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Polytechnic University of the Philippines

College of Engineering
College of Engineering and Architecture Building
Sta. Mesa, Manila

Arduino-based Rice Vending Machine with GSM Monitoring and Security


In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree

Bachelor of Science in Electronics Engineering


Cristi, Christian Anthony C.

Delgado, Roniel Joshua V.
Oville, Renz Joerel M.
Sim, Richard B.
Talens, Kevin Rae V.

Engr. Leonel R. Calderon

Engr. Raffy C. Quiones


Chapter 1
The Problem and Its Background


Automation changes the future of innovation as it seems that almost

everything has become automated - from process to manufacturing, and from

manufacturing to selling. Technology has changed the mode of transaction of

common to leisure products; from water and coffee, to daily expenditures like train

cards, power chargers, computer rentals and even money transactions, from

paying bills to leisure and entertainment, has also become automatic rendering

convenience. Mechanisms, such as the Automated Tubig Machine, Coffee

Vending Machine, Charging Station, Pisonet, and similar others, display the

importance of automation which has become beneficial for the everyday living of a

Filipino. Eminently, the future changes through automation. Automation of vending

and selling products is convenient and very reliable to both the vendors and the

consumers. It produces a hassle-free and better transaction of goods compared to

manual selling, which may prove to be inconvenient and even ill-timed.

Most people are being saved by an automated vending machine from thirst

and hunger, or even empty pocket and phone battery somewhere. Vending

machine sells goods in exchange of money for every people and can be a good

source of income for those business enthusiasts efficiently and effectively.


Background of the Study

According to Human Development Index (HDI), Philippines is a third world

country considering the fact that the Philippines is less developed and it is

consisted of some people who are so busy and yet have an inadequate income to

sustain their familys everyday needs. One of the ways to solve this problem is

through making money out of something. therefore, a passive income is very

suitable for every Filipinos that are courageous and for those who have the

interest to engage a small business.

Presently, there are some factors to consider in choosing a right product to

sell. Brian Tracy, a chairman and CEO of Brian Tracy International states that

there are some questions about the product to choose like Is there a real

demand for the product at the price youll have to charge? and Is the demand

large enough for you to make a profit?. In other words, the product must have a

great demand for people in a community which offers good quality at low cost.

Apparently, everyone knows that a Filipino meal will never be the same and

complete without a cup of rice. Rice is a food that plays a big role in every Filipino

meal - from breakfast to dinner. According to Dr. Eufemio Rasco Jr., PhilRice

executive director, an average Filipinos consumption is three-fourths (75 percent)

rice and one-fourth (25 percent) other food groups. This big quantity of rice in a

regular meal, he says, contributes largely to the big per capita consumption of rice

in the country, which is 119 kilograms a year. This, he says, is equivalent to five
cups of rice per person a day for every Filipino. Philippines have a high demand

of rice, which is good source to earn money. Commented [RQ1]: Observe proper paragraph transition

Meanwhile in the city, buying rice is by simply just going to your patron store or

marketplace through walking which is hassle-free. This situation is dissimilar to

some secluded and mountainous rural areas just like in Barangay San Rafael

located at Wawa Dam in Rodriguez, Rizal where people go to the rice stores 10 -

20 minutes away from them which offers them a very hard and risky purchasing

especially during the night when the road is too dark since there is no streetlights

along the way. Because of unreliability factors of nearest rice store, most people

here buys bunch sack of rice weekly through going to the San Jose town for about

1 to two hours travel time. The community beside the Wawa Dam is a rural

community which consists of most people whose average income is less than

Php500.00 per day. Each family consists of about 3 to 10 members inside the

house and each consumes for about 1 to 3 kilos of rice per day (depends on the

number of members in a certain household). Since most of them have physical

limitations and some of them are citizen, they usually hire a man to deliver the

sack of rice to their respective houses, which increases their expenditure.

Ronnie Ferrer, a tour guide and as well a simple resident of the place states Commented [RQ2]: Replace or remove

the struggle of the people just going to the nearest rice store. The challenges are

the frail and weak-support bridges, dark cave, dangerous environments, narrow

way, etc. The people usually buy rice weekly to avoid and to lessen their efforts

and struggles and torment that theyre facing. Also, the place is hard to reach
because of the location of the place and therefore, few retailers of rice are

available there. The researchers consequently propose a solution to these

problems, which is an automation of selling of rice. Commented [RQ3]: Could you add exact answer from
interview of one of the residence in your locale?

The advanced automated rice vending machine aids the solution for the

problem of both the business enthusiast and for consumers in a certain

community that later helps them to obtain a better living. The researchers

conceptualized this research from an idea of vending machines in convenience

stores. These inspired the researchers to construct such machine to help the said

subjects who cannot afford to buy kilos of rice. The possibility of making it is of

great help to those who demand to have a side-line business or small

"proprietorship". This machine aims to meet the needs of an individual,

community, and the economy of the country since the Philippines is one of the

largest producers of rice - which will benefit the latter mentioned aspects.

