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Contribution of DFIG wind turbines to Fast-

Frequency Response and Power Smoothing.

Danny Ochoa, Sergio Martinez

Department of Electrical Engineering, ETSI Industriales, UPM


This thesis aims at developing new control strategies applied to the power electronics converter of a Doubly-Fed Induction Generator based wind turbine
(DFIG-WT) in order to provide both fast-frequency response (FFR) and active power smoothing capability. Firstly, a simplified electromechanical model of a
DFIG-WT has been proposed. In addition, a virtual inertia control strategy version of the optimized power point tracking method (OPPT) is proposed for
this kind of wind turbines. In this method, the maximum power point tracking curve (MPPT) is shifted to drive variations in the active power injection as a
function of the grid frequency deviation and the time derivative of frequency, by exploiting the available inertial resources. The proposed methodology
integrates the model in a primary frequency control scheme to assess the interaction with the rest of the plants in the power system.

I. DFIG-WT simplified model II. FFR control strategy proposed

A simplified electromechanical model of a DFIG-WT (Fig. 1) A novel control strategy for providing fast-frequency response by a DFIG-WT as a function
oriented to frequency control studies has been presented of the grid frequency deviation and the time derivative of frequency has been proposed in
in [1]. Since the Rotor Side Converter (RSC) is responsible [2]. The corresponding control scheme (Fig. 2) is implemented in the RSC.
for controlling the rotor speed in order to deliver the f nom[pu]
optimal active power, the analysis and modeling efforts are Wash-out filter Dead Band fKopt,max
focused in this component. f s[pu] f[pu] s f *
fKopt *
f Kopt P
1 Two s Eq. (1) Kopt
v Wind speed CTRL
r 0[pu] g [pu]
g [pu] fKopt,min
Speed Grid S/H
Wind Turbine

DFIG controller Pg g [pu]

Sample and Hold Adapted OPPT-method
Active r30[rad/s]
Electric power PWT[pu] fKopt f Kopt (1)
2 kvir f[Hz] p
Generator d
(output) Eq. (2) Eq. (3)
1 sTlp
Gear box r 0[rad/s]
Pitch angle Low pass filter r 0[pu] df s[pu]
controller PWT [pu] 2 kvir H eq[s] f s[pu] (2)
Electronics Converter Time derivative of frequency loop s [pu]
PWT [pu]
f kopt Wvir (3)
Fig. 1. DFIG-wind turbine general scheme. Fig. 2. Control scheme for implementing the proposed method. K opt g3[pu]

III. Simulation and results

The proposed DFIG-WT model has been incorporated into a traditional load frequency control scheme for a
single area (Fig. 3). The behavior of the grid frequency dynamics following a sudden load increase is shown
in Fig. 4. By considering actual wind speed conditions (Fig. 5), the simulations are performed again in order
to represent the power system behavior in a more realistic manner (Fig. 6). As a conclusion, the continuous
application of the proposed method allows to improve the frequency response of the power system in case
of severe load changes. Also, under variable wind speed profile, the DFIG-WT output power is slightly Fig. 5. Real wind speed profile.
smoothed, which results in a reduction of the grid frequency fluctuations.

DFIG-wind farm Comb. cycle power plant
30 % 15 %
(Single area)

Hydro power plant Nuclear power plant

5% 35 %

Energy share Fig. 4. Grid frequency during a sudden load Fig. 6. Time domain simulations under
percentages Coal power plant increase under non-variable wind conditions. actual wind speed conditions.
15 %

Fig. 3. Test power system (Load frequency control scheme).

IV. Publications
[1] D. Ochoa and S. Martinez, A Simplified Electro-Mechanical Model of a DFIG-based Wind Turbine for Primary Frequency Control Studies, IEEE
Lat. Am. Trans., vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 36143620, Aug. 2016.
[2] D. Ochoa and S. Martinez, Fast-Frequency Response provided by DFIG-Wind Turbines and its impact on the grid, IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol.
PP, no. 99, pp. 11, 2016. (DOI: 10.1109/TPWRS.2016.2636374)