibration signals are measured by the developed vibration test
needed to compensate capacitive reactive power. However, systems. This paper investigates the relationship between
vibration intensity of a shunt reactor is usually severer than vibration intensity and different conditions by using FFT and
that of a transformer, which will influence the performance of analyzing its frequency spectrum. Then a characteristic
the shunt reactor as well as produce large noise. Therefore, it quantity of the vibration frequency is introduced to reflect the
is necessary to investigate the vibration characteristics of a working condition of a shunt reactor. By monitoring this
shunt reactor under different conditions. characteristic quantity, we can know when a shunt reactor has
a problem and what problem that might be.
As the HVDC transmission systems been widely utilized
in China, the interference they bring to the AC power grids II. THEORETICAL ANALYSIS OF THE VIBRATION OF A
should be investigated. DC bias, for example, will severely SHUNT REACTOR
disturb the facilities of AC power grids. If a HVDC
transmission system is running in double-pole unbalanced A. Vibration Causation
operation mode or monopole earth loop operation mode, there The vibration of a shunt reactor is usually severer than that
will be dc current flow in the ground, causing potential of a transformer, which is a result of shunt reactor's unique
difference between facilities in different places, which will structure.
cause dc current flowing in facilities like transformers and
shunt reactors if their neutral points are grounded [1]. Fig.1 shows the structure of a typical dry-type iron-core
Geomagnetically induced current (GIC) is also responsible for shunt reactor. In order to stabilize inductance value of a shunt

The National Natural Science Found of China(51207090)

978-1-4799-6415-4/14/$31.00 2014 IEEE


reactor, there are gaps between the iron cores, which will where {F} = [Pcos (4ft+), 0, , 0]T, f is the current
increase magnetic leakage flux in the core and result in severer frequency of 50Hz, P is the amplitude of the force. The
vibration. There are two main reasons responsible for the particular solution of this equation is represented as follow:
vibration [3]. One of the reasons is magnetostriction, which
will lead to vibration of the iron core at a frequency of twice { X } = [ X1 cos ( 4 ft +1 ) , X2 cos ( 4 ft +2 ) , , (3)
of the current frequency. The other reason is magnetic force X N cos ( 4 ft + N )]T
between the cores. The cores in the magnetic field attract each
other all the time, which causes vibration in the iron core. And This particular solution indicates that when a reactor is
because the magnetic force is in proportion to the square of under the influence of magnetostriction and magnetic force,
magnetic flux density, the vibration frequency is supposed to the vibration frequency of any point in the reactor is identical
be twice of the current frequency. The frequency of a Chinese to the frequency of magnetostriction and magnetic force,
power grid is 50Hz, so the vibration frequency of a shunt which is 100Hz in this case.
reactor should mainly be around 100Hz.
C. Influence of DC Bias on Reactor Vibration
When DC bias current flows through the winding of a
reactor, it will add an additional constant magnetic flux to the
magnetic flux in the core, which will cause half wave
saturation of the core flux. The working point of the reactor
core is altered and magnetic field intensity of the core is
distorted. More specifically, the amplitude of magnetic flux
increases and harmonics are produced due to the nonlinearity
of the core. The vibration of a reactor is mainly a result of
magnetostriction and magnetic force, which links to magnetic
flux of core. In the vibration model, the DC current changes
the amplitude and frequency of magnetic force {F}, which can
Fig.1 Structure of a dry-type iron-core shunt reactor
be represented as follow:
B. Mechanical Model of a Shunt Reactor {F} = [P1 cos ( 4 ft +1 ) + P2 cos (8 ft +2 ) ++
Fig.2 shows the vibration model of a reactor [4]. The (4)
Pn cos ( 4n ft + n ) ,0, ,0]T
differential equation of a vibration system under uncontrolled
condition is represented as follow: The particular solution {X} will also has some increase in
amplitude and high order frequency component. Therefore DC
[ M ]{ X&&} + [ K ]{ X } = 0 (1) bias current will cause severe vibration of the reactor and
influence its performance.
where [M] is the matrix of structure mass, [K] is the matrix of
structure rigidity, { X&& } is a column vector of generalized III. EXPERIMENT DESCRIPTION
acceleration, and {X} is a column vector of generalized
displacement. The experiment object is a 10kV three-phase dry-type
iron-core shunt reactor with the type of BKSC-10000/10. This
very reactor has a rated capacity of 10000kvar, a rated voltage
of 10500V, a rated current of 549.9A and a rated frequency of
50Hz. The measured impedance of this shunt reactor is 11.02
. Fig.3 is the schematic representation of experiment circuit.
In the figure, T2 is an intermediate transformer acting as a
voltage regulator. T1 is a transformer with a transformation
ratio of 35kV/10kV. L2 is an air-core coil. In this experiment,
a series of tests were done to investigate the vibration
characteristics of a reactor under the conditions of different
voltages, different currents and different additional DC
currents.
To measure the vibration of the reactor, two vibration
sensors were used. The arrangement of these sensors is
Fig.2 The vibration model of a reactor
shown in Fig.4. Sensor No.1 is a DH311E three-dimensional
When a shunt reactor is running in a power grid, vibration sensor, which has a measurement unit of m/s2.
magnetostriction and magnetic force act on the iron, so the Sensor No.2 is a PCB vibration sensor, which has a
right side of the equation should be replaced by {F}, where {F} measurement unit of g. The sampling PCB vibration sensor
represent the force act on the iron core. The equation frequency of these sensors is 20000Hz.The three-dimensional
considering {F} is represented as follow: vibration sensor has three output data, which makes the
[ M ] { X } + [ K ]{ X } = { F }
&& (2) system altogether having four output channels.
K
T2 T1
L2

