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2014 - Equations and Information for consideration in CHEE2003 Fluid and Particle Mechanics

TABLE 1 - Properties of water and Air.


Properties of Water Properties of Air
1 mPas k 1.4
1000 kg/m3 R 287 m2/(s2K)
Pv 2.34 kPa Cv 718 m2/(s2K
Surface tension 74 mN/m Cp 1005 m2/(s2K)

TABLE 2 List of KL values to account for minor losses in pipe flow.

Fitting KL

Globe valve (fully open) 6

Glove valve (half open) 15

Return Bend 0.3

Standard elbow 0.3

45 elbow 0.29

Pipe exit 1.0

0.5

Square-edged entrance

0.25
Sudden contraction: 2:1

0.46
Sudden contraction: 10:1

0.02
General contraction (30)

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2014 - Equations and Information for consideration in CHEE2003 Fluid and Particle Mechanics

TABLE 3 List of equivalent lengths of pipe accounting for minor losses, KL = f.(Le/D)
Fitting equivalent length of pipe,
Le
45 elbow 15d
90 rounded elbow 30-40d
90 square elbow 60d
entry into one leg of a T-piece 60d
entry into two legs of a T-piece 90d
gate valve, fully open 70d
gate valve, open 200d
gate valve, open 800d

TABLE 4 - Values for roughness (e) for some common materials

TABLE 5 Additional values for roughness for several materials

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2014 - Equations and Information for consideration in CHEE2003 Fluid and Particle Mechanics

Equations for consideration


Module 1

If Pliq < Pvap, gas forms in liquid.


Dimensions: Length=L, Mass = M, Time = T

Buckingham Pi Theorem: k variables,


r independent dimensions (# repeating units),
k-r ind. dimensionless groups (# non-repeating)
Re = Re
model prototype
Shear Stress: F / A

Shear rate:

Fluid models:
Newtonian :
Power Law: K n
Herschel Bulkley y K n
Bingham y B
Statics and Pressure:
P1- P2 = g (z2-z1)
Pgauge = Pabs - Patm
Pvacuum = Patm P
Module 2

Continuity 1V1 A1 1V1 A1 m


2 2
P1 V1 P V
Bernoulli: g z1 2 2 g z2
2 2

Heads:
P V2
H pressure ; H velocity ; H elevation z
g 2g

Restrictions for flow measurement: Q Cd Qideal

v2, actual Cvv2,ideal ; A2 Cc A0 ; Cd CvCc

Generalised Restriction flow: Qactual KAo 2 g.H1 H 2 ; K


Cd D0
;
1 Cc2 4 D1

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2014 - Equations and Information for consideration in CHEE2003 Fluid and Particle Mechanics

2Wnet
Rotameter: Q Cd Aa ; Aa Atube Afloat
fluid Afloat

P1 v1
2
P2 v2
2

MFEE, reduced: z h z2 hLoss hturbine
g 1
g
1 pump 2
2g 2g

Module 3

Fully developed flow:

Laminar: Le /d ~ 0.06 Re

Turbulent: Le /d ~ 4.4 Re1/6

Cylindrical pipe flow, stress:


P0 PL r ; P P0 PL w
PR
2L 2L

P 2 2
Laminar Flow Velocity: v z
R r
4 L

PR 2
vz ,CL ;
4 L

PR 2 D 4 P
Hagen-Poisuelle: vz ;Q
8 L 128 L

1/ 7
vz r
Turbulent flow Velocity: 1
v CL R

Pf
Head loss from friction in pipe flow: hf ; Pf P1 gz1 P2 gz2
g

L v
2
hf f
D 2g

Laminar flow friction coef: f 64 / Re

Turbulent flow friction coef: f fn Re, (e.g. Moody chart)

v2 Leq v 2
Minor losses (valves, bends, etc.): h L, minor K L
f
2g D 2g

4A
Hydraulic Diameter: DH
P

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2014 - Equations and Information for consideration in CHEE2003 Fluid and Particle Mechanics

MFEE, Full:

P1 v
2
P v
2
L v
2
v2

g
1 1 z1 h pump 2 2 2 z 2
g sections D 2 g all
all pipe
f K
L
hturbine
2 g 2 g minor 2 g
losses

Pumps, Power: Wpump ( g.Q).hsupplied mghsupplied

hsupplied Pp / g Pp Pin Pout (for neglible z)

Wpump gQ.H q
Wbhp .T ;
Wbhp bhp

P v 2 inlet Pvapour
Net positive suction head for centrifugal pump: NPSH inlet
g 2 g g

Non-Newtonian pipe Flow:

4Q 8v
Shear rate in pipe for Newtonian fluid (Also generalised shear rate): 3
R D

PR
Shear stress at wall (fluid independent): w
2L

Power Law Fluid, laminar flow: K n w Kw n

n1

vz vz 3nn11 1 Rr n ; v 2LK 3nn1 R n
P n
1 n1

64 L v 2
P ;
Re PL D 2

3n 1
W
4n

Bingham : y B

L Pr
2

w y y
2
vz , B
P B 2L

R 4 P 4 y 1 y
4

Q 1 3 3
8 B L
w w

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2014 - Equations and Information for consideration in CHEE2003 Fluid and Particle Mechanics

