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Reactors, Vibration

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Shunt Reactor

S. Chen, F. H. Wang L. Su

Department of Electrical Engineering Condition Evaluation Center

Shanghai Jiaotong University Shanghai Electric Power Research Institute

Shanghai, China Shanghai, China

csongsk@126.com dsy_sul@ec.sgcc.com.cn

AbstractThe widely developed and used HVDC transmission DC bias [2]. DC current intruding the windings will distort the

systems will cause DC bias phenomenon occurred in some magnetic field intensity of the reactor core and alter the

electromagnetic facilities of power grids with the results of working point of the reactor core, which can cause high order

several negative effects on the secure and reliable operation, harmonic in the grid, severe vibration, great noise and high

including vibrations and noises. However, there has been few temperature of the reactor. There are mainly two reasons

studies regarding the influence DC bias has on shunt reactors. responsible for the vibration of a reactor: magnetostriction and

To fully explore the vibration characteristic of a shunt reactor magnetic force [3], and a mechanical model of a shunt reactor

and then reduce its vibration, this paper discusses the shows that the vibration frequency is the same as the

experimental results of a shunt reactor under different voltages,

frequency of the magnetic force [4]. The design and testing of

currents and additional DC currents. Through the experiment

and following analysis, we found that the vibration intensity

high-voltage shunt reactors is discussed [5]. Vibration analysis

rises with the increase of voltage, current and additional DC and methods to reduce vibrations is discussed [6]. The

current and the frequency spectrum of vibration changes as well. vibration analysis of an air-core type shunt reactor and design

Then a characteristic quantity of the vibration frequency is technology for vibration control is developed [7]. Some

introduced to reflect the working condition of a shunt reactor. analyses regarding the DC bias phenomenon on transformers

This experimental analysis is helpful for developing on-line are discussed [8]-[10]. But few researches have been done

monitoring system for shunt reactors. involving the DC bias phenomenon on a shunt reactor. This

paper analysis the vibration characteristics of a shunt reactor

Index Terms--DC Bias, FFT, shunt reactor, vibrations under different conditions and find a way to monitor the

reactor through its vibrations.

I. INTRODUCTION Since vibrations are one of the important parameters of

capacitive reactive power the power grid will produce,

which will cause voltage rise of the transmission lines. In

reactor concerned by manufacturer and electric utilities,

several experiments are designed and made for a 10kV reactor

to obtain its vibration features under different DC current. The

order to optimize the voltage of power grid, shunt reactors are vibration signals are measured by the developed vibration test

needed to compensate capacitive reactive power. However, systems. This paper investigates the relationship between

vibration intensity of a shunt reactor is usually severer than vibration intensity and different conditions by using FFT and

that of a transformer, which will influence the performance of analyzing its frequency spectrum. Then a characteristic

the shunt reactor as well as produce large noise. Therefore, it quantity of the vibration frequency is introduced to reflect the

is necessary to investigate the vibration characteristics of a working condition of a shunt reactor. By monitoring this

shunt reactor under different conditions. characteristic quantity, we can know when a shunt reactor has

a problem and what problem that might be.

As the HVDC transmission systems been widely utilized

in China, the interference they bring to the AC power grids II. THEORETICAL ANALYSIS OF THE VIBRATION OF A

should be investigated. DC bias, for example, will severely SHUNT REACTOR

disturb the facilities of AC power grids. If a HVDC

transmission system is running in double-pole unbalanced A. Vibration Causation

operation mode or monopole earth loop operation mode, there The vibration of a shunt reactor is usually severer than that

will be dc current flow in the ground, causing potential of a transformer, which is a result of shunt reactor's unique

difference between facilities in different places, which will structure.

cause dc current flowing in facilities like transformers and

shunt reactors if their neutral points are grounded [1]. Fig.1 shows the structure of a typical dry-type iron-core

Geomagnetically induced current (GIC) is also responsible for shunt reactor. In order to stabilize inductance value of a shunt

reactor, there are gaps between the iron cores, which will where {F} = [Pcos (4ft+), 0, , 0]T, f is the current

increase magnetic leakage flux in the core and result in severer frequency of 50Hz, P is the amplitude of the force. The

vibration. There are two main reasons responsible for the particular solution of this equation is represented as follow:

vibration [3]. One of the reasons is magnetostriction, which

will lead to vibration of the iron core at a frequency of twice { X } = [ X1 cos ( 4 ft +1 ) , X2 cos ( 4 ft +2 ) , , (3)

of the current frequency. The other reason is magnetic force X N cos ( 4 ft + N )]T

between the cores. The cores in the magnetic field attract each

other all the time, which causes vibration in the iron core. And This particular solution indicates that when a reactor is

because the magnetic force is in proportion to the square of under the influence of magnetostriction and magnetic force,

magnetic flux density, the vibration frequency is supposed to the vibration frequency of any point in the reactor is identical

be twice of the current frequency. The frequency of a Chinese to the frequency of magnetostriction and magnetic force,

power grid is 50Hz, so the vibration frequency of a shunt which is 100Hz in this case.

reactor should mainly be around 100Hz.