Conceptual Framework


Coin Detector and Counter Automated Rice Selling

Security Lock Alarm Circuit Alarm Sound

User Interface Validation Process Overwrite Data

Volume Indicator GSM Protocol Message

Alarm System GSM Protocol Message

Power Source GSM Protocol Message

Mechanical Sensor GSM Protocol Message

Figure 1.The Process of identifying the effectiveness and efficiency of Arduino-

based Rice Vending Machine with GSM Monitoring and Security System using

coin slot as the processor of payment.

Because the automated rice vending machine is located at poor areas and no

one is responsible to guard the machine and the money in the vault, security and
safety of the machine is an issue. Also, there are certain events which must be

yet to consider in automation. For example, the problem of filling the container

immediately with a bunch line of waiting customers especially in rush hour when

the owner is not there at the moment or when the power is shut down or when

theres an error in operation. Thus, maintenance through monitoring is a big issue.

Although automation runs without the aid of manpower, still monitoring and

security is a problem. These two factors are one of the certain problems for

vending automation such as coffee vending machine, automated tubig machine,

etc.; therefore, the researcher added a security and alarm feature in the system

and also a monitoring system using Global System for Mobile Communication

(GSM) to comply with some of the disadvantage of Automation of vending


The Automated Rice Vending Machine offers a coined-value retailing of rice,

which is very convenient for customers who do not have ample penny, yet

demands a cup of rice. It is reachable since it is closer to home and very reliable

especially when a consumer is in urgent and in emergency situation, very helpful

in times of calamity, and when you have nothing but a coin. You dont need to do

anything - just walk to the automated rice vending machine, insert a coin then

fresh rice is now yours. Since it is electronically operated, weight cheating is less

often and the machine per se can be trustworthy. Since it is operated 24 hours, it

is approachable and has no closing hours (except maintenance hours). It offers a

good quality of product kept in a well-dry place, secured from pests and dirt, and it
is affordable. It will also help prevent wasting of rice since it is retailed in such a

small amount. Commented [RQ4]: The technicalities and the exact

functionalities of your device can be discussed in the
conceptual framework part.

Figure 2. The Block Diagram of Arduino-based Rice Vending Machine

using coin slot as the processor of payment.

Once the whole system is ready to operate, the coin will be the only trigger or

switch for the whole process of the rice vending automation system which is

considered as the main system. If a coin is inserted in the coin detector and

counter, it will produce a signal to arduino and the arduino will trigger a high output

to the solenoid valve. The time span that the solenoid valve remains high is based

on the type of signal that the arduino received from the coin detector and counter.

The signal varies depends on the value of coin inserted. GSM messaging is self-

charging system and sends the data or information gathered from different

branches of the whole machine. The coin vault security system will trigger the

alarm system if an illegal attempt was done and then it will immediately send

information to GSM messaging. Same case at the mechanical sensor, if it is

triggered at the rice container it will also send the information to the alarm system

and the going to GSM messaging once. For monitoring system, the rice indicator

will send information to the GSM messaging if it senses the low level of capacity of

rice in the storage. The power can also be monitored through GSM messaging so

that the owner can notice if the electricity supply is either low or high.

The input of the study includes the following features: Coin slot system, rice

capacity indicator using GSM module, and programmable security system. The

study will be automated, similar to existing vending machines like coffee vending

machine and the likes; thus, owners wont have to check upon their machine often

enough, allowing them to have a great amount of time on their hands while still

gaining profit. In the user interface, software changes and customize settings can Commented [RQ5]: GSM Security and Monitoring may be
discussed on the block diagram part
be apply. Here, the owner can modify the rice price per kilo and which will be

automatically computed for per cup, half kilo, etc. Commented [RQ6]: Modify. Can you adapt the concept of
feedback and control system in making your block diagram?
Description should be properly discussed with proper
transition between cases. Can you also add conceptual
framework for a more detailed process discussion?

Theoretical Framework

In 1845, Michael Faraday discovered that the plane of polarization of linearly

polarized light is rotated when the light rays travel along the magnetic field

direction in the presence of a transparent dielectric, an effect now known as

Faraday rotation. This was the first evidence that light was related to

electromagnetism. In 1846, He speculated that light might be some form of

disturbance propagating along magnetic field lines. In 1847, Faraday proposed

that light was a high-frequency electromagnetic vibration, which could propagate

even in the absence of a medium such as the ether.

