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Lessons learnt

Lessons learnt from Part A

I learnt how to operate pumps and read from manometers and which way to turn valves on and off.
MFEE and system pump curves were also very informative. There were practical things that I
personally found quite useful.

Lessons learnt from Part B

Learnt Hagen-Poiseuilles law and friction factor functions for different types of pipes and flow. Also
became familiar with using Moodys chart. The momentum conservation law for laminar steady flow
in a circular pipe was useful.

Lessons Learnt from Part C

I learnt the importance of team cooperation to finish tasks. Delegate and have everyone working at
the same time and not just one or two group members doing all the work. Additionally, we learnt
that one person recording the data was more efficient than everyone recording at the same time.
Investigating the losses through valves were also interesting.

5.2 Data analysis

PART A

Head vs Flow
25

20
Head (metres of water)

15 Pump Curve
Polynomia l (Pump Curve)
System Curve
10
Polynomia l (System Curve)

0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5
Flow (litres S-1)

1) The estimated pump curve above has a generally lower head for a given flow compared to
given pump curve. The designer might have over specified the pump, or systematic errors in
measuring flow and total head may have occurred during the experiment. This pump curve
does not take into account the additional head losses in the pump and also the head
required to elevate the water from A to B within the pump itself.
2) Suction is the flow of a fluid into a partial vacuum, or region of low pressure. The water goes
through the pipe and is released to the atmosphere at about 101300Pa. At a flow rate of
about 0.32, the pump provides a pressure of about 11*998*9.8 = 107584Pa. The difference
in the pressure gives the suction pressure and is about 6284Pa.
3) See graph above for system curve.
Flowrate (l/s) a b
0.0359 0.2 5594307927
0.2 813900939.
0.0949 5
0.2 220295492.
0.1872 7
0.2 139644690.
0.2392 8
0.2 84653941.2
0.3226 2
0.2 72633926.7
0.3607 8
0.2 46268985.7
0.4709 9
4)

Q (l/s) Qsmoot Qrough Resmooth Rerough Fsmooth frough


h (l/s)
0.03590 0.01826 0.01764 1303.53929 1259.33860 0.04910 0.05082
0.09490 0.04492 0.04998 3206.73008 3568.11984 0.05352 0.07761
0.18720 0.09041 0.09679 6453.98145 6910.10606 0.04822 0.07477
0.23920 0.10561 0.13359 7539.51637 9536.81767 0.04737 0.07391
0.32260 0.14124 0.18136 10083.29038 12946.9159 0.04604 0.07330
0.36070 0.15274 0.20796 10903.72155 14846.4192 0.04573 0.07308
0.47090 0.20052 0.27038 14314.95990 19302.2879 0.04480 0.07273

5) For pitot tube fitting

Q (l/s) Re K
0.0359 2562.87 18.01036641
8
0.0949 6774.85 1.288691681
0.1872 13364.0 0.220789544
9
0.2392 17076.3 0.067614189
3
0.3226 23030.2 0.092933325
1
0.3607 25750.1 0.163542488
4
0.4709 33617.2 0.314033023
5
PART B

flowrate Q dP v Re LogRe Logf f


1 1.28374E-05 5008 1816173.1 6109688 6.79 -13.74 1.82542E-14
2 1.79964E-05 9194 2546044.9 8565009 6.93 -13.77 1.70531E-14
3 2.23072E-05 14377 3155916.6 10616645 7.03 -13.76 1.7357E-14
4 2.6178E-05 18974 3703540.1 12458875 7.10 -13.78 1.66332E-14
5 3.01545E-05 23962 4266120.8 14351422 7.16 -13.80 1.5831E-14
6 3.15956E-05 27385 4469991.5 15037252 7.18 -13.78 1.64798E-14
7 1.22222E-09 303 172.9 581.69 2.76 -6.91 1.21929E-07
8 2.03279E-09 518 287.5 967.46 2.99 -7.12 7.53596E-08
9 2.19491E-09 606 310.5 1044.62 3.02 -7.12 7.56146E-08
10 3.30106E-09 851 467.0 1571.06 3.20 -7.33 4.69094E-08
11 3.96476E-09 1066 560.9 1886.94 3.28 -7.39 4.07417E-08

v vs deltaP for Turbulent flow


30000

25000

20000
v (m/s)

15000

10000

5000

0
1500000 2000000 2500000 3000000 3500000 4000000 4500000 5000000
delta P (Pa)
v vs deltaP for Turbulent flow
30000

25000

20000
v (m/s)

15000

10000

5000

0
1500000 2000000 2500000 3000000 3500000 4000000 4500000 5000000
delta P (Pa)

Logf vs Log Re
0.00
2.50 3.00 3.50 4.00 4.50 5.00 5.50 6.00 6.50 7.00 7.50
-2.00
-4.00
-6.00 Turbul ent Fl ow
Li near (Turbul ent Fl ow)
Log F

-8.00 f(x) = - 0.95x - 4.29


R = 0.99 La mi nar Fl ow
-10.00 Li near (Lami nar Fl ow)
-12.00
-14.00
f(x) = - 0.13x - 12.87
-16.00 R = 0.82
Log Re

Critical Reynolds number is likely at the average of the lowest Log Re value of the laminar flow and
the highest value of the Turbulent flow.

Average LogRe between these two points = 4.5

Critical Re = 31623

Yes this pipe is smooth by comparing to Moodys dragram.

2)

From graph
Turbulent Laminar
k 3.16228E-81 3.38844E-05
n -6.43591 -1.0481
For laminar flow, f=64 Re and for turbulent flow, f =0.316 Re-0.25. For laminar flow, n is very accurate.
-1

The other values are out by orders of magnitude and are difficult to compare. Different pipes vary in
internal roughness and therefore can have different friction factors.
3)

A water temperature increase results in a decrease in viscosity of the water, with a corresponding
reduced head loss through the pipeline.

Therefore deltaP is going to be shifted downwards when the temperature increases. It will look
something like this

v vs deltaP for Turbulent flow


30000

25000

20000 20 Degrees
50 Degrees
v (m/s)

15000 80 Degrees
15 Degrees
10000 5 Degrees
5000

0
1000000 2000000 3000000 4000000 5000000 6000000
delta P (Pa)

Part C

1)

dh^0.5 vs v
0.5
0.45
0.4 f(x) = 0.14x - 0.06 f(x) = 0.59x - 2.09
30% Openi ng
0.35 f(x) = 0.21x - 0.55
Li near (30% Openi ng)
0.3 f(x) = 0.28x - 0.15 50% Openi ng
Li near (50% Openi ng)
dh^0.5

0.25
70% Openi ng
0.2 Li near (70% Openi ng)
0.15 90% Openi ng
0.1 Li near (90% Openi ng)
0.05
0
0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5
v (m/s)

Openin k Re
g
30% 6.72137625 1936.87
6 3
50% 0.85532851 1543.11
6
70% 0.3732624 1738.52
7
90% 1.5038884 1250.48
1

The relationship between deltaH (dh) and velocity has a parabolic relationship as suggested by the
observable linear trend when plotting dh^0.5 vs velocity. In general, as velocity increases, dh
increases.

Across the %opening increases, the dh^0.5 vs velocity graph shifts to the left in general.

2)

K vs Re
2500

2000

1500
K

1000

500

0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Re

Disregarding the potential abnormality/outlier at the last data point above, as Re increases, K
decreases in a linear fashion.

3)

Flow rate vs %opening


0
0
0
Flow rate (m^3)

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%
% Opening
Flow increases as %opening increases, but the flow cannot be reliably predicted from the % opening
since there is no obvious relationship.