C. Influence of DC Bias on Reactor Vibration

When DC bias current flows through the winding of a

reactor, it will add an additional constant magnetic flux to the

magnetic flux in the core, which will cause half wave

saturation of the core flux. The working point of the reactor

core is altered and magnetic field intensity of the core is

distorted. More specifically, the amplitude of magnetic flux

increases and harmonics are produced due to the nonlinearity

of the core. The vibration of a reactor is mainly a result of

magnetostriction and magnetic force, which links to magnetic

flux of core. In the vibration model, the DC current changes

the amplitude and frequency of magnetic force {F}, which can

Fig.1 Structure of a dry-type iron-core shunt reactor

be represented as follow:

B. Mechanical Model of a Shunt Reactor {F} = [P1 cos ( 4 ft +1 ) + P2 cos (8 ft +2 ) ++

Fig.2 shows the vibration model of a reactor [4]. The (4)

Pn cos ( 4n ft + n ) ,0, ,0]T

differential equation of a vibration system under uncontrolled

condition is represented as follow: The particular solution {X} will also has some increase in

amplitude and high order frequency component. Therefore DC

[ M ]{ X&&} + [ K ]{ X } = 0 (1) bias current will cause severe vibration of the reactor and

influence its performance.

where [M] is the matrix of structure mass, [K] is the matrix of

structure rigidity, { X&& } is a column vector of generalized III. EXPERIMENT DESCRIPTION

acceleration, and {X} is a column vector of generalized

displacement. The experiment object is a 10kV three-phase dry-type

iron-core shunt reactor with the type of BKSC-10000/10. This

very reactor has a rated capacity of 10000kvar, a rated voltage

of 10500V, a rated current of 549.9A and a rated frequency of

50Hz. The measured impedance of this shunt reactor is 11.02

. Fig.3 is the schematic representation of experiment circuit.

In the figure, T2 is an intermediate transformer acting as a

voltage regulator. T1 is a transformer with a transformation

ratio of 35kV/10kV. L2 is an air-core coil. In this experiment,

a series of tests were done to investigate the vibration

characteristics of a reactor under the conditions of different

voltages, different currents and different additional DC

currents.

To measure the vibration of the reactor, two vibration

sensors were used. The arrangement of these sensors is

Fig.2 The vibration model of a reactor

shown in Fig.4. Sensor No.1 is a DH311E three-dimensional

When a shunt reactor is running in a power grid, vibration sensor, which has a measurement unit of m/s2.

magnetostriction and magnetic force act on the iron, so the Sensor No.2 is a PCB vibration sensor, which has a

right side of the equation should be replaced by {F}, where {F} measurement unit of g. The sampling PCB vibration sensor

represent the force act on the iron core. The equation frequency of these sensors is 20000Hz.The three-dimensional

considering {F} is represented as follow: vibration sensor has three output data, which makes the

[ M ] { X } + [ K ]{ X } = { F }

&& (2) system altogether having four output channels.

K

T2 T1

L2

uac L1

A. Vibrations of the Reactor Without DC Current or Air-

core Coil in the System

reactor both in time domain and in frequency domain. The

voltage value is 35kV and there is no DC current or air-core

coil in the system. It is seen that the frequency component of Fig.8 Vibration waveform in the Z direction of sensor No.1 and spectrum

100Hz appeals to occupy most of the frequency domain and

the 100Hz component plus its high order harmonics dominate B. Vibrations of the Reactor with 4A DC Current but

the frequency domain in correspondence with the vibration Without Air-core Coil in the System

analysis above. Frequency component higher than 600Hz

Fig.9 shows the vibration waveform of the shunt reactor

barely exists.

recorded in the X direction of the DH311E vibration sensor

under 35kV voltage value and 4A DC current. As the figure

presents, the waveform is distorted and no longer axial

symmetry. The amplitude of vibration under DC current is

larger than that of no DC current and the high order harmonics

increase as well.

Fig.11 100Hz component value of the reactor with and without the air-core

coil in the system

In order to predict the value of DC current based on the

Fig.9 Vibration waveform in the X direction of sensor No.1 and spectrum vibration values recorded, a characteristic quantity should be

under 4A DC current

defined. According to the test results and the following

C. Relationship between 100Hz Component and the processing, we come up with a variable K as the characteristic

Voltages and Currents of Reactor quantity. The test results show that the X direction of the

DH311E vibration sensor is mostly affected by the DC current.