Faraday's work inspired James Clerk Maxwell to study electromagnetic radiation

and light. Maxwell discovered that self-propagating electromagnetic waves would

travel through space at a constant speed, which happened to be equal to the

previously measured speed of light. From this, Maxwell concluded that light was a

form of electromagnetic radiation: he first stated this result in 1862 in On Physical

Lines of Force. In 1873, he published A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism,

which contained a full mathematical description of the behavior of electric and

magnetic fields, still known as Maxwell's equations. Soon after, Heinrich Hertz

confirmed Maxwell's theory experimentally by generating and detecting radio

waves in the laboratory, and demonstrating that these waves behaved exactly like
visible light, exhibiting properties such as reflection, refraction, diffraction, and

interference. Maxwell's theory and Hertz's experiments led directly to the

development of modern radio, radar, television, electromagnetic imaging, and

wireless communications.

From Faradays electromagnetic induction up to Maxwells electromagnetic

radiation leads the creation of wireless radio communication from short range up

to long range communication. One of the disadvantage of this automated system

is the security of the utilities, the products and machine itself from environmental

hazards and from other bad elements such as robbers and wreckers due to lack of

manpower and guard to protect the whole facilities. In order to lessen these

problems regarding to automation of selling, the researchers will provide an alarm

system by sending a message to the authorize personnel if someone will try to

attempt to do something illegal to the vending machine. It will also send

information about the condition of the system such as the quantity of rice in the

storage, power indicator, system report, etc. This will become possible through the

use of GSM network. GSM (Global System for Mobile communication) is a 2 nd

generation digital cellular network that is very useful in wireless network

communication. It became possible from the theories of Faraday and Maxwell

about the theory of electromagnetic waves.

Propositional logic, also known as sentential logic and statement logic, is the

branch of logic that studies ways of joining and/or modifying entire propositions,

statements or sentences to form more complicated propositions, statements or

sentences, as well as the logical relationships and properties that are derived from

these methods of combining or altering statements. In propositional logic, the

simplest statements are considered as indivisible units, and hence, propositional

logic does not study those logical properties and relations that depend upon parts

of statements that are not statements on their own, such as the subject and

predicate of a statement. The most thoroughly researched branch of propositional

logic is classical truth-functional propositional logic, which studies logical operators

and connectives that are used to produce complex statements whose truth-value

depends entirely on the truth-values of the simpler statements making them up,

and in which it is assumed that every statement is either true or false and not both.

However, there are other forms of propositional logic in which other truth-values

are considered, or in which there is consideration of connectives that are used to

produce statements whose truth-values depend not simply on the truth-values of

the parts, but additional things such as their necessity, possibility or relatedness to

one another.

The serious study of logic as an independent discipline began with the work of

Aristotle (384-322 BCE). Generally, however, Aristotle's sophisticated writings on

logic dealt with the logic of categories and quantifiers such as "all", and "some",

which are not treated in propositional logic. However, in his metaphysical writings,

Aristotle espoused two principles of great importance in propositional logic, which

have since come to be called the Law of Excluded Middle and the Law of

Contradiction. Interpreted in propositional logic, the first is the principle that every
statement is either true or false; the second is the principle that no statement is

both true and false. These are, of course, cornerstones of classical propositional

logic. There is some evidence that Aristotle, or at least his successor at the

Lyceum, Theophrastus (d. 287 BCE), did recognize a need for the development of

a doctrine of "complex" or "hypothetical" propositions, i.e., those involving

conjunctions (statements joined by "and"), disjunctions (statements joined by "or")

and conditionals (statements joined by "if... then..."), but their investigations into

this branch of logic seem to have been very minor.

More serious attempts to study such statement operators such as "and", "or"

and "if... then..." were conducted by the Stoic philosophers in the late 3rd century

BCE. Since most of their original works -- if indeed, many writings were even

produced -- are lost, we cannot make many definite claims about exactly who first

made investigations into what areas of propositional logic, but we do know from

the writings of Sextus Empiricus that Diodorus Cronus and his pupil Philo had

engaged in a protracted debate about whether the truth of a conditional statement

depends entirely on it not being the case that its antecedent (if-clause) is true

while its consequent (then-clause) is false, or whether it requires some sort of

stronger connection between the antecedent and consequent -- a debate that

continues to have relevance for modern discussion of conditionals. The Stoic

philosopher Chrysippus (roughly 280-205 BCE) perhaps did the most in advancing

Stoic propositional logic, by marking out a number of different ways of forming

complex premises for arguments, and for each, listing valid inference schemata.

Propositional logic is one of the basic thinking skills of every human which a

necessity of every artificial intelligence (AI). Through it, the system can tell the

statement or object whether it is right, wrong, both or neither. With this simple

logic, an innovative lock security system can be applied to the rice vending

machine. To enhance the security of the vault where the money is located, the

researcher will apply the propositional logic through a password lock system. Also,

if the false attempt to crack the code is more often, it will decide to send an alarm

message to the authorize personnel through the use of GSM network.