L v2
hf f ;
D 2g

64.(6 Re B He) v D y D 2
f Re ; He
B B 2
2 B
6 Re B

L w y
2

vz , Bingham plug
P B

Gas Flow

Mach number: Ma = V/c


Cp
Thermodynamics (ideal gas): k R C p Cv constant
Cv
P R T
k
k
P2 T2 k 1 2
Isentropic compressibility
P1 T1 1
Speed of sound c 2 kRT

q w 12 (v2 v1 ) h2 h1
2 2
Energy Equation for ideal gases
k P2 P1
h2 h1 C p (T2 T1 )
k 1 2 1

T0 k 1
Isentropic flow: 1 Ma 2 Y ,
T 2
P0
k
0 1
c0 1
Y k 1 , Y k 1 , Y2
P c
Continuity: 1 A1v1 2 A2 v2
m

Mass flux G m / A
m k
G v ( Ma.c) Ma. kRT P.Ma
A RT

Choked flow Critical values, T*, P*, etc.. obtained at Ma = 1


T 1 k
=> 0 Y *
T* 2
Maximum mass flow rate is at Ma = 1: m max * A * v *

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2014 - Equations and Information for consideration in CHEE2003 Fluid and Particle Mechanics

k 1
2 k 1
m max 0 .A * . kRT0
k 1
k 1
k 2 k 1
Gnz * P0
0 1 k
RT
k 1
G G RT0 1 k k 1
For chart on gas flow through pipe from vessel:
Gnz * P0 k 2

Module 4

Volume diameter V d v3
6
Surface diameter S d s2
S 6
Specific surface diameter
V d sv
Stokes diameter
ut
p gd 2 St
18

surface area of sphere of same volume


sphericity
surface area of particle

sv
Vp v x3; S p s x2 ; S /V p
shaper factors: x


k x k n( x)dx xik ni xi
i 1
Monents of disctributions: 0

k k / 0

NT 0 '

1
mn
xm , n m
Mean size: n

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2014 - Equations and Information for consideration in CHEE2003 Fluid and Particle Mechanics

Particle Density and porosity:

Property Definition

M
b
bulk density Vs Vv V p
M
p
particle (apparent) density Vs V p

M
skeletal (true) density
s
Vs
Vv
voidage
Vs Vv V p
Vp
porosity pore
Vs V p
Summary of size distribution definitions
M = solid mass; Vs = solid volume; Vv = void volume; Vp = pore volume

Type of distribution Definition Relationships

Un-normalised/sectional i i
Ni j 1
ni* n x
j 1
i i

xi maximum size of particles in


ni xi ni* N i N i 1
size interval i

width of size interval i n x


i 1
i i NT
xi xi xi 1

xi
no. of particles in all intervals n( x )dx
xi 1
Ni ni ; N i N ( xi )
up to and including i xi

ni* ni xi no. of particles in size interval


i

Normalised/sectional i i
Fi y f x
j 1
i
j 1
i i

Fi no. fraction of particles in all


f i xi yi Fi Fi 1
intervals up to and including
yi f i xi
i f x
i 1
i i 1


xi
no. fraction of particles in f ( x )dx
size interval i fi
xi 1
; Fi F ( xi )
xi

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2014 - Equations and Information for consideration in CHEE2003 Fluid and Particle Mechanics

Converting between different distributions

Property () Quantity () Continuous Discrete

size number f ( x) fi

x 2 f x xi 2 f i
f s ( x) f si

x 2
f j x j
x
j
size surface area 2
f ( x ) dx j
0 2
x i f si
x 2 f s ( x) fi
f ( x) x j
2
f sj x j
x
0
2
f ( x ) dx j

3
x 3 f ( x) x i fi
f v ( x) f vi
x

3
f j x j
x
3 j
size volume or mass f ( x ) dx j
0 3
x f vi
x 3 f v ( x) fi
i
f ( x) x j
3
f vj x j

0
x 3 f v ( x ) dx j

f ( x) fi
f (v ) fiv
3 v x 2
3 v x i 2
volume number

ln(size) number f (ln x) xf ( x) fi ln x xi fi

Module 5
1/3
2
dimensionless velocity and size u* u
( p ) g

( p ) g
1/3

d dp
*

p
2

Page 9 of 10
2014 - Equations and Information for consideration in CHEE2003 Fluid and Particle Mechanics

Force balance on particle FE = (p - ) (d3/6) g = (d2/4) CD (1/2 Ut2)


Particle settling velocity: Ut = sqrt((p-)g4d/(3CD))

Re<1: CD = 24/Re

1<Re< 500: CD = 18.5 / Re0.6

500<Re < 250,000: CD = 0.44

Hindered terminal settling velocity: Ut,h = Ut n

Re < 0.2 n = 4.65

0.2 < Re < 1 n = 4.4 Re-0.03

1 < Re < 200 n = 4.4 Re-0.01

200 < Re < 500 n = 4.4 Re-0.1

Re > 500 n = 2.4

Slip velocity: Uslip= Vg Vs = Ug/ Us / (1- )

Packed bed and fluidisation bed force balances,

Ergun equation Pfr/L = (P -)(1-)g

Pfr/L = 150 (1- )2/3 (U)/(d)2 + 1.75 (1- )/ 3 (U2 /(d))

Bubble rising velocity: (-mf)/(1-) = (ug-umf)/(ub -ug + umf)

ubr=0.71 (g db )0.5

uslug=0.35 (g D )0.5

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