The vibration analysis indicates that the 100Hz frequency While the high order harmonics increase as the DC current

component is the major component of the frequency domain, increases, the frequency component of 100Hz increases even

so the value of 100Hz component can largely represent the quicker. So we can predict the DC current by calculating the

vibration intensity of a reactor. Fig.10 shows the variation of proportion of 100Hz component among the sum of 100Hz,

the 100Hz component value of the reactor under different 200Hz and 300Hz. We define K as the proportion of 100Hz

voltage values. As the figure shows, the value of 100Hz component among the sum of 100Hz, 200Hz and 300Hz.

component rises as the voltage rises. Fig.11 shows the 100Hz

component value of the reactor with and without the air-core K=P100/ (P100+P200+P300) (4)

coil in the system. The voltage value is 35kV when the where P100 is the 100Hz component of vibration, P200 is the

waveform is recorded. When an air-core coil is connected in 200Hz component of vibration and P300 is the 300Hz

the test system, the current flow through the reactor will component of vibration,

reduce, and so is the 100Hz component value. When voltage

value or current value rises, magnetic flux density in the iron The higher the value of K is, the larger amount of DC

core of the reactor increases, which will lead to larger current will flow through the reactor. The relationship

electromagnetic force and severer magnetostriction, and between K and DC current is shown in Fig.12. Moreover, we

inevitably excessive vibration of the reactor. find that K also varies with the voltage and current values. The

value of K increases as the drops of voltage value or current

value. The relationship between K and values of voltage and

current is shown in Fig.13-14.

When the reactor is running under regular condition, the

value of K is around 57.44 according to the test results. If the

value of K increases, the reactor is likely to have DC current

flowed through or the voltage or current of the power grid

suddenly dropped. Then we can check the voltage and current

value of the power grid, if they appear to be normal, there is a

great possibility that DC current has flowed through the

reactor. If the value of K decreases, it may be the result of the

increase of voltage or current value in the power grid. In both

case, there is something wrong in the reactor system and an

inspection is needed. We provide a reference K value of 56 to

59 as a safe zone for this very type of reactor, once the K

value is out of the safe zone, there is probably something

wrong in the reactor system and further inspection is needed to

Fig.10 100Hz component value of the reactor under different voltages determine the causation.

voltages, currents and DC bias currents. The amplitude of

the vibration increases with the rise of voltages, currents

and additional DC currents. The frequency components of

vibrations are mainly 100Hz and its high order harmonics

and the 100Hz component increases quicker than its high

order harmonics under higher additional DC currents or

lower voltages or currents.

2) In order to monitor a reactor using its vibration data, a

characteristic quantity K is introduced. The value of K

increases with the rise of DC bias currents or the reduction

of voltages and currents. By monitor the value of K, we can

acquire the working condition of a shunt reactor and

respond in time when something goes wrong.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

Fig.12 Relationship between K and DC current

SUPPORTS TO THIS RESEARCH WORK FROM BY THE NATIONAL

NATURAL SCIENCE FOUND OF CHINA

(51207090).REFERENCES

[1] B. Zhang, J. Zhao, R. Zeng, and J. He, "Numerical analysis of DC

current distribution in AC power system near HVDC system," IEEE

Trans. Power Del., vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 960965, Apr. 2008.

[2] C. M. Liu, L. G. Liu, and R. Pirjola, "Geomagnetically induced currents

in the high-voltage power grid in china," IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol.

24, no. 4, pp. 23682374, Oct. 2009.

[3] L. J. Wang, and C. Dong, "Analysis and monitor of the vibration of the

transformer and shunt reactor," Yunnan Electric Power., vol. 40, pp.70-

71, Feb. 2012.

[4] S. Liu, L. F. Xu, Y. X. Feng, L. L. Fan, Y. La, and Z. Yao, "Research

on vibration of 10kV dry-type shunt reactor with core," Transformer.,

vol. 46, pp.31-34, Sept. 2009.

[5] M. Christoffel, "The design and testing of EHV shunt reactors," IEEE

Fig.13 Relationship between K and voltage Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems., vol. pas-86, no. 6, pp.

684692, June. 1967.

[6] J. J. Guan, "Methods to reduce losses and noise of a high voltage shunt

reactor," Electrical Equipment., vol. 7, pp.15-17, Dec. 2006.

[7] S. Hagiwara, Y. Hori, Y. Suzuki, and T. Obata, "Vibration analysis of a

large capacity shunt reactor," IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus

and Systems., vol. pas-101, no. 3, pp. 737745, Mar. 1982.

[8] Siti R. M., S. Hassan, and M. N. K. Anuar, "Study the harmonic

characteristics of dc bias on the single phase power transformer," IEEE

International Power Engineering and Optimization Conference 2012.,

pp. 501504, June. 2012.

[9] X. P. Li, X. S. Wen, Penn N. Markham, and Y. L. Liu, "Analysis of

nonlinear characteristics for a three-phase, five-limb transformer under

dc bias," IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery., vol. 25, no. 4, pp.

25042510, Oct. 2010.

[10] C. A. Baguley, U. K. Madawala, and B. Carsten, "The impact of

vibration due to magnetostriction on the core losses of ferrite toroidals

under dc bias," IEEE Transactions on Magnetics., vol. 47, no. 8, pp.

20222028, Aug. 2011.

Fig.14 Relationship between K and current

V. CONCLUSION

1) The experiment analysis on shunt reactor indicates that

vibration of a shunt reactor is deeply influenced by its

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