Propositional logic is very useful to the whole system since it is automated with the

aid of programming from simple rice selection up to security features. Since it is

fully automated, it will require the ability to decide the right decision itself reducing

the aid of manpower.

Statement of the Problem

The aim of this research is to develop a prototype using the Arduino-based

Rice Vending Machine with GSM Monitoring and Security System. The first part of

the statements brought down in this section of this paper aims to identify the

necessary parameters to be considered in the design of the prototype. The second

part consists of the technical specifications of the prototype. Specifically, this

research attempts to answer the following questions:

1. Is there a significant difference between the manual selling of rice and the

selling of rice using the proposed device in terms of:

1.1 Expenditure?

1.2 Security?

1.3. Income?

1.4. Energy consumption? Commented [RQ7]: Make it 3 or 5 items

1.5. Effectivity?

2. Which is the better dispense technique, time-based or weight-based?

2.1 If the technique is time-based, how does the flow rate affect the

total amount dispensed by the machine in?

a) 5 sec in 50kg

b) 5 sec in 40kg

c) 5 sec in 30kg

d) 5 sec in 20kg

e) 5 sec in 10kg

2.2 If the technique is weight-based, how does the weight rate affect

the total amount dispensed by the machine? Commented [JM8]: Sir, we might posible change this
statement if time-based will not be accurate in dispensing
rice after our experiment and we might consider the
3. What is the tolerance of valve in dispensing the rice after a coin is technique, weight-based

inserted? Commented [JM9]: Sir, presummably were using time-

based here so the goal is we have to determine the certain
weight of rice that the flow rate will change
4. How many seconds does it take for the receiver to receive message

5.1 Security lock?

5.2 Weight indicator?

5.3 Mechanical sensor?

5.4 AC power source?

Significance of the Study

The study aims to help people in certain areas who only have the capability to

buy the needed amount of rice below retail standard and those who are far from

rice market. Moreover, the output of this study will let the consumers choose and

buy varieties of quality rice grains which can only be bought per kilo or wholesale.

Automation of selling is an innovative way to earn money without the use of

manpower. The Advanced Automated Rice Vending Machine is suitable for those

full-time workers as an additional income. Without the aid of manpower, the

efficiency and effectiveness of selling the rice could be greater. It can be a good

diversion and an additional source of hobby.

This will also minimize the work of the market retailers especially the sellers

since it would not require human interaction in selling; it will let the consumers

operate the device by themselves. Unlike manual selling, It is automated and can

operate day and night which will become a helpful remedy in times of necessity,

emergency and calamity. During unexpected events like typhoons, drought or any

calamity, the output of this study will be able to help the people affected by making

rice grains available for purchase; subsequently the stores in affected areas will
surely be closed. It will benefit the owner since it can be a good source of income,

high security and monitoring. Also, for the consumers it is beneficial since it is less

expensive, reliable and available anytime. It will also help the community


Scope and Limitations

The study is limited only for automation of rice dispensing machine with coin

denominations as credit for payment.

The prototype of the study is limited to store one variety of rice which satisfy

the following condtion:

1. commercial rice.

2. Hulled rice

The automated rice dispensing machine has the following features:

1. security and alarm system

2. power saving mode

3. volume indicator

4. GSM messaging.

The rice container has the following parameters:

1. Weight: 50kg

2. Capacity: 4100 in

3. Height: 26.25 in

4. Length: 20.17 in

5. Width: 7.74 in
The study focuses on the automation of vending the rice that reduces the aid

of the manpower.

Communication signal must be present in the area as much as possible and

there must be a source of electricity with minimum of 220Vac. Commented [RQ10]: Make it 2 or 3 paragraphs, grouping
and specifying scopes and limitations.

The target marketplaces are those that satisfy the benefits of the machine.

Definition of Terms

Arduino. An open-source platform used for building electronics projects.

Artificial intelligence (AI). is intelligence exhibited by machines.

Automated. The used of a certain control system to make a certain operational

equipment a minimal or reduced human intervention.

Bluetooth. a wireless technology standard for exchanging data over short

distances (using short-wavelength UHF radio waves in the ISM band from 2.4

to 2.485 GHz) from fixed and mobile devices, and building personal area

networks (PANs).

Data Line. A wireless channel used solely for high speed data communications.

Dispenser. used as a container and as a redstone component which dispenses

items when activated

DTMF tone. Stands for Dual-Tone Multi-Frequency Signaling Tone is an in-band

telecommunication signaling system using the voice-frequency band over

telephone lines between telephone equipment and other communications

devices and switching centers.

Electromagnetic Induction. Happens when a conductor moving through a

magnetic field induces an electrical current in the conductor.