uac L1

Fig.3 Schematic of the test system for the shunt reactor

Fig.6 Vibration waveform in the X direction of sensor No.1 and spectrum

Fig.4 Location of sensors on the reactor

IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS


A. Vibrations of the Reactor Without DC Current or Air-
core Coil in the System

Fig.7 Vibration waveform in the Y direction of sensor No.1 and spectrum

Fig.5 Vibration waveform in PCB vibration sensor and spectrum

Fig.5-Fig.8 show the vibration waveform of the shunt


reactor both in time domain and in frequency domain. The
voltage value is 35kV and there is no DC current or air-core
coil in the system. It is seen that the frequency component of Fig.8 Vibration waveform in the Z direction of sensor No.1 and spectrum
100Hz appeals to occupy most of the frequency domain and
the 100Hz component plus its high order harmonics dominate B. Vibrations of the Reactor with 4A DC Current but
the frequency domain in correspondence with the vibration Without Air-core Coil in the System
analysis above. Frequency component higher than 600Hz
Fig.9 shows the vibration waveform of the shunt reactor
barely exists.
recorded in the X direction of the DH311E vibration sensor
under 35kV voltage value and 4A DC current. As the figure
presents, the waveform is distorted and no longer axial
symmetry. The amplitude of vibration under DC current is
larger than that of no DC current and the high order harmonics
increase as well.

Fig.11 100Hz component value of the reactor with and without the air-core
coil in the system

D. Characteristic Quantity of Vibrations


In order to predict the value of DC current based on the
Fig.9 Vibration waveform in the X direction of sensor No.1 and spectrum vibration values recorded, a characteristic quantity should be
under 4A DC current
defined. According to the test results and the following
C. Relationship between 100Hz Component and the processing, we come up with a variable K as the characteristic
Voltages and Currents of Reactor quantity. The test results show that the X direction of the
DH311E vibration sensor is mostly affected by the DC current.
The vibration analysis indicates that the 100Hz frequency While the high order harmonics increase as the DC current
component is the major component of the frequency domain, increases, the frequency component of 100Hz increases even
so the value of 100Hz component can largely represent the quicker. So we can predict the DC current by calculating the
vibration intensity of a reactor. Fig.10 shows the variation of proportion of 100Hz component among the sum of 100Hz,
the 100Hz component value of the reactor under different 200Hz and 300Hz. We define K as the proportion of 100Hz
voltage values. As the figure shows, the value of 100Hz component among the sum of 100Hz, 200Hz and 300Hz.
component rises as the voltage rises. Fig.11 shows the 100Hz
component value of the reactor with and without the air-core K=P100/ (P100+P200+P300) (4)
coil in the system. The voltage value is 35kV when the where P100 is the 100Hz component of vibration, P200 is the
waveform is recorded. When an air-core coil is connected in 200Hz component of vibration and P300 is the 300Hz
the test system, the current flow through the reactor will component of vibration,
reduce, and so is the 100Hz component value. When voltage
value or current value rises, magnetic flux density in the iron The higher the value of K is, the larger amount of DC
core of the reactor increases, which will lead to larger current will flow through the reactor. The relationship
electromagnetic force and severer magnetostriction, and between K and DC current is shown in Fig.12. Moreover, we
inevitably excessive vibration of the reactor. find that K also varies with the voltage and current values. The
value of K increases as the drops of voltage value or current
value. The relationship between K and values of voltage and
current is shown in Fig.13-14.
When the reactor is running under regular condition, the
value of K is around 57.44 according to the test results. If the
value of K increases, the reactor is likely to have DC current
flowed through or the voltage or current of the power grid
suddenly dropped. Then we can check the voltage and current
value of the power grid, if they appear to be normal, there is a
great possibility that DC current has flowed through the
reactor. If the value of K decreases, it may be the result of the
increase of voltage or current value in the power grid. In both
case, there is something wrong in the reactor system and an
inspection is needed. We provide a reference K value of 56 to
59 as a safe zone for this very type of reactor, once the K
value is out of the safe zone, there is probably something
wrong in the reactor system and further inspection is needed to
Fig.10 100Hz component value of the reactor under different voltages determine the causation.
voltages, currents and DC bias currents. The amplitude of
the vibration increases with the rise of voltages, currents
and additional DC currents. The frequency components of
vibrations are mainly 100Hz and its high order harmonics
and the 100Hz component increases quicker than its high
order harmonics under higher additional DC currents or
lower voltages or currents.
2) In order to monitor a reactor using its vibration data, a
characteristic quantity K is introduced. The value of K
increases with the rise of DC bias currents or the reduction
of voltages and currents. By monitor the value of K, we can
acquire the working condition of a shunt reactor and
respond in time when something goes wrong.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
Fig.12 Relationship between K and DC current

THE AUTHORS GRATEFULLY ACKNOWLEDGE THE FINANCIAL


SUPPORTS TO THIS RESEARCH WORK FROM BY THE NATIONAL
NATURAL SCIENCE FOUND OF CHINA
(51207090).REFERENCES
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Fig.14 Relationship between K and current

V. CONCLUSION
1) The experiment analysis on shunt reactor indicates that
vibration of a shunt reactor is deeply influenced by its