Electromagnetic Radiation. A form of energy that includes radio waves,

microwaves, X-rays and gamma rays, as well as visible light.

FPGA BOARD. An integrated circuit designed to be configured by a customer or a

designer after manufacturing hence "field-programmable"

GSM. (Global System for Mobile communication) is a digital mobile telephony

system that is widely used in Europe and other parts of the world.

Hulled Rice. Rice grain that removed hull which is the hard protecting covering of


Kalman Filter. Also known as linear quadratic estimation (LQE), is an algorithm

that uses a series of measurements observed over time, containing statistical

noise and other inaccuracies, and produces estimates of unknown variables

that tend to be more precise than those based on a single measurement

alone, by using Bayesian inference and estimating a joint probability

distribution over the variables for each timeframe.

Machine. A tool containing one or more parts that uses energy to perform an

intended action.
Microcontroller. A small computer on a single integrated circuit.

Propositional Logic. Also known as sentential logic and statement logic, is the

branch of logic that studies ways of joining and/or modifying entire

propositions, statements or sentences to form more complicated propositions,

statements or sentences, as well as the logical relationships and properties

that are derived from these methods of combining or altering statements.

Robot. A mechanical or virtual artificial agent, usually an electro-

mechanical machine that is guided by a computer program or electronic


SMS. Short Message Service is a text messaging service component of most

telephone, World Wide Web, and mobile telephony systems.

Solenoid Valve. An electromechanically operated valve. The valve is controlled by

an electric current through a solenoid.

Technology. The application of science to invent useful things. Commented [RQ11]: Important terms which will be really
used throughout your study should be place here.

User Interface (UI). Allows the user to directly interact with a device or application.

Verilog HDL. A hardware description language (HDL) used to design and

document electronic systems.

Wawa Dam. a gravity dam constructed over the Marikina River in the municipality

of Rodriguez in Rizal province, Philippines.

Xilinx ISE. (Integrated Synthesis Environment) is a software tool produced by Xilinx

for synthesis and analysis of HDL designs, enabling the developer to

synthesize ("compile") their designs, perform timing analysis, examine RTL

diagrams, simulate a design's reaction to different stimuli, and configure the

target device with the programmer.

Xilinx Spartan-3A FPGA. Solves the design challenges in most high-volume, I/O-

intensive electronic applications.


Chapter 2

Foreign Literature

The human mind always needs information of interest to control systems of

his/her choice. In the age of electronic system it is important to be able to control

and acquire information from everywhere. Although many methods to remotely

control systems have been devised, the methods have the problems such as the

need for special devices and software to control the system. The DTMF tone (Dual

Tone Multi Frequency) generated when the user pushes mobile phone keypad

buttons or when connected to a remote mobile system (Ladwa et al, Control of

Remote Domestic System Using DTMF, presented at ICICI-BME 2009 Bandung,

Indonesia, 2009.)

The remote control technologies have been used in the fields like factory

automation, space exploration, in places where human access is difficult. As this

has been achieved in the domestic system partially (Y. C. Cho and J. W. Jeon,

Remote Robot control System based on DTMF of Mobile Phone, IEEE

International Conference INDIN, 2008, July 2008.), many corporations and

laboratories are researching methods which enable human to control and monitor

efficiently and easily in the house or outdoor. Controlling the domestic system

regardless of time and space is an important challenge. As the mobile phone

enables us to contact with the outside devices via mobile communication network

regardless of time and space, the mobile is a suitable to control domestic systems.

According to the book published by Anderson (2010), the Security

Engineering A Guide to Building Dependable Distributed Systems, 2nd Edition

that many security systems are concerned one way or another with monitoring or

metering some aspect of the environment. He followed that as the world moves

from analog to digital technology, many monitoring, metering and payment systems

redesigned. And he cited also that these systems may have to deal with numerous

mutually suspicious parties, and must be implemented on the cheapest possible

microcontrollers. But he doubted about it because he emphasized that the

complexity is the real enemy of the security because the distinction between

outsiders and insiders used to simplify the business, but as everything gets

connected up it is disappearing fast. He explained that protection used to be

predicted on a few big ideas and on propositions that could be stated accurately,

while now the subject is much more diverse and includes a lot of inexact and

heuristic knowledge. So some of the security engineers applied communication in

such system because of the simplicity using a transmitting-receiving circuit, as

Kumar (2015) sampled in his article that security system with GSM is just as by

simply dialing the number of the mobile phone registered to the triggering system

and sending code after the phone has automatically been answered, puts the

system to either active or state. In case of any attempt, the system will
automatically switch off and an alert SMS will be sent to the personnel who keeps

the mobile phone number registered in the system.

Goeldner (1962) described in his book of Automation: Evolution in Retailing

the different forms of retail automation which includes automated stores, vending

machines, electronic data processing, and automatic materials handling because

as explained by Alley (2011) in his dissertation that as time progresses, an

increasing number of consumer goods contain microcontrollers. And as stated at

the book titled Introduction to Microcontrollers by Gridling-Weiss (2007) that

microcontrollers save both time and money, which are the key factors in embedded

system. It already contains all the components which allow it to operate stand-

alone, and it has been designed in particular for monitoring and/or controlled tasks.

According to the article made by Bellis (2016) about the History of Vending

Machines that the first recorded vending machine comes from the Greek

Mathematician Hero of Alexandria who invented a device that dispensed holy water

inside Egyptian temples. She cited that there are early samples like small machines

made of brass that dispensed tobacco found in some taverns in England around

1615. And according to her article, the first commercial coin-operated vending

machine was introduced in London, England and was invented in 1883 by Percival

Everitt. These machines were used in the railway stations and post offices as they

were a convenient way to purchase envelopes, postcards, and notepaper. And also

in her article, that Japan is the Land of Vending Machine which is Japan has the

highest per capita rate of vending machines in the world because it has gained a
reputation for having some of the most innovative use of vending machine where

you can buy anything under the necessities and wants of the people.

Foreign Studies

According to the research conducted by Suganthi et al. (January-March 2013)


VERILOG HDL, Vending machines are used to dispense small different products,

when a coin is inserted. These machines can be implemented in different ways by

using microcontroller and FPGA board. Here in this paper, they proposed an

efficient algorithm for implementation of vending machine on FPGA board. Because

FPGA based vending machine give fast response and uses less power than the

microcontroller based vending machine. The FPGA based vending machine

supports four products and three coins. The vending machine accepts coins as

inputs in any sequence and delivers products when required amount is deposited

and gives back the change if entered amount is greater than the price of product. It

also supports cancel feature means a user can withdraw the request any time and

entered money will be returned back without any product. The proposed algorithm

is implemented in Verilog HDL and simulated using Xilinx ISE simulator tool. The

design is implemented on Xilinx Spartan-3A FPGA development board.

Based on their observation and integrated studies, they conclude that It was

observed through different scenarios, that FPGA based vending machine give fast

response and also show low power consumption and easy to use by an ordinary

person. The results clearly indicate that FPGA based solution increases the
efficiency and accuracy of vending machines. Also they can monitor the FPGA

based vending machine with the main frame computer. Its algorithm is very flexible

and reliable as the vendor can easily enhance the algorithm for large number of

products and coins of different denominations at low cost as compared to

microprocessor based vending machine.

Local Literature

There are some disadvantages of automation; one of it is its accuracy. An

article by Manila Times (May 11, 2013) entitled Automated voting: A world

perspective, it states that there are countries such as Germany, Switzerland and

Ireland that had used an automated election system similar to the one that the

Commission on Elections bought from Smartmatic have reverted back to manual

tallying and counting of votes. This is because just like Philippines, the German

Supreme Court also noted the electronic systems flaws similar to those that Filipino

experts have been warning the Comelec and the public about.

The biggest complaint against electronic ballot casting, reading and counting

systems is their lack of transparency. Nobody sees how the machines are reading

each ballot. Then the machines report results that no one can verify. Experts from

CenPEG, AEStch and other institutions have been repeating that the problem in

Philippine elections is not in the manual voting and the counting and tabulation that

the Comelec officials, representatives of all parties, people from accredited

watchdogs and the media can witness on blackboards or whiteboards. The

cheating is in the transmission of results and the fraudulent canvass.

Problems of the legality of using these machines as well as the accuracy and

the possibility of wholesale cheating are just some issues raised by groups such

as Automatic Election System (AES) Watch.

Countries like Germany, which is fully democratic according to EIUs findings,

began having problems with the electronic voting system, especially in its lack of

transparency and public distrust of the system. As mentioned in the beginning of

this article, the German Federal Supreme Court rejected the system.

The vision of an untainted election cost the Filipinos $160 million in

investment. Commission on Elections Chairman Sixto Brillantes Jr. claims that his

agency is 99.9999999 percent ready, just like the PCOS machines, they are not

100 percent accurate, but close to it nonetheless.

Local Study

A.Y. Chua et al. (2000) proposed a thesis entitled An active sensing strategy

to solve the problem of uncertainty identification in robotic contact. Which

compromises some robotics maintenance and operation.

This study addresses the problem of solving the uncertainties present in a

robotic contact situation. The uncertainties are errors, in terms of angles and

displacements that inhibit the smooth presentation of a robotic task. A force

sensor is used together with Kalman Filters to solve the problem of identifying

these uncertainties. However, the straightforward use of a force sensor and the

Kalman Filters is found to be effective in finding only some of the uncertainties.

There are uncertainties that form dependencies and therefore could not be
estimated in a direct manner. It is also observed that the relationship between the

uncertainties and the forces is non-linear and therefore, an Extended Kalman

Filter (EKF) has been used to find the uncertainties. This dependency brings

about the problem of observability. To solve the observable uncertainties in

contact situations four new active sensing strategies were tested, namely: random

contact strategy, multiple-excitation strategy, combination-excitation strategy, and

the diagonalization strategy. The active sensing strategy introduces a matrix into

the Kalman filter algorithm to solve for the unobservable robotic contact

uncertainties. The transformation matrix is derived through the relationship of a

new contact situation and the previous contact situation. The error covariance

matrix of the Kalman filter is used to indicate the directions of dependency and

accuracy of the values estimated.

Among the strategies, it was concluded based on this study that the

combination-excitation is the best strategy because it solved all the uncertainties

with the least number of contacts. The combination-excitation strategy also

mimics the actual situation wherein the peg makes contact with the environment,

exciting the uncertainties in different directions (combination of single or multiple

excitation), until all uncertainties are identified. A two dimensional contact

situation is used to demonstrate the validity of the strategies described above.

Experimental results are also presented to prove the validity of the procedure.

A student from STI Cotabato (March 2012) conducted a prototype of

Automatic Rice Vending Machine with single variety which sells per kilo of rice and
uses coin slot for mode of transaction. In this study, she use a DC motor in the

valve and uses a weighing scale to modify the weight of the rice and coin

processing for the coin.

Another conceptual study from Bane Kyamko (published October 2013)

about the Automatic Rice Vending Machine. Here, it uses Bluetooth module for

user interface and GSM/GPRS module for mobile phone. The purpose of these

features is to provide customers the ease of operating and transacting the product

in a convenient location. It uses PIC18F4550 microcontroller for main processor of

the whole system.

Synthesis of the Reviewed Literature and Studies

In automation and robotics, monitoring and acquiring information within a

distance is essential. In the foreign literature, it emphasizes the application of

wireless technology to monitor, manipulate and to control the robotic machinery

using any wireless telecommunication signaling module such as DTMF. Similar to

automation, using GSM module the gathered information can be attain to the

phone wirelessly.

There are several ways to implement a certain vending machine by using

different modes of techniques in processing the automation. In the implementation

of vending machine conducted by Suganthi et al using Verilog hdl, it shows that

there are more innovations to come in creating vending machines. The

researchers main objectives are to make the machine more efficient and more
accurate to operate, with low power consumption and more profit for the owner of

the machine. The disadvantage of using this technology is that it is very unstable,

with some tools supporting some constructs and not others. Furthermore, the

researchers found that Verilog is an advance software for microprocessor, but

seemingly complex and is made to support synthesizable products . Through

using simple substitute, it must be attain a better solution for some future

innovation of the vending machine.

Although in theoretical, everything will be precise from software to hardware

of the device itself, still there are several factors (environmental, internal, human

error, economical, etc.) that will still reduce the accuracy of operation of the device

in practical. Just like in automation of voting wherein accuracy is required,

imperfectness is still present which would likely affects the output itself. Here in

automation of selling of rice, accuracy is also needed. But the researchers might

expected that there must be not more than 5% in error in terms of timing, product

scaling, logistics, equipment and other elements to consider in the device.

Therefore, as the machine is being operated still maintenance must be attainable

so that the process will flow smoothly through removing the obstructions.

Error can be resolve through different strategies which proposed by A.Y.

Chua et al in their privileged thesis. In the rice machine, it can be attained through

the programming section of the whole prototype and careful selection of materials

and components to be use plus the safety devices such as fuse (example in

power supply). Error even in smallest quantity can be considerable but can be a
catalyst of a large failure. Filters(which is mentioned) can be a good remedy for


The researchers objectives for the proposed thesis is to solve the problems

of every consumers, sellers and even the machine itself and also one of our

objective is to create an innovation that will provide a better device which is

somewhat related to our topic. The problem in the rice vending machine of the

student in STI Cotabato is that it uses manual scaling which is space and time

consuming which is hassle and they sell only kilos of rice. The researchers also

found out that the machine uses a poor method of dispensing the rice which

results in clogging. Another one is just a conceptual study published by Bane

Kyamko which uses Bluetooth and GSM/GPRS module for the convenience of the

consumer. In the researchers topic concerning about arduino-based rice vending

machine, it compromises the efficiency and effectiveness for both the consumer

and the seller. Through easy operation, maintenance and monitoring with low

power consumption plus the power saving mode and fast transaction and

operation, high robustness which can be operate 24 hours a day. The machine is

highly secured and advanced mode of monitoring and security so that the

businessman can be confident to operate the machine without his presence at that

certain location where the machine is operating.


Chapter 3
In this chapter, it contains the methods of how researchers develop and build

this study and includes a scientific method of research reports. It presents the

research method that was used in this study, the research design and instruments,

the research locale, data gathering procedures and the statistical treatment of


Methods of Research Used

The main aim of this study is to develop a prototype that automates the

selling of rice aided by GSM for monitoring and security.

In this study, the researchers will use a true experimental research design.

A true experimental research design investigates the cause and effect relationship

by manipulating an independent variable that may influence the other variable(s) in

the experimental group, and measuring the effects of manipulation by using

statistical treatments. Through this method, the researchers can see if the

corresponding treatments done will have a significant effect on the test subjects.

This method would give a vision of the respondents to arduino-based rice vending

machine with GSM monitoring and security system. Likewise, it also gave

additional information about the research and its development factors.


Research Locale

The study will be conducted at Barangay San Rafael located at Wawa Dam in

Rodriguez, Rizal.. The locale was chosen by the researchers because of the

presence of electricity and network signal in the area making the resource of the

researchers abundant.

Description of the Respondents

Residences of Barangay San Rafael in Rodriguez, Rizal were involved in this

study. The respondents who involved must have a healthy mind and are currently

living within that area.

Research Instruments

The following are the description of the research instruments used by the

researchers in this study. These instruments will assure the accuracy and reliability

of the results of the treatments to be done.

1. Digital Multi meter. This instrument was used in measuring the voltage and

current in all the experiments to be performed by the researchers.

2. Scientific Calculator. This was used for computations in the results obtained

and statistical treatment of the data.

3. Experiment Papers. These papers contains the objectives, the materials,

procedures on how to perform the experiments, and blank tables for recording the

data obtained from the experimental set-ups performed.

4. Stop watch. Used to record time when measuring dispense characteristics.

5. Weighing scale. Used to measure the weight of the rice being dispense.

6. Mobile Phone. Used for receiving agent of the GSM.

7. Measuring tape. Used to measure the rice level inside the container.

8. Markers. Aid for recording quantitative measures.Data Gathering Procedure

Experimentation of Manual Dispensing from Rice Container

50 kilo sack of rice will be experimentally dispense in the rice container to

determine the flow rate of the rice grains and to determine the relation of certain

variables present in the conducted experiment.

Construction of Initial Rice Vending Machine

The initial part of the vending machine is consist of coin slot, dispense valve,

rice container and coin vault. The vending machine will be constructed and initial

testing and maintenance will be implement.

Inserting the Sensors, Indicators and Security Lock

Feature circuits will connect to the main system and alignment of each system

based on the block diagram and the flow chart being design

Inserting GSM Module and User Interface

Adding the user interface in the system and inserting the GSM module with

testing and experimentation.

Construction of Chassis

Building the chassis based on proposed design, with respect to parameters

required and align with the plan.

Final Testing and Implementation

The prototype must pass the qualification required by the study for final testing

and some minor maintenance and will undergo implementation to the local of the


Statistical Treatment of Data

The quantitative part of this study will make use of procedures to analyze the

gathered data. Descriptive Statistics was used to measure the properties of the

research variables. The said statistics is defined as statistical procedures used in

describing the properties of samples or of population data available.

The formula in finding the percentage is

Analysis of Variance


The analysis of variance (ANOVA) will be used by the researchers in the

statistical treatment of data in this study. According to Calmorin et al. (2007), F-

test or two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) involves three or more independent

variables as bases of classification.

The formula for F-test is as follows:



where: F = F-test

MSR = Mean Square for Replication

MSTrt= Mean Square for Treatment

MSE = Mean Square for Error

Sum of Squares for Replication (SSR)

where: SSR = Sum of Squares for Replication

Xi2= Sum of the squared total of each replication

Trt= Number of Treatments

CF = Correction Factor

Sum of Squares for Treatment Formula (SSTrt)

where: SSTrt= Sum of Squares for Treatment

Yi2= Sum of the squared total of each treatment

R = Number of Replication

CF = Correction Factor

Sum of Squares for Error Formula (SSE)

= ( + )

where: SSE = Sum of Squares for Error

SST = Sum of Squares for Total

SSR = Sum of Squares for Replication

SSTrt = Sum of Squares for Treatment

where:MS = Mean Square

SS = Sum of Squares

df = Degrees of freedom

Mean Squares for Replication (MSR)

Mean Squares for Treatment (MSTrt)



Mean Squares for Error (MSE)

3.5.2 Weighted Arithmetic Mean

This statistical tool was used in experimental data obtained from set-ups that has a

single variable in consideration. The formula for weighted arithmetic mean is

where: X = Weighted arithmetic mean

fx = sum of all the products of f and x; where f is the frequency of each

weight and x is the weight

f = sum of all the frequency/subjects